BPG East Asian Book Formats

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This page covers the structure and conservation of East Asian book formats. See also: Book Boards, East Asian Scrolls, and Fastenings and Furniture. For information on other binding traditions, see Bookbinding Traditions by Region or Culture.

Wiki Compilers: Dan Paterson, Victoria Wong
Wiki Contributors: Jody Beenk, Xiaoping Cai, Aude Gabory, Marieka Kaye, Katherine Kelly, Paulina Kralka, Kimberly Kwan, Lesley Liu, Beth Ryan, Yungjin Shin

Copyright 2023. The Book and Paper Group Wiki is a publication of the Book and Paper Group of the American Institute for Conservation. It is published as a convenience for the members of the Book and Paper Group. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described herein. Information on researching with the wiki and citing the BPG Wiki can be found on the Reference and Bibliography Protocols page. The BPG Wiki coordinators can be reached at bookandpapergroup.wiki@gmail.com.

Cite this page:

BPG East Asian Book Formats. 2022. Book and Paper Group Wiki. American Institute for Conservation (AIC). Accessed March 31, 2023. https://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/BPG_East_Asian_Book_Formats

Overview[edit | edit source]

Book formats from China, Japan, and Korea have many commonalities from religious, intellectual, and cultural exchanges going back centuries. This section presents a brief introduction to bound and unbound textual works from each country with an emphasis on China.  As more content is developed additional sections on Korean and Japanese traditions will be added. From an organizational standpoint, grouping traditions by culture and geographical location simplified the editing process.  However, given the interconnected history and many similarities the compilers have noted tangential practices across all three traditions.    Wherever possible, similar and related characteristics between book formats from the three countries are grouped together.  

History and Characteristics of East Asian Book Formats[edit | edit source]

SCROLL FORMAT[edit | edit source]

In East Asia, the scroll format first appeared in China, however, it is unclear whether it developed independently of its Indian counterpart or whether some important features were adopted by the Chinese from Indian prototypes. Although there are no extant examples, the shape of the stone gate at Sanchi seems to have been derived from an actual scroll. Before the invention of paper ca. 100 AD, book rolls were typically made of bound bamboo or wood strips, as well as silk textiles. The earliest surviving examples of scroll manuscripts written on silk with a bamboo or wooden strip affixed to the end to facilitate rolling were found in the third tomb in Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province dating to the 2nd century BCE.

Gradual popularisation of paper as a writing support, alongside introduction of Buddhism with its notion of merit-making through copying of the religious texts, further stimulated production and circulation of books. Notably, one of the largest collections of manuscripts dating from the 4th to the 10th century, predominantly in rolled format, has been discovered in Mogao Caves near Dunhuang, Gansu Province. The scroll format has been extensively used throughout the first millenium AD for both manuscripts and woodblock printed books. It remained the dominant book form throughout the Tang dynasty period (618-917). While some Buddhist and Daoist books continued to be produced in a scroll form in the second millenium, for the purpose of secular publishing it was slowly replaced by other book binding formats, notably the newly-created butterfly binding during the Song dynasty (960-1279) period.

In Japan, scroll manuscripts are known as kansubon 巻子本. The scroll format was transmitted to Japan from China, and is the earliest form of book known there. The earliest extant examples were imported copies of Buddhist texts known as kyōkan 経巻 brought in the 7th century. During the 7th and 8th centuries, rolled books were given simple mountings, following contemporary Chinese practice. During the Heian period (794-1185) more ornamental styles of mounting were introduced. Use of coloured and decorated papers for sutra-copying also became common around that time. New types of book formats and bindings imported from China gradually replaced the scroll format towards the end of the Heian period (794-1185). However, it remained in use for Buddhist religious texts, illustrated narratives (known as emakimono 絵巻物) and paintings during the Kamakura period (1192-1333) and later on. While the production of rolled books significantly declined by the Edo period (1603-1868), the format was sometimes intentionally chosen for printed books depicting official processions and scenic views. It should also be noted that occasionally single sheets and scraps were mounted together in a scroll format. Similarly, printed books in other formats were at times disassembled and remounted by their owners.

In Korea, manuscripts in rolled format are known as gweonjabon (卷子本) or gweonchukjang (卷軸裝). Earliest extant examples are Buddhist handwritten scrolls dating to the Unified Silla period (668-935). Due to peaceful relations and intensive cultural exchange with Tang dynasty China, the art of the rolled book flourished at the time. The scroll format slowly fell out of widespread use after introduction of other book binding formats in the mid-Goryeo dynasty period (918-1392), and became almost exclusively used for paintings and calligraphy rather than literature. However, some examples of scroll manuscripts are still found among official court documents of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910).

