BPG Atlases, Foldouts, and Guarded Structures

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Models showing foldouts and guarded structures.

Book and Paper Group Wiki > Book Conservation Wiki > Atlases, Foldouts, and Guarded Structures

This page discusses the varieties of foldouts, guards, attachment methods, and compensation that we encounter in books, how they affect the function of the book, and how we can best treat books with these elements. This page focuses on atlases (bound collections of maps or plates), but foldouts and guards appear in many genres.

This page is related to the pages on Sewing and Leaf Attachment and Leaf Attachment and Sewing Repair.

Wiki Compiler: Katherine Kelly
Wiki Contributors: your name could be here

Copyright 2021. The Book and Paper Group Wiki is a publication of the Book and Paper Group of the American Institute for Conservation. It is published as a convenience for the members of the Book and Paper Group. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described herein. Information on researching with the wiki and citing the BPG Wiki can be found on the Reference and Bibliography Protocols page. The BPG Wiki coordinators can be reached at bookandpapergroup.wiki@gmail.com.

Cite this page:

BPG Atlases, Foldouts, and Guarded Structures. 2021. Book and Paper Group Wiki. American Institute for Conservation (AIC). Accessed May 18, 2021. https://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/BPG_Atlases,_Foldouts,_and_Guarded_Structures

Structures and Preservation Challenges[edit | edit source]

Folds and Fold Position[edit | edit source]

Simple bifolio maps can be attached at the center or on one end. Center attachment allows the vulnerable fold to be protected within the binding. However, it must be placed far enough away from the gutter to allow the map to open flat. Center attachment is very intuitive, as a reader turning pages naturally comes to the page. Side attachment is less intuitive, and a careless reader may tear the fold in attempt to open the page. Once unfolded, however, side attached maps can face the text of the book.

For a two panel map whose fold runs perpendicular to the spine of the book, it is easier to fold a panel up and away from the reader, particularly with very large books. This top up configuration is also easier to display in a traditional book cradle. However, the bottom up method appears to have been favored by binders as it left a clean edge at the head which could be trimmed and decorated.

For maps with multiple folds running parallel to the spine of the book, there are a few folding patterns to avoid. The “squashed scroll” is time consuming to refold, and has many nested folds that can confuse the user. Irregular folding patterns can also confuse the user, leading to misfolded maps. An accordion fold, on the other hand, is regular and intuitive. Having the text face upwards and the free end positioned near the fore edge also provides a visual cue to the reader about how to unfold the map.

Map with tear starting at the cross fold.

Folds are slightly thicker than a double thickness of paper would be, and if many folds are stacked on top of one another or around each other, they add bulk. This can be reduced with staggered folds, though at some risk of confusing the user.

Cross folds occur when vertical and horizontal folds intersect. As they cross, one of the folds remains in one orientation – mountain or valley – and the other switches. When the map flexes, the mountain and valley folds are in conflict. This leads to tears that begin at the center point and propagate outwards.

Compression crease inside a cross fold.

Cross folds can also lead to compression creases because the outer section must stretch around the inner, despite them being the same size. Paper can be squeezed and stretched up to a point. This allows cross folds to happen, but leads to weakened outer folds, and crimped inner folds.

Folds located at the book edges are also subject to environmental damage as the fold is exposed to air, moisture, and pollutants (Spitzmueller 1996).

Types of Guards[edit | edit source]

There are three types of guards used for attachment of pages. The first is a reversed v-guard or meeting guard, where gatherings are sewn through their center folds onto guards (Conroy 1987, Minter 2015). This is a good structure to use when center folded bifolios must open all the way to the gutter, or when the attachment method must be non-adhesive. It also offers the advantage that none of the original surface is covered by a guard.

Guards of uniform thickness adhered to maps.

The other two types of guards are adhesive. The image on the left shows guards of uniform thickness. A moderately stiff paper extends from the plate to the gutter where it is folded over and sewn along with the rest of the book. The image on the right is a laminate guard construction. Multiple layers provide stiffness in the gutter, and a single layer flexes across a small gap.

