BPG Parchment Examination and Documentation

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This page covers the examination and documentation of parchment. See also: Parchment, Parchment Condition Problems, Parchment Conservation Treatment, Parchment Housing and Storage, and Parchment Parchment Historic Treatment Methods and Materials.

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Copyright 2024. The AIC Wiki is a publication of the American Institute for Conservation (AIC). It is published as a convenience for the members of AIC. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described herein. Information on researching with and citing the wiki can be found on the Reference and Bibliography Protocols page.

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American Institute for Conservation (AIC). "BPG Parchment Examination and Documentation." AIC Wiki. April 16, 2024. https://www.conservation-wiki.com/wiki/BPG_Parchment_Examination_and_Documentation.


Species Identification in Parchment[edit | edit source]

Determining that an artifact is indeed made from parchment (see Parchment vs. Paper) is essential before beginning treatment. In addition, knowing the animal from which the parchment was made and its method of manufacture will help a conservator anticipate how the skin will react under specific treatment procedures. For example, for parchment made from modern flesh split sheepskin rather than a skin with an intact grain layer, the conservator would know in advance to use caution in certain drying, mending, and mounting procedures that might put undue tension on such an inherently weak type of parchment and cause damage.

Visual Identification[edit | edit source]

Vnoucek (2021) does an excellent job describing the difficulty of distinguishing calf skin parchment, largely regarded as the best quality parchment from the Late Antique to Medieval ages, from well-prepared sheepskin parchment.

The characteristic features of parchment which confirm its animal origin can usually be recognized under close examination with a hand lens or a microscope. These features include the follicle pattern, veining, natural scars and bruises, and fat deposits in certain skins. Often, the follicle pattern is more pronounced across bony areas of the animal, such as along the ribs and spine, and depending on the species, the hair follicles may be spaced closer together in these areas than elsewhere. Raking, transmitted, and ultraviolet light often help to make these features more prominent. Ultraviolet light in particular often shows fluorescence of natural fats in the skin, as well as other processing substances, although the reliability of the technique is uncertain. It has, however, proved useful in the identification of tannins which were applied to the surface of early Jewish parchments such as the Dead Sea Scrolls (Reed 1972).

Analytical Identification[edit | edit source]

  • Peptide ID, DNA analysis [cursory summary of available techniques]

While visual identification of the animal origins of parchment are usually sufficient, it is imprecise. "This method relies heavily on the subjective experience and training of the user, which can lead to errors (for example, many catalogued sheepskin parchments are classified as vellum) as natural biological variation can often lead to misidentification," (Fiddyment et al. 2019). [Note: in the quote, vellum likely refers specifically to calf.] Analysis of proteins or DNA in parchment fibers can be much more accurate, and may even assist in determining the origin or provenance of an object.

Cross-sections of parchment can be examined under the light microscope and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Parchment vs. Paper[edit | edit source]

Papers such as vellum paper, tracing paper, etc. were heavily processed and can sometimes be mistaken for parchment. Unfortunately, the simplest tests for distinguishing paper from parchment are invasive or destructive. The identification of protein using the biuret test can be performed on a sample; however, in using this test, one cannot distinguish between real parchment and a paper that was heavily sized with gelatin (see Spot Tests). In that situation, other methods of analysis are recommended. If a very small sliver of sample can be taken, a simple flame test on true parchment will result in the pungent odor of burnt protein. This test requires no expensive analytical equipment or lab.

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis can be used to non-destructively differentiate between parchment (protein) and paper (cellulose) even when the paper has been heavily sized with a protein size. A paper coated on both sides would be distinguished by a higher proportion of calcium or other opaque white pigment. (Certain types of parchment documents and most parchment book covers were heavily dressed with chalk on the flesh side and would therefore give high calcium readings with FTIR analysis. It is more unlikely, however, for these objects to be mistaken for paper during visual examination.

Features of Parchment[edit | edit source]

Related: Parchment Manufacture.

Parchment can have distinct features and characteristics that are either the result of physical experiences of the animal that produced the skin or of the manufacture of the parchment. These should not be mistaken for historical damages that have occurred to the artifact and should be preserved (ideally, not altered) during treatment.