Structure[edit | edit source]

Despite some small, mostly aesthetical variations, Chinese, Japanese and Korean rolled books share the same main characteristics. In the case of paper books, a long continuous roll would have been created by pasting together a number of individual paper sheets. As text would be written and read from left to right, a bamboo roller-rod would be attached to the left end of the roll for the book to be wrapped around it. The roller tips were often decorated with precious materials such as wood (often lacquered or with mother-of-pearl incrustations), ivory, gold, porcelain, coral or tortoise shell. Early, pre-Tang, examples were typically unlined and unmounted. Sometimes sheets were further reinforced with paper or cloth lining. It was also popular practice to paste an extra blank sheet of paper at the beginning of the scroll to protect the manuscript.

The paper was commonly dyed yellow using the juice obtained from the bark of the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense), known as huang bo, which served not only decorative but also insect repellent purposes. The earliest written description of the dying process is found in the agricultural treatise Ch’i-min yao-shu (Important Skills of the Common People) written by Ku Szu-hsieh circa 533-544 AD. During the Tang dynasty, the paper, which was mostly made of hemp, mulberry and ramie fibers, was also often burnished with wax to ensure a smooth surface for writing. Top and bottom edges were sometimes reinforced with added silk borders.

NON-SEWN FORMATS[edit | edit source]


In Pothi structures long thin sheets of a writing surface (usually palm leaves or paper, sometimes lacquered stiffened fabric) are stacked loosely on top of one another and protected by wooden boards. In some styles, a string runs through holes in the center or near both ends of the manuscript to hold the leaves together.

This format originated in India where the thin shape of the palm leaves dictated the format and size of the structure. Buddhist pothi books were introduced in China in the third and fourth centuries. In China the format was adapted using wood and bamboo, and eventually paper. As separate leaves held loosely together, Chinese paper pothi are important in the development of Chinese binding structures and can be found  in collections throughout the world. There are no records of pothi bindings being used in Korea or Japan.


The whirlwind binding developed during the Tang dynasty (618–907). Many were rebound during the Song dynasty (960-1279) therefore few historic examples survive. Due to the lack of direct historic evidence, our knowledge about this format is derived primarily from descriptions in historic sources. As a result there are various interpretations of this structure and some confusion about its features.

One version is a modified concertina binding in which one piece of cover paper was attached to both sides with pages unattached to the spine so that a ‘gust of wind could blow the pages out of the book’ ( K. Ikegami, Japanese Bookbinding, trans. D. Kinzer (New York: Weatherhill, 1986, 59–61). In Japanese, senpuyo is written with the same three Chinese characters, 旋風葉, meaning respectively ‘whirlwind’ (first two characters) and ‘leaf’, but its name has been traditionally interpreted in western literature as ‘flutter bookbinding’ (Minah Song (2009) “The history and characteristics of traditional Korean books and bookbinding,”). See diagram below left.

Another version is thought to be the ‘dragon scale’ or ‘fish scale’ binding ’ (Chinese: longlinzhuang 龍鱗裝) or ‘fish scale’ (Chinese: Yuling zhuang魚鱗裝) binding. In this style sheets of varying lengths are stacked on top of each other with the shortest on top and longest on the bottom. This layout is conducive for reference books.

Wiki diagram whirlwind 1.jpg

Contemporary artist ZHANG Xiaodong’s dragon scale bindings

  • https://www.cnn.com/style/article/china-ancient-art-dragon-scale-bookbinding/index.html
  • https://www.cnn.com/videos/arts/2018/03/29/new-zhang-xiaodong-dragon-scale-bookbinding.cnn/video/playlists/cnn-style-art-videos/

( Minah Song, 2009)

In Korea the an example of the  concertina whirlwind style can be found in in the late Joseon dynasty


Chinese: jingzhe zhuang 經摺裝

The accordion binding, also referred to as sutra or pleated binding, is often associated with Buddhist texts and has a long history of being employed for devotional works (Martinique, p. 20).  The covers or boards of folded  format books are typically attached to the outermost folded leaf of the book block at the front and back as pastedowns.  Boards are the width and height of the folded text paper so typically there are no or very small squares.   Text paper is folded in a repeating pattern and the folds alternate as either a “peak” or “valley”.  Depending on the length of the text, multiple sheets may be used to form the book block by attaching sheets end to end with a small overlap positioned at a fold.