For guards of uniform thickness, the guard must be stiff enough to support the plate out from the gutter. This usually means text weight Western paper, or a very substantial kozo paper. This kind of guard was the standard choice for books with foldouts tipped to guards, starting in the 1500s. If a primary goal in rebinding a book is to match a historical original, this is a good choice. The challenge is that the paper in the gutter is the same paper that is getting glued to the plate – which can be hard on fragile originals and can add a lot of thickness. Some bookbinding manuals discuss thinning the plate at the the point of overlap by paring the paper (Cockerell 1901, 56-62).

Laminate guard with a flexible gap.

For guards with a flexible gap, the laminate can combine various kozo papers or combine kozo papers with Western paper. The flexible gap allows plates to open flat without requiring the plate to flex. The paper weights should be appropriate to the size of the book and the thickness and quality of the plates. In general, a thicker paper is paired with a thinner paper. The thick paper provides the necessary stiffness to lift the plates out of the gutter and to provide compensation for the thickness of the plates. A thin, strong paper provides flexibility across the gap and does not add too much bulk where it is adhered to the plate (Parks and Muratore 2021). Stiff laminate guards are particularly important for heavy foldouts or plates– a floppy guard will collapse into the gutter under the weight of a bulky foldout. Variations of this laminate structure have been used in early photograph albums and late nineteenth century bindings. In those cases, cloth was generally used as the flexible element that crossed the gap.

Attachment[edit | edit source]

Stiff guard and adhesive have caused the page to tear along a breaking edge.

Plates or foldouts can be non-adhesively attached by sewing them along with the rest of the book through an extended edge. This is referred to as guarded in or sewn in. More commonly, the plate or foldout is tipped to a guard or a leaf with a line of adhesive. That strip of map-adhesive-guard forms a thick sandwich. This can be unusually weak, if poor quality adhesive has caused chemical damage to the paper, or it can be excessively stiff and strong, leading to a breaking edge just to the side of the sandwich.

Map is lipped to allow it to fold into the gutter.

If a foldout taller than the book is sewn or adhered right up to the spine edge, it must be lipped, meaning that a part is cut away to allow it to fold into the book without catching in the gutter. This internal corner is vulnerable to damage and frequently tears as the map is handled.

Compensation[edit | edit source]

When a thick foldout is attached into a binding, it can make the book too thick at the fore edge. Compensation is the general term for material added in the gutter of a bound volume to compensate for the thickness of bulky material positioned towards the fore edge. Many bookbinding manuals discuss compensation, and a wide variety of materials and methods are suggested. Paper is most common, but cloth and board have also been used.

Even block of compensation.

The image to the left shows an even stack of paper used as compensation. These strips were probably folded at the spine and oversewn along with the rest of the book. Bookbinding manuals also describe a method of sewing in waste gatherings that have been perforated. Once the book is trimmed and covered, then the perforated pages are torn out and the map substituted in their place. Both of these techniques can leave a thick shelf of compensation against which neighboring pages can break.

Staggered compensation.

The image on the right shows compensation stubs that are staggered or offset from each other. They do not offer the same even appearance but are more gentle on the foldout and neighboring pages.

Joseph Zaehnsdorf’s 1880 Art of Bookbinding suggests that compensation should be formed of paper strips, folded to be ¼” to 1” wide and sewn thorough the fold along with the rest of the text block (Zaehnsdorf 1880, 10). John Pleger’s 1915 Bookbinding and Its Auxiliary Branches describes using strips of paper glued together and then whip stitched as the common method, and then recommends using perforated sheets as a newer method (Pleger’s 1915, 41-43):

“A common method on side-stitched pamphlets containing a number of large maps is to trim the text after gathering, and to supply the thickness of the maps with stubs one-half to three-fourths of an inch wide on the binding end. The maps and stubs are put in place and the book stitched. This besides being very slow, is hardly in keeping with the progress of the times. There are obsolete signatures in all binderies which can be utilized to good advantage as fillers by perforating them one-half to three-fourths of an inch from the fold and gathering in sufficient number to take up the thickness of the folded map. The books can be sewn on a sewing machine or stitched, and the necessity for fillers to trim and forward is obviously eliminated. After the books are bound, the places provided for the maps are cleared at the perforation, leaving the regulation stub to take up the thickness. The maps are tipped on the stubs at the left end.

