BPG Chelating Agents

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BPG Chelating Agents. 2022. Book and Paper Group Wiki. American Institute for Conservation (AIC). Accessed June 30, 2022. https://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/BPG_Chelating_Agents

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Abbey Newsletter. 1985. "DTPA, a Chelate that Helps Two Ways." The Abbey Newsletter 9(5): 80. Accessed August 9, 2021.

Adler, Susan, and Linda Eaton. 1995. "Chelating Agents in Wet Cleaning Systems." AIC Textile Specialty Group Postprints 5: 69-78. Washington, DC: AIC.

Ahn, Kyujin, Andreas Hartl, Christa Hofmann, Ute Henniges and Antje Potthast. 2014. "Investigation of the Stabilization of Verdigris-containing Rag Paper by Wet Chemical Treatments." Heritage Science 2: 1-14.

Bazemore, Avery. 2017. "Chelating Soluble Iron(II) from Iron Gall Ink Using Calcium Phytate in Agar Gel." In Gels in the Conservation of Art, edited by Lora Angelova, Bronwyn Ormsby, Joyce H. Townsend, and Richard Wolbers. London: Archetype. 116-118.

Blank, M.G. and Svetlana A. Dobrusina. 1984. "Raising of the Book-Paper Longevity by Means of Chelates and Ca-Chelate Compound." In ICOM-CC 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen: Preprints. 13-15.

Botti, Lorena, Orietta Mantovani, and Daniele Ruggiero. 2005. "Calcium Phytate in the Treatment of Corrosion Caused by Iron Gall Inks: Effects on Paper." Restaurator 26(1): 44-62.

Brockman, Madison. 2020. "Accelerated Aging Study of Papers Treated with Citrate Solutions." WAAC Newsletter 42(1): 11-13.

Brockman, Madison and E. Farek. 2019. "Investigation into the Reduction of Foxing Stains in Paper." The Book and Paper Group Annual 38: 102-111.

Burgess, Helen. 1991. "The Use of Chelating Agents in Conservation Treatments." The Paper Conservator 15: 36-44.

Caryle, Leslie, Joyce Townsend and Stephen Hackney. 1990. "Triammonium Citrate: An Investigation into its Application for Surface Cleaning." In: Dirt and Pictures Separated: Papers given at a conference held jointly by UKIC and the Tate Gallery. Hackney et al, eds. London: United Kingdom Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. Accessed August 9, 2021.

Choi, Soyeon. 2007. "Foxing on Paper: A Literature Review." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 46(2): 137-152. Accessed August 6, 2021.

Cude, Alison. 2010. "TPEN: A Treatment for Iron Gall Ink." Master's Thesis. Queen's University.

Cushman, Matt. 2006. "A New Method for the Treatment of Iron-Stained Architectural Marble: In Situ Reduction of Iron III Using Photovoltaic Polymers and the Introduction of a New Chelating Agent for Conservation." ANAGPIC Conference Papers. 

Dion, Vincent. 2017. "Borane tert-butylamine complex: practical research on its use to treat paper materials." International Journal of Young Conservators and Restorers of Works of Art 1: 81-97. Accessed August 25, 2021.

Dirda, Marian Peck, and Leslie Hill Paisley. 2001. "Stain Reduction Discussion." The Book and Paper Group Annual 20: 51-53.

  • Dithionite and foxing presented.


Dwan, Antoinette. and Chris Stavroudis. 2020. "Chelating Agents in Paper Conservation." WAAC Newsletter 42(2): 16-22.

Dwan, Antoinette. 2015. "Ammonium Citrates for Stain Removal in Paper." WAAC Newsletter 37(3): 10-12.

"Foxing." 2021. Paper Conservation Catalog Wiki. Accessed August 5, 2021. https://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/BPG_Foxing

Gent, Megan and Jacqueline Rees. 1994. "A Conservation Treatment to Remove Residual Iron from Platinum Prints." The Paper Conservator 18(1): 90-95.

Hart, J. Roger. 1981. "Chelating Agents in the Pulp and Paper Industry." Tappi 64(3): 43-44.

