PMG Nineteen Century Photographic Negative Processes Workshop Bibliography

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PMG Collaborative Workshops Bibliographies: 19th Century Negative Processes[edit | edit source]

13 - 17 June 2005, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York.

Negatives on Glass[edit | edit source]

Contributions by John Bullock, Mogens Koch, Mark Osterman, Roger Taylor, & Fernanda Valverde.

Technical Literature: Early Sources (Chronological Order)[edit | edit source]

  • Belloc, A. “Tableau Synoptique de Substances Chimiques Employees en Photographie.” n.d. (Note: a chart comparing the chemicals used for the daguerreotype, talbotype (calotype), niepcotype (albumen on glass), archerotype (wet-plate collodion) and positive paper processes.)
  • "Photography on Paper and Glass." Art Journal, August 1, 1850, p. 261.
  • Le Gray, Gustave. Traité Pratique de Photographie sur Papier et Sur Verre. Paris: Baillière, June 1850, p. 42.
  • Sparke, A. K. “A New Process of Photography on Glass.” The Chemist vol. 2, no. 15, December 1850, pp. 125-126.
  • Archer, Frederick Scott. “On the Use of Collodion in Photography.” The Chemist vol. 2, no. 19, March 1851, 257-258.
  • Bingham, Robert J. Photogenic Manipulation. London: George Knight and Sons, 1851, pp. 70-79. (Note: includes the January 1850 entry mentioning collodion as a possible binder for photography on page 73.)
  • George Knight and Sons. List of Prices of the Apparatus, Materials, and Chemical Preparations. London: George Knight and Songs, 1851.
  • Bingham, Robert J. “On the Employment of Collodion in Photography.” The Chemist vol. 3, no. 34, July 1852, pp. 458-459.
  • Archer, Frederick Scott. The Collodion Process on Glass. 2nd edition. London: Printed for the author, 1854; reprinted in The Collodion Process and Ferrotype, Three Accounts, 1854-1872. Robert A. Sobieszek (ed.). New York: Arno Press, 1973.
  • “Paper versus collodion.” The Photographic News, February 15, 1859 289. (See Table of Contents: Paper Negatives)
  • “Paper v. collodion.” The Photographic News, August 19, 1859, p. 279. (See Table of Contents: Paper Negatives.)
  • “Minutes From the Meeting of the Photographic Society of London.” The Photographic News, vol. 13, May 14, 1869, p. 238. (Note: Request for information on cracking negatives made by Julia Margaret Cameron.)
  • “The Origin of the Collodion Process.” The Photographic News, vol. 13, no. 587, December 3, 1869, pp. 575-577.
  • Maddox, R. L. “An Experiment With Gelatino-Bromide.” The British Journal of Photography, vol. 18, no. 592, September 8, 1871, pp. 422-423.
  • Kennett, R. “On the Gelatino-Bromide Process, With a Description of an Easy Method of Working It by Using the “Sensitive Pellicle.” The Photographic News, vol. 18, no. 592, June 19, 1874, pp. 290-292.
  • Bennett, Charles. “Negatives with Gelatine Emulsion.” The Photographic News, vol. 22, no. 1052, November 1, 1878, p. 524.
  • Burbank, Rev. W.H. The Photographic Negative. New York: Scovill Manufacturing Company, 1888.
  • Eastman Kodak. Collodion and the making of wet plate negatives for photo-engraving work. Rochester: Eastman Kodak Company, 1924
  • Mertle, J. S. “Materials for Negative-Making (Collodion Processes).” Photolithographic Procedure, vol. 2, June 20, 1941, pp. 86-209.

Technical Literature: Contemporary Sources[edit | edit source]