The origin of the folded format for sutras has two likely sources, the scroll or pothi.  According to Xiao Zhentang (Helliwell trans, 136) the accordion format is derived from the scroll.  Galambos points out the earliest surviving examples of accordion format are from Dunhuang (24, Dunhuang Manuscript Culture, Studies in Manuscript Culture, 22, de Grutyer, 2020, accessed via creative commons) dating to the 9th or 10th century.  While the format is similar to a scroll that has been folded, some of the surviving examples from Dunhuang have characteristics of the pothi format, such as non-functioning thread holes (Galambos 29).  

The act of copying or printing sutras is considered meritorious and is one explanation for the formats continual use for many centuries (see  Sam von Schaik, p. 963-965, Manuscripts and Printing: Tibet, Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Brill 2015)

Text block construction:  Paper is the most common support for Chinese accordion format devotional books.  Depending on the length of the text, multiple sheets would be adhered end to end to form the book block. In some cases the paper within a single text block is not consistent and can vary significantly.  

Examples of proto papers or bark material can be found in other accordion book traditions from Southeast Asia.  

Media:  Buddhist texts are often produced via xylography which was used in China at least as early as the 9th century for printing.  Because of the devotional nature of printing Buddhist material, or financing the printing, the printing blocks were often retained by monasteries for multiple generations.  The blocks could be reused as needed, often through patrons financing the cost of paper and ink. The text is usually vertical and parallel to the fold.  Due to the thin paper typically used in sutra bindings the text and images are most often present on only one side of the leaf leaving the underside blank.


Chinese: ceye 冊頁

Folded albums are structurally and stylistically similar to accordion binding but have notable differences.  They are often employed for displaying visual content. Within album formats  there are different styles, including jingzhe shi 經折式 and tuipeng shi 推篷式.  Additionally there are styles of albums, hudie shi 蝴蝶式 and huoye shi 活頁式, that do not rely on a repeating folding pattern of the text paper and are therefore structurally separate from this category.

The covers of album structures commonly  incorporated pasteboard or wooden boards, either covered in silk or other textile. Wooden boards were sometimes left exposed and may have been given a soft chamfered edge on all four sides.  Wooden boards are generally thicker than the pasteboard style, often more than 3 mm.  A paper or textile label on the front board is also common regardless of the board material.  The title may also be carved directly into an exposed wooden board.

Text block construction: Text blocks for album structures are typically multiple layers of paper laminated together for a more rigid support.  Small dots of adhesive are often incorporated near the underside of folds to prevent them from being opened, thereby ensuring that the book is flipped through rather than positioned flat on a surface.  In general, album structures may be more square in shape while accordion structures for devotional texts tend to be rectangular.

Media:  Media in albums may include hand colored images, rubbings, calligraphy, or drawings.  The media may be applied directly or, in some cases, mounted to the paper support.


Korean: hojeobjang; Chinese: hudie zhuang 蝴蝶裝

Developed during the Song dynasty in China. The butterfly binding is the first Asian folded single leaf book. It was in use until the beginning of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). Each sheet of paper is folded in half with the printed sides facing each other. The sheets were pasted together so the folded side formed the spine. This format appeared alongside the development of woodblock printing. With the outer margins of the pages left blank, it would be easy to trim away any damage incurred along the outer edges. But obvious disadvantages are that the folded pages could easily break away at the spine with use and the adhesive at the spine is attractive to insects often resulting in loss of text.

WRAPPED BACK BINDING Chinese: baobei zhuang 包背裝

Wrapped back bindings were used in China during the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279),  and by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). In this structure the leaves are folded in the opposite direction to butterfly bindings. Sheets of paper were printed on one side and then folded with the printed side facing out. The folded edges were the fore-edge and the spine was the cut edge. Paper twists were passed through the spine to hold the structure together. The paper twists were trimmed and pasted down and a cover attached.

In Korea, the wrapped-back binding was used from the late Goryeo period to the early Joseon period. As with the butterfly binding, historic examples are rare.

ROUGH BINDING Chinese:mao zhuang 毛裝

Books were often sold in an unfinished rough binding, held together only by inner paper twists (essentially wrapped back bindings with untrimmed deckled edges and no covers). Purchasers could complete the binding by trimming the edges as well as adding the covers and outer stitching as desired. Helliwell (1998) notes they were occasionally called the “paper-screw binding” (nian zi zhuang 捻子裝).