Hashimoto, Laura R. 2015. "Examining Effects of Ammonium Citrate Immersions on Paper." Poster presented at ANAGPIC.

Hawley, Janet K., Elizabeth A. Kawai, and Christopher Sargeant. 1981. "The Removal of Rust Stains from Arctic Tin Can Labels Using Sodium Hydrosulfite." Journal of the International Institute for Conservation - Canadian Group 6: 17-24.

Hendry, Heather. 2001. "Yves Gaucher's Homage to Webern No. 1: A Multidimensional Treatment." The Book and Paper Group Annual 20: 5-7.   

Henniges, Ute. and Antje Potthast. 2008. "Phytate Treatment of Metallo-gallic inks: Investigation of its Effectiveness on Model and Historic Paper Samples." Restaurator 29(4): 219-234.

Hernandez, Catalina and Susan Heald. 2009. "The Cleaning of an 18th Century Finger Woven Sash: A practical Twist on Common Wet Cleaning Methods." American Institute for Conservation Textile Specialty Group Postprints 19: 145-155.

Hoshi, E. 2010. "Effects of Chelating Agents to Control Degradation of Japanese Paper Due to Cu Ion." AATA Abstract. Bunkazai Hozon Shufuku Gakkai shi: Kobunkazai no Nagaku 55: 67-75.

Hughes, Amy and Michelle Sullivan. 2016. "Targeted Cleaning of Works on Paper: Rigid Polysaccharide Gels and Conductivity in Aqueous Solutions." The Book and Paper Group Annual 35: 30-41.

Irwin, S. 2011. "A Comparison of the Use of Sodium Metabisulfite and Sodium Dithionite for Removing Rust Stains from Paper." The Book and Paper Group Annual 30: 37-46.

Keynan, Daria and Amy Hughes. 2013. "Testing the Waters: New Technical Applications for the Cleaning of Acrylic Paint Films and Paper Supports." The Book and Paper Group Annual 32: 43-51.

Kolar, Jana, Martin Šala, Matija Strlič and Vid Simon Šelih. 2005. "Stabilisation of Paper Containing Iron Gall Ink with Current Aqueous Process." Restaurator 26(3): 181-189.

Lehtaru, Jaan and Tullio Ilomets. 1997. "Use of Chelating Agent EDTA with Sodium Thiosulphate and Sodium Borohydride in Bleaching Treatment." Restaurator 18(4): 191-200.

Lockwood, Kenneth. 1984. "The Effectiveness of Selected Chelate-Reducing Agent Systems in the Removal of Iron Stains from Paper." Proceedings of the Art Conservation Training Programs Conference, Center for Conservation and Technical Studies. Harvard Art Museums: Cambridge, MA. 87-100.

Maitland, Crystal. 2017. "Reducing Agent Tert-Butylamine Borane Complex and Its Use in Stain Reduction on Paper-based Artifacts." The Book and Paper Group Annual 36: 40. [abstract]

Maitland, Crystal. 2009. "Where Archival and Fine Art Conservation Meet: Applying Iron Gall Ink Antioxidant and Deacidification Treatments to Corrosive Watercolors." The Book and Paper Group Annual 28: 37-45.

Malešič, Jasna, Meta Kojc and V.S. Šelih. 2008. "Assessment of the Effect of Various Bleaching Effects on Papers with Foxing Stains." Restaurator 29(3): 142-154.

  • If high iron content present: EDTA and dithionite most effective; if no transition metal foxing: sodium borohydride more effective than hydrogen peroxide or calcium hypochlorite.


Mina, Laura. 2020. "Foxy Underpants: Or the Use of Chelators and Enzymes to Reduce Foxing Stains on Early Nineteenth Century Men's Linen Underpants." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 59(1): 3-17. Accessed August 5, 2021.

Maurer, R. 1982. "Chelating Agents in the Textile Industry - A Practical Guide." Canadian Textile Journal 99: 40-44.