  • Osterman, France Scully. “Watching for Comets.” Collodion Journal, vol. 2, no. 9, April 1996, pp. 6-8.
  • Osterman, France Scully. “The Varnished Truth.” Collodion Journal, vol. 5, no. 17, January 1999, pp. 1-6, 16.
  • Osterman, France Scully. “Oysters on my Plate.” Collodion Journal, vol. 5, no. 20, Autumn 1999, pp. 10-13.
  • Osterman, France Scully. “A Sink Full of Dirty Plates.” Collodion Journal, vol. 6, no. 22, Autumn 2000, pp. 10-13.
  • Osterman, Mark. “Preparing for an Expedition: The Portable Darkroom.” Collodion Journal, vol. 3, no. 9, January 1997, pp. 8-9, 16.
  • Osterman, Mark. “Surviving “the Black Art”: Poisons in the Darkroom. Collodion Journal, vol. 4, no. 13, January 1998, pp. 9-11, 15.
  • Osterman, Mark. “Outfitting the Darkroom With Whiskey Bottles and Cigar Boxes.” Collodion Journal. vol. 4, no. 14, April 1998, pp. 10-12.
  • Osterman, Mark. “Red Skies and Blackened Cheeks.” Collodion Journal, vol. 5, no. 17, January 1999, pp. 9-11.
  • Osterman, Mark. “Taking a Closer Look: The Development of Microphotography and Photomicrography.” Collodion Journal, vol. 5, no. 18, Spring 1999, pp. 1-5.
  • Osterman, Mark. “Minding the Light: The Photographic Skylight.” Collodion Journal, vol. 6, no. 21, Winter 2000, pp. 1-8.
  • Osterman, Mark. “The Technique of Coating Plates-Part I.” Collodion Journal, vol. 7, no. 23, Winter 2001, pp. 10-13, 16.
  • Osterman, Mark. “The Technique of Coating Plates-Part II.” Collodion Journal, vol. 7, no. 24, 2002, pp. 12-14.
  • Osterman, Mark. Wet-Plate Collodion Negative Process. Rochester: Scully & Osterman, 2005.
  • Skladnikiewitz, Piae, Dirk Hertel, and Irene Schmidt. “The Wet Collodion Process – A Scientific Approach.” Journal of the Photographic Society of New England, April 1999, pp. 13-17.
  • Valverde, Fernanda. Photographic Negatives: Nature and Evolution of Processes. Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation sponsored by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Rochester: George Eastman House/Image Permanence Institute, 2003.

Conservation & Preservation[edit | edit source]

  • Berselli, Silvia. “L’Archivazione dei Fondi Negativi: Ambienti, Materiali e Soluzioni,” La Fragilita Minacciata: Aspetti e Problemi Della Conservazione dei Negativi Fotografici. Rome: Unione Internazionale degli Instituti di Archeologia, Storia e Storia dell’Arte in Roma, 1991, pp. 33-58.
  • Clark, Susie. “The Conservation of Wet Collodion Positives.” Studies in Conservation, vol. 43, no. 4, 1998, pp. 231-241.
  • Gillet, Martine, Chantal Garnier, and Françoise Flieder. “Glass Plate Negatives: Preservation and Restoration.” Restaurator, vol. 7, no. 2, 1986, pp. 49-80.
  • Johnsen, Jesper Stub. “Image Quality of Chemically Restored Black and White Negatives.” Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, January/February 1992, pp. 46-55.
  • McCabe. Constance. “Preservation of 19th-Century Negatives in The National Archives.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, vol. 30, no. 1, 1991, pp. 41-73.
  • McCabe. Constance. “Glass Plate Negatives: The Importance of Relative Humidity in Storage,” Sauvegarde et Conservation des Photographies, Dessins, Imprimés et Manuscripts. Paris: Actes des Journée Internationals d’Études de l’ARSAG, 1991, pp. 36-44.
  • Moor, Ian. “The Ambrotype – Research Into Its Restoration And Conservation.” The Paper Conservator, vol. 2, 1977, pp. 36-43.

Chemistry & Analysis[edit | edit source]