The Action of the Book Spine[edit | edit source]

All of the guarding, attachment, and compensation methods discussed above have an effect on the action of the book spine. In his 1987 article, “The Movement of the Book Spine”, Tom Conroy analyzes the codex as a moving system and talks about how the spine structure directly affects the function of the book. Conroy discusses reverse v-guards or meeting guards, where gatherings are sewn through their center folds onto guards that position them out from the gutter. The length of the guards and the pliability of the spine must be balanced - a pliable spine allows the guards to fan out and raises the opening above the level of the neighboring pages. Sufficiently long guards allow the pages to open flat, but still supported by their neighbors. In Conroy’s example, the drape of the paper is not very important because the gathering hinges at the point where the gathering is sewn to the guard. The goal is to allow the book to open flat, even if the pages are very stiff (Conroy 1987).

Guarded structures can be designed for a variety of purposes. When that purpose is to allow a foldout to open flat, Conroy’s analysis works: the ideal configuration places the map far enough out from the gutter to escape the curve of the spine. In these cases, the book is said to have sufficient throw-up. Heavily rounded books, books with inflexible spines, and thicker books all need longer guards. This is particularly important when the map has a fold perpendicular to the spine of the book, as a flat plane of opening is necessary to avoid damage.

Conroy’s article does not include structures where the plate is attached to the guard with adhesive. In this situation, the hinging does not happen along a line of action, but is rather flexing across an area. This can either be a guard that curves up out of the gutter and is attached to a plate, or it can be a stiff laminate guard, followed by a flexible hinge which is then adhered to the plate. The adhesive attachment of plate to guard usually causes a change in flexibility, from that of the guard, to the glued sandwich, to the plate alone. This affects the drape of individual pages and the flow of the book spine as the pages are turned.

Guards too short and no spine pliability.
Irregular construction can cause preferential openings.

The image on the left shows a book that does not open well – the spine has no pliability and the guards are too short. This forces the map to flex, which has caused the stiff paper to break as it attempts to curve out from the gutter.

Guarded structures are also frequently irregular in construction, and this causes problems with the movement of the spine. Text pages can break against the edge of a stiff stub. Unevenly thick gatherings and stiff blocks of compensation lead to preferential openings.

Historical Techniques and Materials[edit | edit source]

Conservators frequently find themselves undoing or working around the edges of previous treatments, and it is helpful to understand how those treatments were performed. Summarized below are a variety of historical techniques for treating and rebinding maps and guarded structures.

Rebinding, Rearrangement, and Substitution[edit | edit source]

More so than for many genres of printed works, atlases were freely and frequently rearranged and updated. A 19th century publisher of atlases in Philadelphia even advertised that his updated maps would be colored in a similar style so that substitutions could be made. This process continues throughout the life of an atlas - an examination of a 1513 Ptolemy discovered that one of the maps was swapped out with map from a newer edition shortly after printing, and that another map was swapped out by a book restorer in the early 20th century (Albro et al. 2012).

As a general statement, one should not assume that a printed atlas is a consistent, well-understood bibliographic entity. Bindings, structure, and pages should be carefully examined for inconsistencies, and a conservator should use particular caution when spot testing in preparation for humidification, mending or washing.

Sectioning, Lining, Lamination[edit | edit source]

Starting in the 19th century, maps were frequently lined with cloth (or mounted) as part of their initial binding, and this was a standard restoration technique in the 19th and 20th centuries. Larger maps with multiple folds were commonly sectioned by cutting them along fold lines, followed by cloth lining. A gap was left between the sections to allow the map to fold. Zaehnsdorf, in his 1880 manual, calls for the linen gap to be the exact thickness of the paper. In his second edition, that is corrected to be “more than equal to the thickness of the paper” (Zaehnsdorf 1880 and 1890).

A frequently cited 1950 guide to map preservation states that, “Ideally, every map worth preserving should be mounted.” The guide provides instructions for mounting and notes that linen is preferred for very valuable maps, but cotton percale is thinner and preferred when the map will be folded into a book. Crepeline or silk was used for fragile maps, either by itself or in combination with cloth. The linings were usually adhered with wheat flour paste, sometimes with additives like formaldehyde or alum to deter pests, or glycerin to improve flexibility.