See Vnoucek (2005), Clarkson (1992).

The irregular edges of a parchment sheet may reflect the outer perimeters of a skin, where a natural curve follows the outline of the animal's leg. Particularly stiff and horny areas in a given sheet may represent the outer ends of the skin, shoulders or butt, whereas weaker, more fleshy areas usually come from the axillae (armpit) and belly of the animal. (Many of these features are more thoroughly described and illustrated in Cains 1992.)

Properties of Parchment[edit | edit source]

Physical and Chemical Stability[edit | edit source]

Parchment is usually a very strong and durable material that is usually resistant to physical forces such as surface abrasion, creasing and tearing. (Modern parchments made from the inner splits of sheepskins have little tear strength, however, because they lack the tightly connected fiber structure of the grain layer.) Parchment is more resistant than paper to corrosive inks and paints, yet perforation of the support can ultimately occur in the presence of moisture. Parchment is susceptible to biological attack and, in extreme circumstances, the collagen structure can be completely degraded in the presence of mold. Parchment is not as prone to acid degradation as is paper, due in part to alkaline agents such as lime and chalk that are used in the manufacturing process.

(Clarkson 1992)

Hygroscopicity

The extremely hygroscopic nature of parchment makes it dimensionally unstable, causing it to expand and contract in response to changes in the surrounding environment. This often leads to distortion or cockling of the sheet and other dimensional changes which can range from minor to severe, depending on the surrounding environmental conditions. Treatment goals can often be affected by the extreme reactivity of parchment to changes in relative humidity, particularly when treatments involving the use of moisture are being considered. (See Potential Alteration/Damage to Object in Treatment.) Methods used for the housing and display of parchment artifacts must also include consideration of its hygroscopic nature. (See Housing, Storage and Display and Considerations in Mending Parchment.)

Media found on parchment are often affected by the reactivity of the support to changes in relative humidity, especially in cases where the paint or ink may be brittle and/or thickly applied. The expansion and contraction of the parchment support usually occurs at a faster rate, thus putting stress on the media. If the media is unable to respond to extreme stress it will begin to crack and eventually flake off the parchment surface. These issues need to be considered when undertaking treatments involving moisture and when choosing environmental conditions for storage and display.

Thermal Reactivity

The effects on parchment to both dry and moist heat are important features to consider. According to Reed (1972, 316-318), parchment can withstand a dry oven temperature of 100C almost indefinitely without any obvious changes in color, dimension or shape. Once removed from the oven the skin absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and is able to regain its original handling properties. Heating parchment at higher temperatures has a more dramatic effect, with 130-150C being a critical temperature at which intense curling and browning occur.

Moist heat has a much more dramatic effect on parchment than dry heat. The addition of moisture causes the collagen fibers in parchment to swell and then rapidly contract. This phenomenon, which is often used to determine the relative age of a piece of parchment, is referred to as the shrinkage temperature. Ancient parchments have collagen fibers that are more degraded and hence they shrink at much lower temperatures than modern skins. (For more information on this subject see Reed 1972, 313-316, Haines 1987, Young 1990, and Young 1992.)

Surface Qualities[edit | edit source]

Inherent to Methods of Manufacture

The surface qualities of parchment are most often determined by the methods used in fabrication of the skin. Parchment made from a full thickness skin usually has a distinct hair and flesh side while sheets that derive from split skins have a much more uniform appearance from side to side. The lack of particular surface characteristics on split skins can often make them difficult to distinguish from highly calendared papers, often known as "parchment paper or vellum paper." (See Identification of Parchment and Distinguishing True Parchment from Modern Parchment and Vellum Papers.)

Surface Preparations and Coatings

The surfaces of a finished sheet of parchment can be prepared or coated so as to make the two sides more uniform in appearance and also more receptive to inks and paints.