  • Cartier-Bresson, Anne. “Les Negatifs: Methodologie des Traitements Individuels,” La Fragilita Minacciata: Aspetti e Problemi Della Conservazione dei Negativi Fotografici. Rome: Unione Internazionale degli Instituti di Archeologia, Storia e Storia dell’Arte, 1991, pp. 23-32.
  • Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. The Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1984, pp. 1376-1379.
  • Lavédrine, Bertrand, and Jean-Michel Susbielles. “Étude des Vernis des Négatifs sur Plaque de Verre.” Support/Tracé, vol. 1, 2001, pp. 19-23.
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark H. “Research on Collodion Glass Plate Negatives: Coating Thickness and FTIR Identification of Varnishes.” Topics in Photographic Preservation, vol. 3, 1989, pp. 135-150.
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark H. “An Analysis of Image Deterioration in Wet-Plate Negatives From the Mathew Brady Studio,” The Imperfect Image: Photographs Their Past, Present and Future. Windermere: The Centre for Photographic Conservation, 1992, pp. 245-255.
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark H. “Glass Corrosion and Its Relation to Image Deterioration in Collodion Wet-Plate Negatives,” The Imperfect Image: Photographs Their Past, Present and Future. Windermere: The Centre for Photographic Conservation, 1992, pp. 256-265.
  • Romer, Grant. “Problems and Issues of Photographic Negative Collection Preservation,” La Fragilita Minacciata: Aspetti e Problemi Della Conservazione dei Negativi Fotografici. Rome: Unione Internazionale degli Instituti di Archeologia, Storia e Storia dell’Arte in Roma, 1991, pp. 11-22.
  • Seymour, Raymond, and George Kauffman. “The Rise and Fall of Celluloid.” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 69, no. 4, April 1992, pp. 311-314.
  • Wagner, Sarah. S. “A Preliminary Study: Consolidation of Glass Plate Negatives With Organosilanes.” Topics in Photographic Preservation, vol. 3, 1989, pp. 69-85.

History[edit | edit source]