SEWN FORMATS[edit | edit source]


The early examples of stitched or sewn books were found in the Dunhuang caves in China, amongst a range of manuscripts in different formats. Minah Song (2009, p. 48) notes:

The use of threads for binding can be traced back to the ninth-century late Tang period in the Dunhuang collection, but the Dunhuang stitched books do not seem to follow any particular tradition of bookbinding style. There are groups of books bound into gatherings. Some other books were stitched in the butterfly style, and stitches may have been applied to reinforce the weakness of the binding. The scholar Wang Zhu (王著) of the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127) wrote that he had butterfly-bound books stitched to make them more durable.”

Multisection bindings

Tetsuyōsō/retsujōsō bindings (列帖装) resemble western bindings with sheets folded into gatherings sewn together through the central fold. They were common in Japan between the 12th-14th century, after which side-stitched bindings became predominant. Ikegami (2012, p. 4) notes that this structure is unique to Japan; however, examples found in the Dunhuang cave disprove this.


Chinese xian zhuang 線裝, Korean: seonjang 선장, Japanese: fukuro toji 袋綴じ

General structure

Side-sitched bindings are assumed to have been developed by adding outer sewing to the wrapped back binding. Traditional side-stitched books often consist of several separately stitched structures comprising a single title, since side-stitched bindings do not open well when the text block is too thick. Since the term “volume” can refer to a division in text in western contexts (e.g “vol. 1” of a series of texts) rather than just the division of a single text into multiple physical components, Helliwell (1998) uses the term “fascicle” to describe each separately stitched structure, with the term “book” used to refer to a group of fascicles within one title.

Text block construction: Munn (2009, p. 106) notes that “The transparent, thin quality of many Asian handmade book papers and the mechanics of woodblock printing led to printing on only one side of a sheet of paper.” The sheets in a side-stitched binding are folded in half with the printed side facing out, stacked together, and stitched on the cut edge with the fold as the fore-edge. Each folded sheet acts as one leaf with two printed sides on the outside of the sheet, and a pocket is formed with the two unprinted sides on the inside of the sheet. To avoid confusion, the two printed sides of each leaf can be referred to as “side A” and “side B” rather than “recto” and “verso.”

Inner stitching: Like wrapped back bindings, the text block of side-stitched bindings is secured with twisted paper “sticks” or “thread” within the margin of the spine. This inner stitching is integral to side-stitched structures, as the outer stitching is more decorative. There are several varieties of inner stitching. Paper twisted at one end, leaving the other end wider, has been referred to as “paper nails”, “paper sticks”, or “single-pointed paper twists”. The pointed end of paper nails can be stiffened with paste and passed through single holes along the spine, after which both ends are flattened with a mallet (Ikegami [2012, p. 10] notes this style was thought to have originated in China and was used until the early 17th century).  For “paper staples”, also known as “paper threads” or “double-pointed paper twists,” a longer piece of paper is twisted with one pointed end, and is often laced through double holes and knotted.

Corner pieces: The top and bottom corners of the spine can sometimes be covered with small pieces of cloth, which are more decorative than functional. They are added after the inner stitching, before the outer stitching. These corner pieces are adhered with paste which attracts insects and makes the rebinding process more difficult.

Outer stitching: After the inner sewing, covers are added and stitched to the text block along a number of holes. The outer stitching creates a margin on the spine side, along which the leaves of the text block flex when turned. Materials for paper, thread, and the number of stitching holes can vary depending on the country of origin (see below).

Main periods of use

Most scholars believe side-stitched bindings were first produced in China in the Ming dynasty (1338-1644) and used alongside other binding structures there, becoming the main binding format in China around the late 16th to early 17th century. Despite its Chinese origins, side-stitched bindings became the predominant bound format in Korea much earlier during the late Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). It became predominant in Japan at the end of the Muromachi period (1333-1600).