Although the work could be done by the parchment maker it was probably more often carried out by scribes or artists, or their assistants. Surface preparations can include scraping with a sharp knife, smoothing and raising a soft nap with pumice, burnishing with a stone or other hard material, and dusting with French chalk. Parchment supports would also be coated with a variety of materials for different purposes. During the medieval period Byzantine artisans would apply egg white (glaire), natural oils and other materials to the parchment and then burnish it to achieve a very smooth, highly polished surface for writing and illumination (Abt and Fusco 1989, Bykova et al. 1976, Bykova 1993). Russian illustrated documents were coated with a matte white paint prior to execution. (JM) During the 19th c. parchment intended for printing could also receive a surface coating (Jenkins 1992, Smith and Bunting 1993). The particular type of surface coatings found in medieval Greek manuscripts (see above) makes the illuminations extremely susceptible to flaking, whereas the writing is rarely affected. (Although flaking would often occur relatively soon after the manuscripts were made the Greek artists never seemed to alter their technique. Instead, the miniatures would simply be painted over once the amount of paint loss was substantial enough to warrant it. AQ) In other types of medieval manuscripts, such as those produced in Italy or elsewhere by Italian craftsmen, the parchment is prepared in such a way that the hair side has a very soft, almost velvety nap while the flesh side is smooth and slick. Whether or not there was some type of surface preparation or coating on the flesh side of these skins has not been determined. Nevertheless, in these manuscripts flaking of the media (particularly the writing ink) is much more predominant on the flesh side than on the hair side. (AQ)

Surface Treatments[edit | edit source]

Parchment was surface tanned in Dead Sea Scrolls.

Whiteners added to surfaces of Syriac manuscripts.

For Byzantine parchment, folios were coated with an albuminous substance, possibly to prepare the parchment for the scribe or illuminator (Kireyeva 1999).

Dyed Parchment[edit | edit source]

Parchment codex pages have been dyed different colors, often to heighten the effects of writing with gold ink (chrysography).

Blue Parchment

One of the most famous manuscripts with blue parchment is the Blue Quran, an early Islamic manuscript Kufic script. Porter (2018) describes the material characterization of the manuscript's sheepskin parchment, which was colored using plant-based materials containing indigotin (either indigo or woad).

Purple Parchment

Purple parchment with gold or silver script was occasionally used in deluxe western European religious texts. There are three sources for this dye, each going by different common names: Mediterranean mollusks (Tyrian purple), the Chrozophora tinctoria plant (folium), and three types of European lichen (orchil). Only a minute amount of dye was produced from a single shellfish, and Tyrian purple was more expensive. It had been thought that Tyrian purple could be distinguished from plant-based purple dyes by the presence of the element bromine. However, recent analysis by Aceto et al. (2015) detected bromine in folium and orchil; thus, the presence of bromine is not a reliable indicator of its source.

Quandt (2018) describes both late antique and early medieval European manuscripts with purple parchment leaves. Rabitsch et al. (2020) describes the analysis and treatment of purple parchment leaves of the Vienna Genesis.

Black Parchment

The parchment of some Flemish manuscripts was dyed black with iron gall ink, as seen in the Black Book of Hours at the Morgan Library (Trujillo 2020).

Marks of Biology[edit | edit source]

The best medieval manuscripts were produced with extremely high quality parchment that bore little evidence of its animal origins. More often, books were produced with whatever parchment was available or affordable. This parchment made a perfectly adequate writing surface but might have contained artifacts of the animal's physiology that would have otherwise been removed by the parchment maker (through longer or more careful periods of scraping) or by the person cutting the bifolia (and avoiding "blemishes").

Follicle patterns[edit | edit source]

animal source; hair and flesh sides of the skin; spine direction of the animal as oriented on the sheet

Axilla[edit | edit source]

Bone shadows[edit | edit source]

Scars and holes[edit | edit source]

Scars or wounds in the animal skin would occasionally open up while the skin was wet and taught during the scraping portion of the parchment manufacturing process. Scribes often simply wrote around the holes.

Marks of Manufacture[edit | edit source]

Listed below are a series of prompts that are intended to assist the conservator in the examination of a parchment artifact prior to treatment. Since many technological features can be altered by certain treatments it is important to record their presence beforehand and to carefully consider one's treatment approach in order to ensure that these features are preserved. Damages that may have occurred to a parchment artifact over time can sometimes be confused with certain natural irregularities in the skin, or with alterations that may have been carried out during the making of the object. Distinction between these features can also be helpful prior to treatment.