  • Adelstein, Peter Z. “From Metal to Polyester: History of Picture-Taking Supports,” Pioneers of Photography; Their Achievements in Science and Technology. Boston: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology/Northeastern University Press, 1987, pp. 30-36.
  • Cox, Julian, and Colin Ford. Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003, pp. 41-79.
  • “Frederick Scott Archer.” The British Journal of Photography, February 26, 1875, pp. 102-104.
  • Gernsheim, Helmult, and Alison Gernsheim. “The Evolution of Dry Plates,” The History of Photography-From the Camera Obscura to the Beginning of the Modern Era. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.
  • Osterman, France Scully. “How the Collodion Process Was Invented.” Collodion Journal, vol. 7, no. 23, Winter 2001, pp. 1-9.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • Abney, W. de Wiveleslie. A Treatise on Photography. New York: D. Appleton, 1878.*
  • Archer, Frederick Scott. On the Use of Collodion in Photography. London: s.n., 1851.*
  • Bingham, Robert J. Photogenic manipulation [parts I and II]. London: G. Knight, 1852.*
  • Brown, George, E. Finishing the Negative, A Handbook of All the Processes Between Fixing and Printing: With Special Chapter on Films. New York: Tennant and Ward, 1901.
  • Burgess, N. G. The Photograph and Ambrotype Manual: A Practical Treatise on the Art of Taking Positive and Negative Photographs on Paper and Glass. 4th ed. New York: Wiley & Halsted, 1858.*
  • Dawson, George. A Manual of Photography: Founded on Hardwich's Photographic Chemistry. 8th edition. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1873.*
  • Delamotte, Philip H. The Oxymel Process in Photography. London: Chapman and Hall, 1856. (Note: possibly one of the most beautifully designed photographic manuals ever printed, M. Osterman.)*
  • Divine, S. R. A Practical Treatise on Albumen Photography; Containing the Collodion Negative Process, and the Methods of Preparing, Printing, and Toning Albumenized Paper; Also, the Most Approved Modes of Making Cartes de Visite. New York: J. H. Ladd, 1862.*
  • Eder, Josef Maria. Atelier und Laboratorium des Photographen. Halle a. S.: W. Knapp, 1883.*
  • Eder, Josef Maria. Das Nasse Collodion-Verfahren, die Ferrotypie und Verwandte Processe. Halle a. S.: W. Knapp, 1884.
  • Eder, Josef Maria. Die Photographie mit dem Kollodiumverfahren: Nasses und Trockenes Kollodiumverfahren, Bromsilber- und Chlorsilber-Kollodium-Emulsion. Halle (Saale): W. Knapp, 1927.
  • Hardwich, T. Frederick. A Manual of Photographic Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. 9th edition. J. Traill Taylor (ed.). New York: Scovill Manufacturing Co., 1886.*
  • Hennah, Thomas. The Collodion Process. 3rd edition. London: G. Knight, 1855.*
  • Hughes, Jabez. The Principles and Practice of Photography Familiarly Explained: Being a Manual for Beginners. 7th edition. London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1866.*
  • Johnsen, Jesper Stub. “Conservation Management and Archival Survival of Photographic Collections.” Göteborg Studies in Conservation, 1997.
  • ISO 18901:2002, Imaging Materials -- Processed Silver-Gelatin Type Black-and-White Films -- Specifications for Stability.
  • ISO 18902:2001, Imaging Materials -- Processed Photographic Films, Plates and Papers -- Filing Enclosures and Storage Containers.
  • ISO 18911:2000, Imaging Materials -- Processed Safety Photographic Films -- Storage Practices.
  • ISO 14523:1999, Photography -- Processed Photographic Materials -- Photographic Activity Test for Enclosure Materials.
  • ISO 18918:2000, Imaging Materials -- Processed Photographic Plates -- Storage Practices.
  • Lake Price, William. A Manual of Photographic Manipulation, Treating of the Practice of the Art. London: J. Churchill, 1857.
  • Lea, M. Carey. A Manual of Photography: Intended as a Text Book for Beginners and a Book of Reference for Advanced Photographers. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Author, 1871. *
  • Long, Charles A. The Dry Collodion Process. London: Bland & Long, 1857.*
  • Monckhoven, D. van. A Popular Treatise on Photography. W. H. Thornthwaite (trans.). London: Virtue Brothers, 1863.*
  • The Practice of Photography; A Manual for Students and Amateurs, Illustrated With a calotype portrait taken by the Collodion Process. London: J. Cundall, 1853.*
  • Reilly, J. M., D. W. Nishimura, L. Pavao, and P. Z. Adelstein. “Photo Enclosures Research and Specifications.” Topics in Photographic Preservation, vol. 3, 1989, pp. 1-8.
  • “Relative advantages of Collodion and Paper Processes.” Liverpool Photographic Journal, July 8, 1854, pp. 84-89.
  • Rowland, John. The Calotype and Collodion Processes. London: Rowland, 1855.*
  • Russell, C. The Tannin Process. London: J.W. Davis, 1862.*
  • Simpson, G. Wharton. The Photographic Teacher: Or, What to Do in Photography, and How to Do It: A Clear and Concise Compendium of the Collodion Process. 4th edition. London: H. Squire, 1859.*
  • Stillman, W. J. The Amateur's Photographic Guide Book: Being a Complete Résumé of the Most Useful Dry and Wet Collodion Processes. London: C. D. Smith, 1874.*
  • Sutton, Thomas. The Collodion Processes, Wet and Dry. London: Sampson Low and Sons, 1862.
  • Sunlight Sketches or, the Photographic Text Book, a Practical Treatise on Photography. New York: Published for the author by H. H. Snelling, 1858.*
  • Towler, John. Dry Plate Photography; or, the Tannin Process, Made Simple and Practical for Operators and Amateurs. New York: J.H. Ladd, 1865.*
  • Towler, John. The Negative and the Print; or, The Photographer's Guide, in the Gallery and in the Field, Being a Text-book for the Operator and Amateur. New York: J. H. Ladd, 1866.*
  • Towler, J. The Silver Sunbeam: A Practical and Theoretical Text-book on Sun Drawing and Photographic Printing. 8th edition. New York: E. & H. T. Anthony, 1873. (Note: there were many editions of this work with the later versions containing more information and illustrations, M. Osterman.)*
  • Vogel, H. W. The Progress of Photography Since the Year 1879: A Review of the More Important Discoveries in Photography and Photographic Chemistry, Within the Last Four Years, With Special Consideration of Emulsion Photography, and an Additional Chapter on Photography for Amateurs. Ellerslie Wallace (trans). Philadelphia: E. L. Wilson, 1883.*
  • Waldack, Charles, and Peter Neff. Treatise of Photography on Collodion: Embracing Full Directions for the Compounding of Chemicals. Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keys, 1857.*
  • Waldack, Charles. Treatise on Photography. 4th edition. Cincinnati: H. Watkin, 1865.*
  • Wilson, Edward L. Wilson's Photographics: A Series of Lessons, Accompanied by Notes, on All the Processes Which Are Needful in the Art of Photography. Philadelphia: Wilson, 1883.*


(Manuals with a * were written specifically for those interested in learning the collodion process.)