From the 1930-1970s, cellulose acetate lamination was a common technique for preserving maps, especially in large institutions. Before the lamination was applied with heat, maps were sometimes deacidified. Other lining and lamination techniques included pressure-sensitive cellulose acetate linings or commercially prepared dry mount linings (LeGear 1950).

Media Stabilization[edit | edit source]

Media degradation is not a problem unique to atlas or foldouts, but it frequently comes up in the published literature. In some cases, this is due to the heavy handling and page manipulation that maps and foldouts undergo. In other cases, it is due to the pigments used to hand-color printed maps.

Flat maps were sometimes protected with surface coatings like varnish, shellac, Krylon spray, and liquid cellulose acetate (LeGear 1950), and these might also have been used to protect or consolidate folded maps.

Verdigris damage is a common problem in hand-colored maps. Large areas colored with copper-based green pigment become brittle, discolored, and extremely fragile. Damage sinks though the page and penetrates onto adjacent pages. There are a number of conservation publications that describe the challenges and treatment options, but more research is needed. For more information, see Tsai 1992, Carlson 1997, Brostoff et al. 2011, and Albro et al. 2012.

Historical treatment for verdigris damage has included the application of alum-containing sizing solutions (Brostoff et al. 2011 and Albro et al. 2012), bleaching to restore color, and consolidation with a variety of adhesives, including PVA (Blank et al. 1984). More recently, heat set tissue and calcium acetate have been used (Carlson 1997).

Preventive Care and Safe Handling[edit | edit source]

This page is work in progress. This section will be developed in July 2021.

Digitization Preparation[edit | edit source]

This page is work in progress. This section will be developed in July 2021.

Conservation Treatment[edit | edit source]

This page is work in progress. This section will be developed in July 2021.

Glossary[edit | edit source]

Throw out. (Roberts and Etherington 1982)

There are a wide variety of terms used to describe foldouts, guarded structures, and atlases. The glossary below gives preference to the most clearly defined terms and to definitions from Roberts and Etherington’s Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology (1982) and the Ligatus Language of Bindings Thesaurus. Other terms were adopted from sources listed in the Terminology section of the Bibliography.