Technological Features

Features relating to preparation by parchment maker: animal source; hair and flesh sides of the skin; spine direction of the animal as oriented on the sheet; thickness of the skin (can vary greatly across the surface of a single sheet); full thickness or split skin; surface characteristics (degree and evenness of scraping, napped or smooth, presence of surface coatings, etc.); imperfections (scars, bruises, original repairs, etc.); location and degree of cockling and/ or pleating; irregularities in shape of sheet (often indicate its previous location in full animal skin).

Features relating to use by scribe, artist, bookbinder: pricking holes - size and shape; ruling lines - made with stylus, metalpoint or pen and ink; underdrawing - usually in thin pen lines or washes; plate marks made by printing; marginal notes/instructions by scribe; creases indicating how a parchment document was originally folded; impressions made by sewing thread in gutter of book - often still visible in intact bifolia or single manuscript leaves; sewing holes - made for attachment of fabric interleaving to illuminated manuscript leaves in bound books.

Surface characteristics[edit | edit source]

surface characteristics (degree and evenness of scraping, napped or smooth, presence of surface coatings, etc.);

Scrape marks[edit | edit source]

The process of making a sheet of parchment from animal skin often left distinctive marks from the rounded knife used to scrape the skin clean.

Holes or manufacturer’s repairs[edit | edit source]

During the manufacturing process, it was not uncommon for scars or wounds in the skin to split open due to being stretched on the frame. It is also possible for the lunar knife to have cut through the skin, though it is difficult to tell the difference. Any area of weakness could split under the tension and form a rounded hole. These holes could be left open, often with a slight ridge forming around the opening. These holes often appear in the margins of manuscripts but can also be found in areas of text in books where economic concerns were prioritized over aesthetic ones. Holes were occasionally covered with a parchment patch, but scribes also wrote around the open hole, simply skipping over it.

Alternatively to leaving the hole open, it could have been sewn closed by the parchment maker while the skin was still wet.

Marks of Use and Reuse[edit | edit source]

For damages, see BPG Parchment Condition Problems.

Scribal marks[edit | edit source]

Features relating to use by scribe, artist, bookbinder: pricking holes - size and shape; ruling lines - made with stylus, metalpoint or pen and ink; underdrawing - usually in thin pen lines or washes; plate marks made by printing; marginal notes/instructions by scribe;

See Clemens and Graham 2007.

Binding marks[edit | edit source]

impressions made by sewing thread in gutter of book - often still visible in intact bifolia or single manuscript leaves; sewing holes - made for attachment of fabric interleaving to illuminated manuscript leaves in bound books.

Folds[edit | edit source]

Large documents such as deeds and indentures were folded for storage. When unfolded, areas of soiling can indicate which areas of the document were on the outside when folded.

Repairs[edit | edit source]

Palimpsests[edit | edit source]

Recycled Fragments[edit | edit source]

Imaging of Parchment[edit | edit source]

[reference PMG Examination and Documentation as needed]

Visible Light[edit | edit source]

Ultraviolet[edit | edit source]

Infrared[edit | edit source]

False Color Infrared[edit | edit source]

False color IR photography can be used as a "quick and dirty" technique to identify medieval pigments if more precise methods involving elemental analysis are not available. The technique was originally developed for film cameras using colored filters. With DSLR cameras, a modified camera body with the internal filters removed is required plus additional lenses to allow certain IR spectra through. The specifics of this technique are detailed in the False Color Infrared section of "Digital Imaging Workflow for Treatment Documentation" from the Conservation Division at the Library of Congress (Edwards and Oey, 2018).

The resulting color shift from the normal light image to the FCIR image can indicate which pigments were used and sometimes differentiate between pigments of the same color. Below is a table of some commonly occurring pigments in the medieval palette and their color shifts (from Douma 2008, "Pigments through the Ages").

Table 1. Commonly occurring medieval pigments and their color shifts from normal light photography to FCIR.
Pigment Normal light False Color IR
Vermilion red yellow
Red lead red/orage yellow/brown
Madder red/purple orange
Orpiment yellow pale yellow/white
Verdigris green dark blue
Azurite blue dark blue
Ultramarine blue red

Cicero et al. 2016

References[edit | edit source]

Species Identification in Parchment

Fiddyment, Sarah, Matthew D. Teasdale, Jiří Vnouček, Élodie Lévêque, Annelise Binois, and Matthew J. Collins. 2019. "So You Want to Do Biocodicology? A Field Guide to the Biological Analysis of Parchment." Heritage Science 7 (1): 35.