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

  • English:
    • The British Journal of Photography
    • The British Journal of Photography Almanac
    • The Photographic News
    • Photographic Notes
  • American:
    • The American Journal of Photography
    • Humphrey’s Journal
    • Philadelphia Photographer (Note: this publication included tipped-in albumen prints)
    • Photographic Mosaics
    • Wilson’s Photographics
  • French:
    • La Lumiere

Negatives on Paper[edit | edit source]

Contributions by John Bullock, Julian Cox, Jonathan Kline, Kate Jennings, Larry Schaaf, and Roger Taylor

Technical Literature: Early Sources (chronological order)[edit | edit source]

  • Talbot, W. H. F. “Calotype (Photogenic) Drawing.” Literary Gazette (27 February 1841): 139.
  • Cundell, George Smith. "On the Practice of the Calotype Process of Photography." London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 24, no. 160 (May 1844): 321-332.
  • Croucher, John H., ed. Willats’s Scientific Manuals, No 1, Plain Directions for Obtaining Photographic Pictures. London: T & R Willats, 1845.
  • Horne, Thornthwaite, & Wood’s Condensed Catalogue of Optical, Chemical, Nautical, Astronomical, Philosophical, Surveying, and Photographic Instruments. London: Horne, Thornthwaite & Wood, 1845: 2.
  • “The Talbotype. – Sun-Pictures.” The Art Union 8 (1 June 1846): 143-144.

Archer, J. S. “On the Use of Pyro-Gallic Acid in Photography.” The Chemist 1, no. 8 (May 1850): 360-361. Archer, Frederick Scott. “On the Use of Pyro-Gallic Acid in Photography.” The Chemist 1, no. 10 (July 1850): 450-451. "Photography on Paper and Glass." Art-Journal (1 August 1850): 261. Le Gray, Gustave. “Part I: Preparation of Negatives on Paper.” In Practical Treatise on Photography Upon Paper and Glass. Translated by Thomas Cousins. London: T. & R. Wilats, 1850: 3-15. Le Gray, Gustave. “Photographic Manipulation.” In Plain Directions for Obtaining Photographic Pictures. London: T. & R. Willats, 1851; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1973.

  • Le Gray, Gustave. “On a New Mode of Preparing Negative Photographic Paper.” The Chemist 3, no. 29 (February 1852): 225-226.
  • “Photography on Paper.” The Builder 10 (21 August 1852): 532-533. http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/ilej/.
  • Baldus, Edouard. Concours de Photographie. Paris: Victor Masson, 1852; reprinted in Malcolm Daniel. The Photographs of Eduoard Baldus. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994: 250-254
  • Fenton, Roger. “Photography on Waxed Paper.” In A Guide to Photography. 5th ed. Edited by W. H. Thornthwaite. London: Horne, Thornthwaite, and Wood, 1852: 86-92.
  • “Upon Photography in an Artistic View...” Journal of the Photographic Society 1, no. 1 (3 March 1853): 6-7.
  • “Photography Applied to Fine Arts.” Journal of the Photographic Society 1, no. 13 (21 January 1854): 154-158.
  • Townshend, Frederic. “On the Quality of Paper required for Photographic Purposes, More Particularly for the Wax-Paper Process.” Journal of the Photographic Society 1, no. 30 (21 May 1855): 166-167.
  • Crookes, W. “On Wax and Waxing Paper.” Journal of the Photographic Society (21 September 1855): 231-232.
  • Sutton, Thomas. “The Negative Process.” In The Calotype Process. London: Joseph Cundell, 1855.
  • Furlonge, W. Holland. "On the Calotype Process." Photographic Notes 1, no. 1(1 January 1856): x-xiii.
  • “Liverpool Photographic Society.” The Liverpool Photographic Journal 3, no. 25 (12 January 1856): 3-10.
  • Fitt, G. R. “On Waxed Paper.” The Liverpool Photographic Journal 3, no. 34 (11 October 1856): 154-155.
  • Keith, Thomas, and John Forbes White. "Dr. Keith's Prescription for Waxed Paper Negatives, 1856." In Sun Pictures. Catalogue six. Edited by Dr. Thomas Keith, John Forbes White, and Hans Kraus, Jr.. New York: H. P. Kraus, Jr., 1993: 61-63.
  • Sutton, Thomas. “The Waxed-Paper Process.” Photographic Notes 1, no. 14 (1 November 1856): 217-220.
  • Anonymous [Lady Elizabeth Eastlake]. “Photography.” The Quarterly Review 101, no. 202 (April 1857): 451
  • Vernier, Jun. “Paper versus Collodion." Photographic News 1, no. 25 (25 February 1859): 289-290.