Morrison, Rachel, Abigail Bagley-Young, Aviva Burnstock, Klaus Jan van den Berg and Hanl van Keulen. 2007. "An Investigation of Parameters for the Use of Citrate Solutions for Surface Cleaning Unvarnished Paintings." Studies in Conservation 52(4): 255-270.

Niehaus, Lena, Ute Henniges, Monika Horsky, Thomas Prohaska, Antje Potthast, and Irene Brückle. 2012. "Reducing the Risks of Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching in Presence of Iron Ions in Paper." Restaurator 33(3): 355-394.

Norville-Day, Heather, Joyce Townsend, and Fiona Johnston. 1998. "A Study of the Effects of Bleaching Treatments on Nineteenth-Century Watercolour Pigments, with Special Reference to Turner's Palette." IPC Conference Papers, London: Proceedings of the fourth international conference of the Institute of Paper Conservation. Leigh, Worcester: Institute of Paper Conservation. 137-149.

  • Don't bleach watercolors; local suction treatment most damaging; tested EDTA with and without dithionite, TMAB, TEAB.


Novak, Adam and Daria Keynan. 2017. "Recapturing the Subleties." The Book and Paper Group Annual 36: 52-57.

Owen, A. 1994. "Conservation and Curatorial Changes to David Smith's Drawing 'Untitled'." Modern Works, Modern Problems? Conference Papers, Ed. Alison Richmond. London: Institute of Paper Conservation. 100-105. 

Pasnak, Ekaterina. 2017. "Washing Works of Art on Paper Using Rigid Hydrogels Containing Chelating Agents." In Gels in the Conservation of Art, edited by Lora Angelova, Bronwyn Ormsby, Joyce H. Townsend, and Richard Wolbers. London: Archetype. 135-137.

Pemberton, Briony and Libby Melzer. 2010. "A Preliminary Investigation into Three Aids to Washing Paper: XRF Elemental Analysis of Paper Treated with EDTA, TAC and ammonia." In Contributions to the 6th AICCM Book, Paper and Photographic Materials Symposium, Melbourne. Canberra: Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material. 58-63.

Phenix, Alan and Aviva Burnstock. 1992. "The Removal of Surface Dirt on Paintings with Chelating Agents." The Conservator 16(1): 28-38.

Prestowitz, Brook. 2017. "An Initial Assessment of Local Stain Reduction Using Chelate-Containing Gellan Gum Gels in Paper Conservation." In Gels in the Conservation of Art, edited by Lora Angelova, Bronwyn Ormsby, Joyce H. Townsend, and Richard Wolbers. London: Archetype. 142-144.

Prestowitz, Brook, Charis Theodorakopoulos, and Jane F. Colbourne. 2016. "Tip: A Preliminary Investigation into the use of [DTPA] Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and [EDTA] Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid to Treat Iron-Induced Foxing in Paper Objects." The Book and Paper Group Annual 35: 163-170.

Selwyn, Lyndsie and Season Tse. 2014. "The Chemistry of Sodium Dithionate and its Use in Conservation." Studies in Conservation 53(sup2): 61-73. Accessed August 6, 2021.

Slavin, John. 1990. "The Removal of Salt Deposits from Decorative Paintings on Paper." In: Dirt and Pictures Separated: Papers given at a conference held jointly by UKIC and Tate Gallery. Hackney et al, eds. London: United Kingdom Institute for Conservation. 49-50.

Stavroudis, Chris. 2015. "A Tale of Two Citrates (Actually Four)." WAAC Newsletter 37(2): 15.

Suryawanshi, D.G. and S.K. Bisaria. 2005. "Removing Metallic Stains from Paper Objects Using Chelating Agent EDTA." Restaurator 26(4): 276-285.

Timár-Balázsy, Ágnes and Dinah Eastop, eds. 2002. "Sequestering Agents." In: Chemical Principles of Textile Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. 221-225.

Zappala, Antonio and Caroline De Stefani. "Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Stabilization Methods: Treatments by Deacidification, Trehalose, Phytates on Iron Gall Inks." Restaurator 26(1): 36-43.

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