BPG Enzymes

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Copyright 2022. The Book and Paper Group Wiki is a publication of the Book and Paper Group of the American Institute for Conservation. It is published as a convenience for the members of the Book and Paper Group. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described herein. Information on researching with the wiki and citing the BPG Wiki can be found on the Reference and Bibliography Protocols page. The BPG Wiki coordinators can be reached at bookandpapergroup.wiki@gmail.com.

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BPG Enzymes. 2022. Book and Paper Group Wiki. American Institute for Conservation (AIC). Accessed December 5, 2022. https://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/BPG_Enzymes

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

American Institute for Conservation. AIC Enzymes Tutorial {Adobe Flash Player discontinued - emailed Bonnie Nagle 4/29/21}

Andrews, Theresa Meyer, William W. Andrews and Cathleen Baker. 1990. "An Investigation into the Removal of Enzymes from Paper Following Conservation Treatment." The Book and Paper Group Annual 9: 1-11.

Baldwin, Ann. 2002. "The Conservation of Tiffany Drawings." Met Objectives 3(2): 7-9.

Barti, Benjamin. 2011. "Application of α-amylase in Combination with Ultrasound to Remove Starch Based Adhesives from Paper." Restaurator 32(1): 60-80.

Blüher, Agnes, Gerhard Banik, Karl-Heinz Maurer, and Elisabeth Thobois. 1996. "The Application of Enzyme-containing Methylcellulose Gels for the Removal of Starch-Based Adhesives in Albums." In: ICOM Committee for Conservation Preprints. 11th triennial meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland. London: ICOM. 494-499.

Blüher, Agnes, Uwe T. Bornscheuer, Anika Grube, and Gerhard Banik. 1997. "A Reappraisal of the Enzyme Lipase for Removing Drying-Oil Stains from Paper." The Paper Conservator 21: 37-47. Accessed August 13, 2021.

Brockman, Madison and Emily Farek. 2019. "Investigation into the Reduction of Foxing Stains in Paper." The Book and Paper Group Annual 38: 102-111.

Brockman, Madison and Emily Farek. 2018. "Investigation into the Reduction of Foxing Stains in Paper." PowerPoint presentation from ANAGPIC 2018 at Queen's University.

Cooper, David, Carolyn King, and Judith Segal. 1980. "The Use of Enzymes in Partially Non-Aqueous Media." In: Conservation of Library and Archive Materials in the Graphic Arts. G. Petherbridge, ed. Cambridge: Institute of Paper Conservation and Society of Archivists. 14-19.

de Lera Santin, Alicia, Maria Teresa Escohotado Ibor, Loïc Blum, and Christophe Marquette. 2009. "Método Experimental para Consolidar Fibras de Papel (I Parte del Estudio)" [Experimental method for consolidating paper fibers (part I of the study)]. Ge-conservación: Publicación Digital Hispano-lusa de Conservación y Restauración 0: 177-188 [Spanish].

  • Describes a new enzymatic method for consolidating paper cellulose.


DeSantis, Pia C. 1983. "Some Observations on the Use of Enzymes in Paper Conservation." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 23(1): 7-27. Accessed August 12, 2021.

Erickson, Harold M. 1992. "Usage Recommendations for α-Amylases: Maximizing Enzyme Activity While Minimizing Enzyme-Artifact Binding Residues." The Book and Paper Group Annual 11: 24-33.

Grattan, David W., Johanne St. Hilaire, Helen Burgess and J.Clifford McCawley. 1987. "The Characterization of Enzymes for Use in Paper Conservation." In: International Conference on the Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Cambridge. Abstracts and Preprints. G. Petherbridge, ed. London: Institute for Paper Conservation. 15-24.

Hawkes, R. 2006. "The Conservation and Mounting of Watercolours and Drawings by John Ruskin, Housed at the Ruskin Library, Lancaster University." In: Edinburgh Conference Papers 2006: Proceedings from the 5th International Conference of the Institute of Paper Conservation and the 1st International Conference of the Institute of Conservation, Book and Paper Group. 2006. London: ICON.

Iannuccelli, Simonetta, Silvia Sotgiu, and Mauro Missori. 2004. "La Chinea di Papa Clemente VIII del 1598: Pulitura del Supporto Cartaceo, Tecniche di Lavaggio e Diagnosi Ottica dei Risultati" [The chinea of Pope Clement VIII of 1598: cleaning of the paper support, washing technique and optical diagnosis of the results]. In: Lo Stato Dell'arte 2: Conservazione e Restauro Confronto di Esperienze: Volume Degli Atti, Palazzo Reale, Genova. IIC Italian Group: Turin. 124-135. [Italian].