“The extra amount of unprinted paper left to serve as the binding edge of a leaf which folds out” (Roberts and Etherington). A full apron is an apron of extended length that allows a foldout map to be fully visible when a book is closed. Note: The terms throw out, full apron, and foldout have overlapping meanings in various glossaries.
A collection of tables, charts, plates, or maps.
Material added in the gutter of a bound volume to compensate for the thickness of bulky material positioned towards the fore edge. Also called compensation guards (Roberts and Etherington) or compensating guards (The Language of Bindings Thesaurus). Simple strips of board or paper are sometimes called compensation stubs (Wootton, Boone, and Robb 2000; and Brown 2000).
Composite atlas
A collection of previously issued maps from various sources, gathered together into a binding. Also called atlas factice, Lafreri atlas, or Italian assembled-to-order (IATO) atlases. The last term was “coined by George H. Beans to describe the sixteenth-century Italian atlases assembled for clients by map publishers from a stock of separately published maps” (Woodward 1982). Composite atlas is the Library of Congress Genre/Form Term. When differently sized maps are gathered into a binding, strips of paper adhered to the map edges, or marginal strips, are sometimes added to create an even book block (Woodward 1987).
Cross fold
Two folds which intersect, generally at right angles (Angsüsser 2013). Also called a right angle fold in the paper industry. A French fold refers to a single sheet of paper folded into fourths using a cross fold.
“Inserts that are larger than the trim size of the book or other publication and which must be folded before insertion” (Roberts and Etherington).
“A strip of cloth or paper on which an illustration, map, etc., may be attached and sewn through with the section, thus allowing free flexing" (Roberts and Etherington). Ligatus distinguishes between leaf guards for single leaves or bifolios, and extension guards for foldouts. Also called a conjugate guard (Woodward 1982).
Guarded in
"Plates which are inserted into a book without being tipped to one of the leaves of the book. The paper area of the plate is wider than the leaves of the book, the projecting part being wrapped around the fold of the section. A narrow strip of paper appears elsewhere in the book as a consequence" (Roberts and Etherington). Could also be called sewn in.
Guarded in pairs
"A method of securing two plates to one guard. While the positioning of the guard within the section may or may not allow for either or both sides to be located near the accompanying text material, guarding in this manner may help alleviate some of the swelling caused by the thickness of the material used for the guards" (Roberts and Etherington).
The formation of a fold at the spine edge of a leaf to allow the leaf to be sewn into the binding (Glaister 1979, 233). (Definition is analogous to “hook-type endleaves” in The Language of Bindings Thesaurus). This is called a returning guard in Brown 2000.
Foldout lipped to fit into binding.
“A method of accommodating a [foldout] that is longer than the trimmed height of the book. A portion of a leaf to be folded adjacent to the gutter margin is cut away, i.e., lipped, so that the remaining portion may be folded without buckling and creasing the binding margin” (Roberts and Etherington). Glaister calls this nibbed (1979, 343). This cutting away is discussed in bookbinding manuals (Pleger 1915, 41-43).
Reverse v-guard. (Roberts and Etherington)
Reversed v-guard
“A folded guard … to which a section is sewn, the folds of the guard meeting in reverse. The guard consists of several strips of paper folded with the two open ends being folded back on the guard, either together or in opposite directions; the guard may be folded over in one direction on itself and the section sewn at either end, or it may be folded over in opposite directions on itself and one or two sections sewn to it, depending on the thickness of the sections and amount of sewing swell required … Also called ‘meeting guard’” (Roberts and Etherington; see also continuous guard Roberts and Etherington; and meeting guard Horton 2000, 24).
Simple fold
A fold consisting of a single crease. Compare with cross fold. The orientation can be either mountain fold and valley fold.
“...a strip of paper or cloth tipped to the gutter edge of a leaf to match the thickness of a flat object, such as a photo or map, mounted to the leaf. Several strips of stubbing may be needed if the mounted object is thick” (Horton 2000, 26).
“1. That part of an original leaf which is left after most of it has been cut away from its conjugate leaf. See also: Cancel. 2. A narrow strip of paper or linen sewn between sections of a book for the purpose of attaching plates, maps, etc.” (Roberts and Etherington).
See also “stub” in The Language of Bindings Thesaurus.
The curving of the book spine when it is opened. Throw-up helps the leaves to lie flat (Greenfield 1998).

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Conservation and Preservation[edit | edit source]

Albro, Sylvia, John Bertonaschi, Dan DeSimone, Lynn Brostoff, Fenella France, and Eliza Spaulding. 2012. “The Papers of the Ptolemy Puzzle.” In: Papers of the XXXIst International Congress of Paper Historians 19. 123-134.

Discusses changes in the drape of paper when guard is adhered.

Avery, Melina and Ann Lindsey. 2019. "Repairing a 52-Pound Antiphonary at the University of Chicago." The Book and Paper Group Annual 38.

Includes a description of fabricating book conservation equipment to fit a very oversize parchment manuscript volume. A sewing frame and press was constructed. Although not an atlas, the treatment of this book had similar challenges of resewing large pages. The cross bar of the sewing frame included magnets for supporting heavy pages.

Bainbridge, Abigail. 2012. “Disbinding Gabriel Tatton's Maritime Atlas of the East Indies” and “Rebinding Gabriel Tatton's Maritime Atlas of the East Indies.” West Dean College of Arts and Conservation blog. Accessed April 22, 2021.

Talks about compensation guards being too long. New Western paper attachment guards were reattached to parchment maps with heat-set BEVA 371 film.

Banks, Paul N. 1972. "The Treatment of an 1855 British Paper Specimen Book." Bulletin of the American Group. International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works 12 (2). 88-95. DOI:10.2307/3179130.

Banks, Paul N. 1976. “The Conservation of Maps and Atlases.” The 1976 Bookman’s Yearbook. 53-62.

Brooks, Connie. 1984. "The Guard-O-Matic." The Book and Paper Group Annual 3.