Geographical variations

Papers Primarily paper mulberry bast fiber Bast, grass, and a mixture of these fibers Primarily paper mulberry bast fiber. Some gampi, and grass fibered papers.
Inner stitches Usually paper thread with 2 stitches per fascicle. Usually paper thread with 2 stitches per fascicle. Paper nails with single hole stitches or paper staples with two holes Usually paper staples, sometimes paper nails with 2 stitches per fascicle.
Outer Stitching Generally 5 holes, even spacing. Sometimes 7 holes for larger books Generally 4 holes, Although sometimes 5, 6, or 7 for larger books. The center holes are generally closer than the others. Generally 4 holes with equidistant spacing. Possibly 5 for larger books.
Sewing thread Usually hemp, cotton or silk. Could be red, blue or undyed. Typically undyed soft silk or cotton. Typically soft hemp,  silk or cotton in various colors or undyed.
Book Covers ‘Board-paper’ is made of layers of printed and written scrap paper. Yellow and blue tinted papers are sometimes found. Typically thin, lined, flexible brown or blue paper or silk, with various sizings including soy extract and gelatin. Occasionally decorated papers (vermillion with gold flecks) are used as covers. Layers of printed and written scrap papers. With a tinted outer layer. Woodblock illustrations used for some genres. Various colors, gelatin sizing. Decorative-burnishes, impressed, stenciled, or woodcut designs can be found.
Endsheets A folded sheet tipped to the cover, part of inner stitch text sewing. Publishing details on endsheets. Often a single sheet with a fore edge fold tipped to the cover. Variations in attachment are found. Sometimes red and yellow papers are used as insect repellent. Usually a folded sheet tipped to the cover, part of inner stitch text sewing. Endsheets sometimes include woodblock illustrations, and/or publisher advertisements.
Titling Often handwritten; aligned along the fore edge near the head Often no title or handwritten; aligned along the fore edge near the head aligned along the fore edge near the head. Pre mid-eighteenth century, title strips were placed in the middle of the cover. Details and variation in titling depend on the subject of the book

Ledger Bindings

Ledger bindings include account books, receipt books and other ledgers. In Japan, ledger bindings were in common use particularly in the Edo period (1603-1868).   They are usually wider than they are tall. In general, folded sheets are held together with a flat cord.


Ikegami (2012, 6) notes that the “Meiji Restoration of 1868 led to rapid introduction of Western technology in Japan, introducing metal type which required harder-surfaced paper which could be made by machine instead of the absorbent soft paper needed for ink brush or wood block printing–side-stitched books gave way to Western-style hardcover books.” The use of western bindings spread to Korea from Japan during the Japanese occupation of 1910-1945. Western bindings became more prevalent in China after the Cultural Revolution from 1966-1967.

In the introduction to “The Repair and Binding of Old Chinese Books Translated and Adapted for Western Conservators”, Helliwell describes the condition of the Chinese book collection at the Bodleian Library at Oxford University and other collections that were rebound in Western fashion.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Chinese bookbinding[edit | edit source]

Allen, S.M., Zuzao, L., Xiaolan, C. and Bos, J. eds., 2010. The history and cultural heritage of Chinese calligraphy, printing and library work. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Accessed April 23, 2017.

Brokaw, C. 2005. On the History of the Book in China. In Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China, edited by Cynthia, B and Chow, K.W, 3–54. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chang, P. 1993. Chinese Rare Book Collections in Taiwan: Their History, Cataloging and Conservation. Journal of East Asian Libraries 1993 (101): 24. Accessed March 26, 2017.

Chia, Lucille. 2002. Printing For Profit: The Commercial Publishers of Jianyang, Fujian (11th-17th centuries). Harvard-Yenching Institute monograph series, 56. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center for Harvard-Yenching Institute: distributed by Harvard University Press.

Chinnery, T. 2007. Some Characteristics of the Dunhuang Booklets. The International Dunhuang Project.

Illustrated article describing the various Chinese bookbinding styles found in the Dunhuang collection of the British Library. Includes butterfly binding (hudie zhuang), stitched binding (xian zhuang), Chinese pothi (fanjia zhuang), whirlwind binding (xuanfeng zhuang), concertina binding (jingzhe zhuang), wrapped-back binding (baobei zhuang), and a selective bibliography.

Conservation & Collection Care. Conservation of Chinese Books. Post on the website of Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Accessed March 26, 2017.

Edgren, J.S. 2009. China. In A Companion to the History of the Book, edited by Eliot, S. and Rose, J, 97-110. John Wiley & Sons.

Edgren, J. S. 2010. The History of the Book in China. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, edited by Suarez, M.F. and Woudhuysen, H.R, 353–365. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Edgren, J.S. 2013. “The History of the Book in China.” Michael F. Suarez, S.J., and H.R. Woodhausen (eds.). The Book: A Global History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 571-592.