Iannuccelli, Simonetta, and Silvia Sotgiu. 2010. "Wet Treatments of Works of Art on Paper with Rigid Gellan Gels." The Book and Paper Group Annual 29: 25-39.

Larminie, Penny. 1992. "The Use of Enzymes for the Removal of Oil Stains from Paper." In: The Institute of Paper Conservation: Conference Papers, Manchester. Sheila Fairbrass, Ed. Leigh: IPC. 119-122.

Lidle-Fürst, Monika, Agnes Blüher, Gerhard Banik, and Elisabeth Thobois. 1999. "Amylasegele zur Lokalen Lösung von Stärkeverklebungen" [Amylase Gel Solutions for Removing Starch-Paste Adhesive Mounts]. Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung 13(1): 5-18. [German].

Mina, Laura. "Foxy Underpants: Or the Use of Chelators and Enzymes to Reduce Foxing Stains on Early Nineteenth Century Men's Linen Underpants." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 59(1): 3-17. Accessed August 12, 2021.

Schönbohm, Dirk, Agnes Blüher, and Gerhard Banik. 2004. "Enzymes in Solvent Conditioned Poultices for the Removal of Starch-Based Adhesives from Iron Gall Ink Corroded Manuscripts." Restaurator 25(4): 267-281.

Schwarz, Ingrid, Agnes Blüher, Gerhard Banik, Elisabeth Thobois, and Karl-Heinz Maurer. 1999. "The Development of a Ready-to-use Poultice for Local Removal of Starch Paste by Enzymatic Action." Restaurator 20(3-4): 225-244.

Schwarz, Ingrid. 2000. "A Pre-Packaged α-Amylase Poulticing System: Albertina-Kompresse." The Book and Paper Group Annual 19: 97-104. Accessed August 12, 2021.

Segal, Judith, and David Cooper. 1977. "The Use of Enzymes to Release Adhesives." The Paper Conservator 2(1): 47-50.

Sotgiu, Silvia, Simonetta Iannuccelli, Serena Dominijanni, Silvia Puteo, Laura Micheli and Claudia Mazzuca. 2017. "Coupling Gellan Gels and Electrochemical Biosensors: Real-Time Monitoring of Cleaning and Enzymatic Treatments of Diana Scultori’s The Wedding of Cupid and Psyche." In: Gels in the Conservation of Art, edited by Lora Angelova, Bronwyn Ormsby, Joyce H. Townsend, and Richard Wolbers. London: Archetype. 36-41.

Stockman, Denise. 2007. "Treatment Options for Oil Stains on Paper." The Book and Paper Group Annual 26: 115-126.

Sullivan, Michelle, Shannon Brogdon-Grantham, and Kimi Taira. 2014. "New Approaches to Cleaning Works of Art on Paper and Photographs." Paper presented at ANAGPIC 2014 at SUNY Buffalo State.

Sullivan, Michelle and Kimi Taira. 2014. "Investigation of Foxing Reduction in Works on Paper with Enzymes and Chelators in Agarose Gels." Poster presented at ANAGPIC 2014 at SUNY Buffalo State.

Turgeon, Brunet, Emily. 2014. "Removing Polymerized Linseed Oil and Aged Olive Oil Stains from Paper Using Three Prepared Solutions; Image Result for Shout Triple Acting Stain Remover." Master's thesis. Queen's University.

van Dyke, Yana. 2003. "Practical Applications of Enzymes in Paper Conservation." In: Art, Biology, and Conservation: Biodeterioration of Works of Art, edited by Robert Koestler, Victoria Koestler, A. Elena Charola, and Fernando Nieto-Fernandez. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 152-171.

van Dyke, Yana. 2004. "Practical Applications of Protease Enzymes in Paper Conservation." The Book and Paper Group Annual 23: 93-107.

van Dyke, Yana. 2017. "Agarose-Enzyme Gels in Paper Conservation." In: Gels in the Conservation of Art, edited by Lora Angelova, Bronwyn Ormsby, Joyce H. Townsend, and Richard Wolbers. London: Archetype. 101-106.

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