Help:BPG Reference and Bibliography Protocols

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Book and Paper Group Wiki > BPG Reference and Bibliography Protocols

This page provides guidance for adding or updating bibliographies and citations in the BPG Wiki. The BPG Wiki is looking for volunteers to help with this effort, as many sections of the wiki lack sources published after the early 1990s. Resources should be suitable for an audience of conservation scholars and conservators and can be in either physical and digital format.

Volunteers are encouraged to become wiki editors, or they can email their bibliographic citations to the BPG Wiki Coordinators at, and we will do the rest.

Compiler: Denise Stockman
Contributors: Katherine Kelly, Alexander Bero, Laura McCann, Michelle C. Smith, please add your name here

Copyright 2024. The AIC Wiki is a publication of the American Institute for Conservation (AIC). It is published as a convenience for the members of AIC. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described herein. Information on researching with and citing the wiki can be found on the Reference and Bibliography Protocols page.

Cite this page:

American Institute for Conservation (AIC). "Help:BPG Reference and Bibliography Protocols." AIC Wiki. June 14, 2024.

Terminology[edit source]

These are familiar terms, often used interchangeably. We are providing specific definitions here to so that Wiki collaborators can be absolutely sure they are speaking about the same thing.

Annotated Bibliography

A selective bibliography where each listing is followed by a brief description of the source with comments about its relevance to the topic.

Bibliography or References or Reference List (the terms are interchangeable)

A list of sources on a particular topic. A full bibliography or reference list includes every source cited in the main text and may include additional sources consulted by the author(s). It is usually placed at the end of an article. A selective, or selected bibliography can be shorter, but the selection criteria should be explained in a header text.


A method of acknowledging the source of information in the text. Citations occur in a short form within the text and in a more detailed form at the end of the text as a Reference List or Bibliography.


May be used interchangeably with citation or reference, or may refer to a reference list placed at the end of a section, as opposed to at the end of the article.


In wikis, a footnote refers to the hyperlink directing the reader to a reference. See Wikipedia article on Footnotes or Wiki Templates for more information.

When and How to List References[edit source]

We encourage you to cite your work appropriately, with brief citations in the text, followed by a list of References or Works Cited at the bottom of the page. If you use the built-in wiki reference tags, the wiki will automatically generate a list of references wherever the <references /> tag is placed. In its simplest form, which is described on the AIC-CC User Guidelines for References and Bibliographies, the list is arranged in order of appearance in the text. This system can be modified to arrange your references in the preferred alphabetical order.

The BPG Bibliography group is currently exploring the possibility of using custom markup for in-text citations and references, as the automated system has a number of disadvantages. It is designed to provide references in support of the text, rather than provide a living list of scholarly resources. It is difficult to add new references into an existing list in alphabetical order, for example. This will potentially allow more manipulation of the references and citations. The Bibliography group will continue to gather information and feedback.

Under the standard automated system, references look like this:

:<span id="ref2"></span>Baker, Cathleen A. “Methylcellulose and Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose: An Evaluation for Use in Paper Conservation Through Accelerated Aging.” International Institute for Conservation. <i>Preprints of the Contributions to the Paris Congress</i>. Paris, 1984.

When the ref section is numbered, as in ref2 above, it does not allow intuitive additions to be made to the bibliography. As the bibliography grows to include new resources, you could not simply insert a ref3, as that entry already exists. Rather than find the lowest number that does not yet exist and insert it, we are changing this portion of the wiki markup to allow us to organize and change the bibliography more easily. We would like to change the 'ref' section to LastnameYear, as below:

:<span id="refBaker1984"></span>Baker, Cathleen A. “Methylcellulose and Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose: An Evaluation for Use in Paper Conservation Through Accelerated Aging.” International Institute for Conservation. <i>Preprints of the Contributions to the Paris Congress</i>. Paris, 1984.