Helliwell, David (trans. & ed.). 1998. “The Repair and Binding of Old Chinese Books Translated and Adapted for Western Conservators (from a manual of traditional restoration techniques by Xiao Zhentang and Ding Yu).” The East Asian Library Journal 8 (Spring): 27-149.

Koretsky, Elaine. 2009. Killing Green: An Account of Hand Papermaking in China. Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press.

Lee, V. C. 1929. "A Sketch of the Evolution of Chinese Book-Binding." Library Science Quarterly 3: 539-550.

Li, Mingjie and Jinfang Niu. 2010. “A Preservation Framework for Chinese Ancient Books.Journal of Documentation 66 (2): 259-278.

Lin,M., Qiu, W., and Zhang, L. 2014. Traditional Chinese Book and Document Preservation: Brief History and Essential Techniques and Their Contemporary Applications. Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture 43(4): 142-161.

Liu, Jiazhen. 1999. “Preservation of Library Materials in China: Problems and Solutions.Asian Libraries 8 (12): 480-483. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Marshall, Heather. 2016 (Oct. 17). “From West to East: Conservation of the Chinese novel ‘Dream of the Red Chamber.'British Library Collection Care Blog. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Martinique, Edward. 1973. "The Binding and Preservation of Chinese Double-Leaved Books." The Library Quarterly 43 (3): 227-236. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Martinique, Edward. 1983. Chinese Traditional Bookbinding: A Study of Its Evolution and Techniques. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center.

McDermott, J. P. 2006. "A social history of the Chinese book: books and literati culture in late imperial China". Hong Kong University Press.

Ming, Lin and Qiu Weiqing. 2014. “Traditional Chinese Book and Document Preservation: Brief History and Essential Techniques and Their Contemporary Applications.Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture 43 (4): 142-161. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Munn, Jesse. 2009. "Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 103-127. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Tsien, T. 2008. Written on Bamboo and Silk: the Beginnings of Chinese Books and Inscriptions". 2nd ed. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press; 2nd edition.

Japanese bookbinding[edit | edit source]

Atwood, Catherine. 1987. "Japanese Folded Sheet Books: Construction, Materials and Conservation." The Paper Conservator 11 (1): 10-21.

Barrett, Timothy. 1984. Japanese Papermaking: Traditions, Tools, and Techniques. Boston: Weatherhill.

Hioki, Kazuko. 2009. "Japanese Printed Books of the Edo Period (1603–1867): History and Characteristics of Block‐Printed Books." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 79-101. Accessed March 11, 2017.

Ikegami, Kojiro, and Barbara B. Stephan. 1986. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Craftsman. First edition. New York: Weatherhill.

Korbel, Barbara, and Janice Katz. 2005. "Binding Beauty: Conserving a Collection of Japanese Printed Books." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 31 (2): 16-105. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Kornicki, P.F. 1998. The book in Japan: A cultural history from the beginnings to the nineteenth century. University of Hawaii Press.

Kornicki, P.F. 2009. Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In A Companion to the History of the Book, edited by Eliot, S. and Rose, J, 111-125. John Wiley & Sons.

Kornicki, P.F. 2010. The History of the Book in Japan. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, edited by Suarez, M.F. and Woudhuysen, H.R, 375–385. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McKillop, Beth. 2013. “The History of the Book in Japan.” Michael F. Suarez, S.J., and H.R. Woodhausen (eds.). The Book: A Global History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 593-604.

Munn, Jesse. 2009. "Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 103-127. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Korean bookbinding[edit | edit source]

Kornicki, P.F. 2009. Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In A Companion to the History of the Book, edited by Eliot, S. and Rose, J, 111-125. John Wiley & Sons.

Kornicki, Peter. 2013. “The History of the Book in Korea.” Michael F. Suarez, S.J., and H.R. Woodhausen (eds.). The Book: A Global History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 605-621.

Lee, Aimee. 2012. Hanji Unfurled: One Journey into Korean Papermaking. Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press.

McKillop, Beth. 2010. The History of the Book in Korea. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, edited by Suarez, M.F. and Woudhuysen, H.R, 366–373. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Munn, Jesse. 2009. "Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 103-127. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Song, Minah. 2009. "The History and Characteristics of Traditional Korean Books and Bookbinding." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 53-78. Accessed March 23, 2017.

History of This Page[edit | edit source]

This page was created in November 2021 from content previously found on the Bookbinding Traditions by Region or Culture page under the heading "East Asian Bookbinding".

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