“Paper v. Collodion.” Photographic News 2, no. 50 (19 August 1859): 279-280. “Photography in Its Relation to Fine Arts.” Photographic Times 1, no. 3 (1 December 1861): 28-29. Towler, J. “Negatives on Paper.” In The Silver Sunbeam. New York: Joseph H. Ladd, 1864.

  • Lea, M. Carey. “Negative Development on Paper.” In A Manual of Photography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Printed for the author, 1871: 263-265.
  • Burbank, Rev. W. H. “Calotype.” In The Photographic Negative. New York: Scovill Manufacturing Company, 1888.

Technical Literature: Contemporary Sources[edit | edit source]

  • Greene, Alan. Primitive Photography: A Guide to Making Cameras, Lenses, and Calotypes. Waltham, MA: Focal Press, 2002.
  • Jennings, K, and A. Lundgren. “Dr. Thomas Keith’s Waxed Paper Process Experiments.” Unpublished research. Rochester, NY: Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation, George Eastman House, 2002. www.arp-geh.org.
  • Lundgren, A., and K. Jennings. “Col. A.G. Greenlaw Process Experiments.” Unpublished research. Rochester, NY: Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation, George Eastman House, 2002. www.arp-geh.org.
  • Morris, Richard. “Calotype Negatives.” In Coming Into Focus: A Step-by Step Guide to Alternative Photographic Printing Processes. Edited by John Barnier. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000.
  • Osam, Colin. “Calotype Papers and Richard Turner of Chafford Mills.” The Quarterly, The British Association of Paper Historians 22 (April 1997): 1-6.

Conservation & Preservation[edit | edit source]

  • Albright, Gary E., Jiuan-Jiuan Chen, and Katherine Jennings. “Treatment Options for Paper Negatives.” Topics in Photograph Preservation 10 (2003): 19-28.
  • Berselli, S., and G. Cucinella Briant. “La Restauration du Fonds Tuminello: Problémes Techniques de Restauration et de Conservation des Premiers Négatifs Photographiques.” In 11th Triennial Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1-6 September 1996: Preprints by ICOM-Committee for Conservation. Edited by Jane Brigland. Vol. 2. London: James & James, 1996: 567-572.
  • Daffner, L. “Examination and Investigation of 19th Century Paper Negatives. A Study of Process, Materials, and Deterioration Characteristics.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 6 (1995): 1-10.
  • Daffner, L. ‘“A Transparent Atmosphere’: The Paper Negatives of Frédéric Flachéron in the Harrison D. Horblit Collection.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 42 (2003): 425-439.
  • Reinhold, N. “The Exhibition of an Early Photogenic Drawing by William Henry Fox Talbot.” Topics in Photograph Preservation 5 (1993): 89-94.
  • Simonova-Boulat, E., M. Osterman, and M. Hager. “Facsimilation of Paper Negatives.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 10 (2003): 139-150.

Chemistry & Analysis[edit | edit source]

  • Eremin, Katherine, James Tate, and James Berry. “On the Chemistry of John and Robert Adamson's Salted Paper Prints and Calotype Negatives.” History of Photography 27, no. 1 (Spring 2003).
  • Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. “A Brief Introduction to the Chemistry of the Photographic Processes.” In The Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1984: 1376-1379.
  • Taylor, Roger, and Mike Ware. “Pilgrims of the Sun, The Chemical Evolution of the Calotype, 1840-1852.” History of Photography 27, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 308- 319.