This allows us to use ref entries that match the resource in question, and makes organizing the bibliography alphabetically a little more straightforward. For those references that have two authors, use the format refLastnameLastnameYear, as below:

:<span id="refCainMiller1982"></span>Cain, C. Eugene and Barbara A. Miller. 1982. Photographic, Spectral and Chromatographic Searches into the Nature of Foxing. ''AIC Preprints of Papers Presented at the 10th Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 26-30, 1982'.' Washington, DC: AIC. 54-62.

For those references with three or more authors, use the format refLastnameetalYear, as below:

:<span id="refCainetal1987"></span>Cain, C. Eugene, M. B. Stanley and W. H. Roberts. 1987. Paper Foxing: Biochemical Effects of Fungal Infections of Paper. ''Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Science'' 32: 24.

In the event that this system creates two identical ref tags, for example if the author has produced two or more articles during a single year, add a letter to the end of ref tag, starting with 'a' and proceeding through the alphabet, as below:

:<span id="refCainMiller1982a"></span>Cain, C. Eugene. and Barbara A. Miller. 1982. Some Examples of Inorganic Foxing. ''IIC 9th International Congress, Abstracts of Poster Sessions, September 3-9 1982.'' Washington, D.C: 7

We also encourage you to develop short, annotated bibliographies that guide your readers to the most useful resources on your topic. Include a header that describes your selection criteria (e.g. exhaustive, online-only, most useful). Bibliographies can be broken down into topical sections, and references within each section should be alphabetical by author's last name.

All references should be formatted according to the JAIC Style Guide (scroll down for guidance on citing websites) , which corresponds to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., Author-Date system. Some wiki-specific guidelines:

  • An entry in a bibliography should include all of the standard elements of an entry, not simply a title and link.
  • Use the author's full first and last name, instead of initials.
  • If the book or article is available online, the entry in the reference list or bibliography should include a hyperlink to the source. Permalinks or DOIs are preferred.
    • The link should be expressed as the title of the article or book.
    • When providing a link, note the date the website was accessed or last updated.

For example, this code:

Ogden, Sherelyn. 1991. “[ Preservation Options for Scrapbook and Album Formats].” ''Book and Paper Group Annual'' 10. Accessed October 9, 2014.

will display:

Ogden, Sherelyn. 1991. “Preservation Options for Scrapbook and Album Formats.” Book and Paper Group Annual 10. Accessed October 9, 2014.

Linking to PDFs[edit source]

There are several ways to link to a pdf in the wiki, but we prefer to link the user directly to the file, rather than to an information page about the file. The code below will automatically add the icon when you link directly to a pdf.

Horton, Richard 2000. “Glossary of Terms Relating to Photo Albums.” in Conservation of Scrapbooks and Albums: Postprints of the Book and Paper Group/Photographic Materials Group Joint Session at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 21-28. AIC, Washington, DC.
Horton, Richard 2000. “Glossary of Terms Relating to Photo Albums.” in Conservation of Scrapbooks and Albums: Postprints of the Book and Paper Group/Photographic Materials Group Joint Session at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 21-28. AIC, Washington, DC.

For More Information[edit source]

AIC-CC User Guidelines for References and Bibliographies


A concise guide to producing an alphabetical reference list with in-text citations.

JAIC Style Guide

Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., Author-Date system

Wikipedia Guidelines on citations

This article discusses the reference style of Wikipedia, not the AIC wiki, but it is a useful place to learn about conventions in online citation.

Examples of Citations and References on the Wiki[edit source]


This page demonstrated the simplest style of citation, where references are listed at the end of the text in their order of appearance.


This page demonstrates how in-text citations link to a Bibliography that is organized alphabetically by author's last name.

Examples of Annotated Bibliographies on the Wiki[edit source]

Scrapbooks - Annotated Bibliography
Mold Bibliography
Mold and Foxing Remediation (Photographic Materials Group)

Bibliographies in Need of Updating[edit source]

The following pages have hopelessly out-of-date bibliographies that were last updated in the 1980's or early 1990's. No one has stepped forward to review them (as of October 2018). If you can recommend readings published in the last 30 years, please add them to the page.

These pages have nothing, and so anything you add will be an improvement!