Reed, Ronald. Ancient Skins, Parchments and Leathers, London-New York: Seminar Press, 1972.

Vnouček, Jiří. 2021. "Not All That Shines like Vellum Is Necessarily So." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 17: 27–60.

Features of Parchment

Abt, Jeffrey and Margaret A. Fusco. "A Byzantine Scholar's Letter on the Preparation of Manuscript Vellum." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 28, no. 2 (1989): 61-66.

Aceto, Maurizio, Aldo Arrais, Francesco Marsano, Angelo Agostino, Gaia Fenoglio, Ambra Idone, and Monica Gulmini. 2015. "A Diagnostic Study on Folium and Orchil Dyes with Non-Invasive and Micro-Destructive Methods." Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 142 (May): 159–68.

Bykova, G. Z. "Medieval Painting on Parchment: Technique, Preservation and Restoration." Restaurator 14:3(1993): 188-97.

Cains, Anthony. 1992. "The Vellum of the Book of Kells." The Paper Conservator 16: 50-61.

Clarkson, Christopher. 1992. "Rediscovering Parchment: The Nature of the Beast." The Paper Conservator 16 (1): 5–26.

Clemens, Raymond and Timothy Graham. 2007. Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Haines, Betty M., Bookbinding Leather 7 (1987): 63-82.

Jenkins, Penny. “Printing on Parchment or Vellum.” The Paper Conservator 16 (1992): 31-39.

Kireyeva, Vilena. 1999. "Examination of Parchment in Byzantine Manuscripts." Restaurator 20 (1): 39–47.

Porter, Cheryl. 2018. "The Materiality of the Blue Quran: A Physical and Technological Study." In The Aghlabids and Their Neighbors, edited by Glaire D. Anderson, Corisande Fenwick, and Miriam Rosser-Owen. Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1, The Near and Middle East: 122. Leiden: Brill.

Quandt, Abigail B. 1986. "The Conservation of a 12th Century Illuminated Manuscript on Vellum." The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Preprints of Papers Presented at the Fourteenth Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, 21-25 May 1986, 97–113.

Quandt, Abigail B. 2018. "The Purple Codices: A Report on Current and Future Research and Conservation Projects." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 16: 121–52.

Rabitsch, Sophie, Inge Boesken Kanold, and Christa Hofmann. 2020. "Purple Dyeing of Parchment." In The Vienna Genesis, edited by Christa Hofmann, 1st ed. Wien: Böhlau Verlag, 71–102.

Smith, Jane, and Victoria Bunting. “A Study of Two Nineteenth Century Deluxe Edition Prints on Parchment.” Papers Published at the Nineteenth Annual Student Conference of Art Conservation Training Programs. Buffalo, New York, 1993.

Trujillo, Frank. 2020. "The Black Hours at the Morgan Library & Museum." The Morgan Library & Museum. June 29, 2020.

Vnouček, Jiří. 2005. "The Manufacture of Parchment for Writing Purposes and the Observation of the Signs of Manufacture Surviving in Old Manuscripts." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 8: 74–92.

Vnouček, Jiří. 2019. "The Parchment of the Codex Amiatinus in the Context of Manuscript Production in Northumbria Around the End of the Seventh Century: Identification of the Animal Species and Methods of Manufacture of the Parchment as Clues to the Old Narrative?" Journal of Paper Conservation 20 (1–4): 179–204.

Vnouček, Jiří. 2021. "Not All That Shines like Vellum Is Necessarily So." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 17: 27–60.

Young. G. Loss of Infrared Linear Dichroism in Collagen Fibers as a Measure of Deterioration in Skin and Semi-Tanned Leather Artifacts, Material Issues in Art and Archeology III 267 (1992): 859-867.

Young, G. Microscopical Hydrothermal Stability Measurements of Skin and Semi-Tanned Leather, ICOM Preprints of the 9th Triennial Meeting, International Committee of Museums, Dresden 26-31, August 1990: 626-631.