Conroy, Tom. 1987. “The Movement of the Book Spine.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 6.

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. 1982. Archives & Manuscripts: Maps and Architectural Drawings. SAA basic manual series. Chicago : Society of American Archivists, 1982. Available online through HathiTrust.

Kelly, Katherine S., Jennifer K. Herrmann, Alisha Chipman, Andrew R. Davis, Yasmeen Khan, Steven Loew, Katharine Morrison Danzis, Tamara Ohanyan, Lauren Varga, Anne Witty, and Michele H. Youket. 2020. “Heat- and Solvent-Set Repair Tissues.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. DOI: 10.1080/01971360.2020.1795982.

LeGear, Clara Egli. 1950. “Maps: Their Care, Repair and Preservation in Libraries.” Division of Maps, Library of Congress. Washington, DC. Available online through Hathi Trust.

Miller, Ann-Marie and Lesley Hanson. 2010. “The maker and the monk: conservation of the Mercator Atlas of Europe.” Journal of the Institute of Conservation (33)1. 29-39. DOI: 10.1080/19455220903509952

Examination and treatment of a unique atlas, created around 1571 by Gerardus Mercator. Significant aspects of the examination and treatment included the presence of gypsum and verdigris degradation. Cracked and deteriorated areas were repaired with fiber stitches.

Pardo, Luciano. 2003. "Restauración del Atlas Mayor o Geografía Blaviana: nuevas técnicas de intervención. (Conservation of the Atlas Major or, the Geografía Blaviana: new intervention techniques)" Revista PH 11, no. 43 (2003 Apr), pp. 89-99 Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico, Seville, Spain DOI: 10.33349/2003.43.1521

In Spanish. Conservation of a Spanish Blaeu 10 volume set from the University of Valencia. Treatments included surface cleaning, deacidification, resizing, rebinding, and binding repair. A dry leafcasting technique was developed to fill large areas of loss in maps with water-sensitive media.

Parks, Katherine, and Karissa Muratore. 2021. “Rebinding Two American Atlases with a Laminated Guard Structure at the Library of Congress.” In Book Conservation - One Philosophy - Many Interpretations. Krems, Austria: European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration, 2021. (Forthcoming)

Ruzicka, Glen. 1983. “Polyester Encapsulation in Signatures.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 2.

Describes the Hollytex hinge method used for folded encapsulations.

Spitzmueller, Pamela. 1996. "A Sourcebook on Atlas Structures." Workshop notes prepared for the Andrew W. Mellon funded Advanced Conservation Workshop Series at the University of Iowa Libraries Conservation Dept. Feb. 27 - March 2, 1996, Iowa City.

Tsai, Fen-Wen. 1992. "Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Dutch Painted Atlases: Some Paper and Pigment Problems.” In Conference Papers, Manchester 1992, ed. Sheila Fairbrass (London: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992). 19–23.

Valk-Falk, Endel. 1975. "The Conservation of the Atlas-Incunabula of Francesco Berlinghieri's The Geography by Means of Pulp-Filling Apparatus." In International Council of Museums–Committee for Conservation: Preprints of the 4th Triennial Meeting Venice, 13–18 October 1975. International Council of Museums, Paris, France (1975) pp. 75/15/14-1-10.

Treatment a 1480 Ptolemy included removal of old linings and mends, stain reduction, leaf casting, resizing, regeneration of the iron gall ink, inpainting, and rebinding.

van Herk, Hannie. 2010-2014. “Atlas der Neederlanden.” Series of blog posts on the conservation of the University of Amersterdam’s Atlas der Neederlanden. Accessed April 22, 2021.

Chronicles the conservation treatment of a nine volume composite atlas owned by the University of Amsterdam. Although there is an abbreviated version available in English, I recommend reading the entire Dutch text using Google Translate. September 2010 has a nice video showing compression creases. The May 2011 entry, discusses the repositioning of folded maps on existing guards to improve their opening. September 2013 has an interesting image of how, for the facsimile rebinding, the empty guards are rounded and backed before the maps are adhered, and how a template is used to align the maps as they are adhered to the guards.