Citing the BPG Wiki[edit source]

Researching with the BPG Wiki
Our goal is for all BPG Wiki pages to include robust citations and comprehensive bibliographies, providing researchers with a trove of significant texts and resources on a given topic. Many of our wiki pages gather and summarize already published knowledge. Where this is the case, we advise researchers to use those published sources as references when writing for publication, rather than citing the wiki. However, in some cases it may be necessary or preferable to cite a wiki page. This could be because the content exists only on the wiki, such as the presentations from the AIC Annual Meeting BPG Tips Session, or the summary write-up of the 2018 pre-meeting symposium “The Current Use of Leather in Book Conservation” found on the Use of Leather in Book Conservation page. Or you may wish to cite the BPG Wiki in order to demonstrate current practices and popular thinking among conservators who use this resource.

Wiki pages are frequently revised. Keep this in mind if you decide to quote from the wiki.

How to cite the BPG Wiki
With the above caveats in mind, we encourage you to cite BPG Wiki pages in your papers, blog posts, and presentations. Please use the following citation format, which is based on the Chicago Manual of Style for citing a page on a website:

"Title of Wiki Page," AIC Wiki, American Institute for Conservation (AIC), Date of copyright or modification or access, URL.
Bibliography Entry:
American Institute for Conservation (AIC). "Title of Wiki Page." AIC Wiki. Date of copyright or modification or access. URL.

Don't cite the wiki on the wiki
When referring to BPG Wiki pages on the wiki itself, always use an embedded link to that page (for example, Parchment Bookbinding); do not use a citation.

Book and Paper Group Wiki
Wiki Editor Resources

Contributors' Toolbox · Reference and Bibliography Protocols · Accessing Conservation Literature (AIC) · Help Wanted · Template for New Page

Materials and Tips

Annual Meeting Tips Sessions · Materials, Equipment, and Tools · Adhesives · Adhesive Recipes and Tips · Leather Research · Conservation Supply Sources (AIC) · Gels, Thickeners, and Viscosity Modifiers (ECPN)

Examination, Documentation, and Analysis

Glossary of Terms · Visual Examination · Written Documentation · Documentation of Books · Watermarks · Fiber Identification · Spot Tests · Analytical Techniques (PSG) · Non-destructive Testing and Instrumental Analysis (PMG) · Oddy Tests (R&A) · Microchemical Testing (R&A)


Selection for Preservation · Exhibition, Supports, and Transport · Choosing Materials for Storage, Exhibition & Transport (AIC) · Imaging and Digitization · Housings · Matting and Framing · Encapsulation · Collection Care (AIC) · Integrated Pest Management (AIC) · Environmental Guidelines (AIC) · Environmental Monitoring (AIC) · Agents of Deterioration (AIC) · Light (AIC) · Pollutants (AIC)

Disaster Recovery

Emergency Preparedness & Response (AIC) · Stabilizing Wet Paper (AIC) · Stabilizing Wet Books (AIC) · Stabilizing Wet Skin and Leather (AIC) · Mold

Conservation History and Ethics

AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice · Culturally Sensitive Treatment · Conservation Ethics (AIC) · Sustainable Practices (AIC) · History of Conservation and Conservators (AIC) · History of the BPG Wiki

Book Conservation Topics
Structural Elements of the Book

Endpapers · Endbands · Sewing and Leaf Attachment · Book Boards · Board Attachment · Book Decoration · Fastenings and Furniture

Covering Materials

Animal Skin and Leather · Cloth Bookbinding · Paper Bookbinding · Parchment Bookbinding

Treatment Techniques

Washing of Books · Alkalinization of Books · Leaf Attachment and Sewing Repair · Board Reattachment · Use of Leather in Book Conservation

Bookbinding Traditions

Bookbinding Traditions by Region or Culture · East Asian Book Formats · Ethiopian Bindings · Greek-Style Bindings · Western African Books and Manuscripts

Specialized Formats

Scrapbooks · Atlases, Foldouts, and Guarded Structures· Artists' Books

Circulating Collections

Circulating Collections · Case Binding