Imaging Parchment

Chabries, Douglas M., Steven W. Booras, and Gregory H. Bearman. 2003. "Imaging the Past: Recent Applications of Multispectral Imaging Technology to Deciphering Manuscripts." Antiquity 77 (296): 359–72.

Cicero, Cristina, Fulvio Mercuri, Noemi Orazi, Ugo Zammit, Stefano Paoloni, and Massimo Marinelli. 2016. "Thermographic Analysis of Hidden Texts and Illuminated Manuscripts." Edited by M. J. Driscoll. Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 15: 69–78.

Douma, Michael, curator. 2008. "Pigments through the Ages." 2008.

Down, Jane L., Gregory S. Young, R. Scott Williams, and Maureen A. MacDonald. 2002. "Analysis of the Archimedes Palimpsest." Studies in Conservation 47 (sup3): 52–58.

Easton, R.L., K.T. Knox, and W.A. Christens-Barry. 2003. "Multispectral Imaging of the Archimedes Palimpsest." In 32nd Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop, 2003. Proceedings., 111–16. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE.

Edwards, H. G. M., D. W. Farwell, E. M. Newton, F. Rull Perez, and S. Jorge Villar. 2001. "Application of FT-Raman Spectroscopy to the Characterisation of Parchment and Vellum, I; Novel Information for Paleographic and Historiated Manuscript Studies." Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 57 (6): 1223–34.

Edwards, Howell G.M., and Fernando Rull Perez. 2004. "Application of Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy to the Characterization of Parchment and Vellum. II, Effect of Biodeterioration and Chemical Deterioration on Spectral Interpretation." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 35: 8–9.

Edwards, Gwenanne, and Mary Oey, eds. 2018. "Digital Imaging Workflow for Treatment Documentation." Library of Congress.

See also: https://www.loc.gov/preservation/resources/ImageDoc/

Giacometti, Alejandro, Alberto Campagnolo, Lindsay Macdonald, Simon Mahony, Melissa Terras, Stuart Robson, Tim Weyrich, and Adam D. Gibson. 2012. "Cultural Heritage Destruction: Documenting Parchment Degradation via Multispectral Imaging." In Electronic Workshops in Computing, 301–8.

Giacometti, Alejandro, Alberto Campagnolo, Lindsay MacDonald, Simon Mahony, Stuart Robson, Tim Weyrich, Melissa Terras, and Adam Gibson. 2015. "The Value of Critical Destruction: Evaluating Multispectral Image Processing Methods for the Analysis of Primary Historical Texts." Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 32 (1): 101–22.

Gippert, Jost. 2007. "The Application of Multispectral Imaging in the Study of Caucasian Palimpsests." Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences 175: 168–79.

Hofmann, Christa, ed. 2020. The Vienna Genesis. Material Analysis and Conservation of a Late Antique Illuminated Manuscript on Purple Parchment. Wien: Böhlau Verlag.

MacDonald, L. 2013. "Multispectral Imaging of Degraded Parchment." In Computational Color Imaging. CCIW 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by S. Tominaga, R. Schettini, and A. Trémeau. Vol. 7786. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Marengo, Emilio, Marcello Manfredi, Orfeo Zerbinati, Elisa Robotti, Eleonora Mazzucco, Fabio Gosetti, Greg Bearman, Fenella France, and Pnina Shor. 2011. "Technique Based on LED Multispectral Imaging and Multivariate Analysis for Monitoring the Conservation State of the Dead Sea Scrolls." Analytical Chemistry 83 (17): 6609–18.

Oprescu, Ashlyn, Orit Rosengarten, and Pnina Shor. 2018. "Multispectral Imaging and the Digitization of the Dead Sea Scrolls." Book and Paper Group Annual 37: 71–76.

Shor, Pnina, Marcello Manfredi, Greg H. Bearman, Emilio Marengo, Ken Boydston, and William A. Christens-Barry. 2014. "The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library." Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 2 (2): 71–89.

Tanner, Simon, and Greg Bearman. 2008. "Digitizing the Dead Sea Scrolls." Archiving, 119–23.

History of This Page[edit | edit source]

This page was created in April 2022 when the Parchment page was updated.

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