Vidler, Karen. 2013. “Proeschel Atlas Conservation Project.” Series of four blogs posts. National Library of Australia. Accessed June 9, 2020.

Describes the conservation of an 1863 atlas. Compares English vs. German guarding styles. Splits in the cloth lined map were mended with inserts of kozo paper. Mends to folds of unlined paper maps was done at a 90 degree angle. Maps were repositioned to be farther out from gutter to improve opening.

Cartography and Atlases[edit | edit source]

Akerman, James R. 1995. “From Books with Maps to Books as Maps: the Editor in the Creation of the Atlas Idea. In Editing Early and Historical Atlases: Papers Given at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Conference on Editorial Problems, University of Toronto, 5-6 November 1993. Joan Winearls, editor. United Kingdom: University of Toronto Press.

Excellent overview of Ptolemaic, Portolan, Ortellian, Mercator atlases.

Fontaine Verway, Herman de la. 1971. “The Binder Albert Magnus and the Collectors of His Age.” Quaerendo 1 (3). DOI:10.1163/157006971X00149.

Talks about “Blaeu’s regular binder”, who made both the distinctive “Dutch Atlas Bindings” and very upscale leather.

Fontaine Verway, Herman de la. 1981. “The Glory of the Blaeu Atlas and the 'Master Colourist'.” Quaerendo 11 (3). DOI:10.1163/157006981X00229.

Talks about the distinctive “Dutch Atlas Bindings”.

Lister, R. 1965. How to Identify Old Maps and Globes. Connecticut: Archon Books

Utter, Tim and Erin Platte. 2018. “Mr. Vignaud's Maps: Unraveling a Cartographic Mystery from the Golden Age of Dutch Cartography.” Online exhibit from the University of Michigan Library. Accessed April 22, 2021.

Describes how close examination of paper characteristics and binding evidence can allow broken atlases to be reassembled.

Van Der Krogt, Peter. 1996. "Amsterdam Atlas Production in the 1630s: A Bibliographer's Nightmare." Imago Mundi 48. 149-60.

Woodward, David. 1982. “The Techniques of Atlas Making.” The Map Collector 18.

Short, but rich article on the physical make-up of atlases. Includes a glossary.

Woodward, David. 1987. “The Analysis of Paper and Ink in Early Maps.” Library Trends 36:85-107.

Woodward, David. 2007. “Techniques of Map Engraving, Printing, and Coloring in the European Renaissance.” Chapter 22 in: The History of Cartography, Volume 3, Part 1. 591-610.

Bookbinding Manuals[edit | edit source]

Adam, Paul. 1903. Practical Bookbinding. Translated from German by Thos. E. Maw. Scott, Greenwood & Co. London. Available online through Project Gutenberg.

Cockerell, Douglas. 1901. Bookbinding, and the care of books, a text-book for bookbinders and librarians. London: J. Hogg. Available online through Project Gutenberg.

Diehl, Edith. 1980 (1946). Bookbinding: Its Background and Technique. Two volumes bound as one. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Geraty, Peter. 2019. "A Manual Approach to Stiff-Board Parchment Binding. In Suave Mechanicals, vol. 5, edited by Julia Miller, 124-196. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Legacy Press.

Johnson, Arthur W. 1985. The Practical Guide to Bookbinding. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Minter, Bill. 2015. “The Meeting Guard: Its Use Historically and Its Use in Fine Bookbinding, Conservation and Artist Books.” Handout from 2015 Guild of Book Workers Standards of Excellence.

Nicholson, James B. 1856. A Manual of the Art of Bookbinding. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird. Available online through Hathi Trust

Pleger, John J. 1915. Bookbinding and Its Auxiliary Branches: Part II: Punching, crimping, cycletting, pamphlet and quarter binding. Inland printer Company. Available online through Google Books.

Pollard, Graham and Esther Potter. 1984. Early bookbinding manuals : an annotated list of technical accounts of bookbinding to 1840. Oxford : Oxford Bibliographical Society, Bodleian Library. Occasional publication (Oxford Bibliographical Society) no:18.

United States Government Printing Office. 1962. Theory and Practice of Bookbinding. United States Government Printing Office Training Series. Washington, DC. Available online through Hathi Trust.

p. 183 contains a short, but useful description of how compensation is inserted into bindings

Zaehnsdorf, Joseph W. 1880. The Art of Bookbinding. London: G. Bell & Sons. Available online through Google Books.

Zaehnsdorf, Joseph W. 1890. The Art of Bookbinding: A Practical Treatise. London: G. Bell & Sons. Available online through Google Books.

Folding[edit | edit source]

Angsüsser, Stephan. 2013. “Map Folding Techniques in the Digital Age.” Proceedings of the 26th International Cartographic Conference. Dresden, Germany, 25–30 August 2013.

Kyle, Hedi. 2017. “The Fold: Evolution, Function, and Inspiration.” In Suave Mechanicals, vol. 3, edited by Julia Miller, 160-195. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Legacy Press.

Monmonier, Mark. 2017 “Folding, Unfolding.” In: Patents and Cartographic Inventions. Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51040-8_4.

Media and Color[edit | edit source]

Also Miller and Hanson 2010.

Blank, M.G., Dobrusina, S.A. and Lebedeva, N.B. 1984. "A Search for Procedures for Restoration and Stabilization of 16th and 17th Century Netherlands Atlases Damaged by Green Paint." Restaurator 6:127-138. DOI: 10.1515/rest.1984.6.3-4.127.

Brostoff, Lynn, Sylvia Albro, John Bertonaschi, and Eliza Spaulding. 2011. “The Relationship between Inherent Material Evidence in Cultural Heritage and Preservation Treatment Planning: Solving the Ptolemy Puzzle, Part II.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 30.

Carlson, Lage. 1997. “An Interim Treatment for Paper Degraded by Verdigris.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 16.

Federici, Carlo and Margaret Hey. 1975. “Problems Involved in the Restoration of a Mercator Atlas.” In International Council of Museums–Committee for Conservation: Preprints of the 4th Triennial Meeting Venice, 13–18 October 1975. 1-19.

Talks about verdigris deterioration in 1623 atlas.

Helm, Sarah, Erin Platte, and Grace Rother. 2018. “The Geography of Colorants.” Online Exhibit by the University of Michigan.

Stillo, Stephanie Elizabeth. 2016. "Putting the World in Its “Proper Colour”: Exploring Hand-Coloring in Early Modern Maps." Journal of Map & Geography Libraries 12:2, 158-186. DOI: 10.1080/15420353.2016.1146200.

Zagorski, Melissa. 2007. The Geography of Significant Colorants: Antiquity to the Twentieth Century. Thesis from George Mason University. Accessed 23 September 2020.

Terminology[edit | edit source]

Also Angsüsser 2013, Woodward 1982.

Brown, Barbara, comp. 2000. “Glossary of Terms for the Photographic Album Survey” in Conservation of Scrapbooks and Albums: Postprints of the Book and Paper Group/Photographic Materials Group Joint Session at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 85-92. Washington, DC: AIC.

Glaister, Geoffrey A. 1979. Encyclopedia of the Book, 2nd edition. Oak Knoll: xxx, Delaware.

Greenfield, Jane. 1998. ABC of Bookbinding. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press.

Horton, Richard 2000. “Glossary of Terms Relating to Photo Albums.” in Conservation of Scrapbooks and Albums: Postprints of the Book and Paper Group/Photographic Materials Group Joint Session at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 21-28. AIC, Washington, DC.

Ligatus Language of Bindings Thesaurus.

Roberts, Matt T. and Don Etherington. Drawings by Margaret R. Brown. 1982. Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Available online through CoOL.

Wootton, Mary, Terry Boone, and Andrew Robb. 2000. “The Structure’s the Thing! Problems in the Repair of Nineteenth-Century Stiff-Pages Photograph Albums” in Conservation of Scrapbooks and Albums: Postprints of the Book and Paper Group/Photographic Materials Group Joint Session at the 27th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 37-44. Washington, DC: AIC.

History of This Page[edit | edit source]

This page was created in 2021 by Katherine Kelly as part of her presentation at the AIC Annual Meeting, "Conservation Treatment of Atlases, Foldouts, and Guarded Structures". Further updates and improvements are welcome.

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