History[edit | edit source]

  • Crawford, William. The Keepers of Light, A Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan, 1979: 34-40.
  • Darnault, Carole. “L’Adventure du Papier Photographique.” In Rives, la Mèmoire du Papier. Grenoble, France: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 2000.
  • Eder, Josef Maria. History of Photography. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1945: 321-33.
  • Hannavy, John. “Roger Fenton and the Waxed Paper Process.” History of Photography 17, no. 3 (Autumn 1993).
  • Schaaf, Larry J. Sun Pictures Catalogue Seven: Photogenic Drawings by William Henry Fox Talbot. New York: Hans P Kraus, Jr., 1995.
  • Schaaf, Larry J., with an introduction by Roger Taylor. Sun Pictures Catalogue Ten: British Paper Negatives, 1839-1864. New York: Hans P Kraus, Jr., 2001.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • Abney, Sir William De W. Instruction in Photography. London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Company, Limited, 1900: 285-290.
  • Arnow, Jan. The Handbook of Alternative Photographic Processes. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982: chap 5.
  • Aubenas, S. “L’Obscurité Naturelle des Choses. Les Natures Mortes en Negative d’Henri Le Secq.” La Revue du Musée d'Orsay 48/14, no. 16 (Spring 2003): 52-63.
  • Bachmann, Konstanze. “Transparent Papers Before 1850: History and Conservation Problems.” New Directions in Paper Conservation. (April 1986).
  • Bachmann, Konstanze. “The Treatment of Transparent Papers: A Review.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 2 (1983): 3-14.
  • Brettell, Richard R., et al. Paper and Light, The Calotype in France and Great Britain 1839-1870. Boston: D. R. Godine, in association with the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, and the Art Institute of Chicago, 1984.
  • Crookes, William. A Handbook to the Waxed Paper Process in Photography. London: Chapman & Hall, 1857.
  • Daffner, L. “Coatings on Paper Negatives.” Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Edited by Constance McCabe. Washington, DC: The American Institute for Conservation, 2005.
  • De Mondenard, Anne. La Mission Héliographique. Cinq Photographes Parcourent la France en 1851. Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux, 2002.
  • Gray, Michael. WHF Talbot's Calotype Process. Lacock: The National Trust, Fox Talbot Museum, 1996.
  • Jammes, André, anad Eugenia Parry Janis. The Art of French Calotype, with a Critical Dictionary of Photographers, 1845-1870. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.
  • Jennings, Katherine. Research Into the Conservation of Nineteenth Century Paper Negatives. Unpublished typescript. Rochester, NY: Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship, Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation, George Eastman House, 2003.
  • Jennings, Katherine, Gary E. Albright, and Jiuan-Jiuan Chen. “The Treatment of Wax-impregnated Paper Negatives.” Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Edited by Constance McCabe. Washington, DC: The American Institute for Conservation, 2005.
  • Lake Price, William. A Manual of Photographic Manipulation, Treating of the Practice of the Art. London: J. Churchill, 1857.
  • Laroque, Claude. “Transparent Papers: A Technological Outline and Conservation Review.” Reviews in Conservation 1 (2000): 21-31.
  • Le Guern, N. Le Papier Ciré sec de Gustave Le Gray. Recherche d’une Formulation Contemporaine. St Denis: Mémoire de Recherche, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Louis Lumiere, 2000. http://nileg.free.fr/doc/memoires.htm.
  • Lemay, M. “The Identification of a Yellow Pigment Applied to Three Waxed-Paper Negatives by Dr. John Murray.” Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Edited by Constance McCabe. Washington, DC: The American Institute for Conservation, 2005.
  • Monkhoven, D. Van. A Popular Treatise on Photography. Translated by W. H. Thornthwaite. 1867.
  • Ostroff, Eugene. “The Calotype and the Photographer.” The Journal of Photographic Science 26, no. 2 (1978): 83-88.
  • Peterich, Gerda. The Calotype in France and Its Use In Architectural Documentation. A Study of the Development of the Calotype Photographic Process with Special Consideration of the Contributions Made by Blanquart-Evrard and Gustave Le Gray. Unpublished typescript. Rochester: George Eastman House, 1956.
  • “Relative advantages of Collodion and Paper processes.” Liverpool Photographic Journal (8 July 1854): 84-89.
  • Severson, D. “The Effects of Exhibition on Photographs.” Topics in Photograph Preservation 1 (1986): 38-43.
  • Talbot, W. H. F. “The Process of Calotype Photogenic Drawing.” Communicated to the Royal Society, June 10, 1841. London: J. L. Cox & Sons, 1841.
  • Ware, Mike. Mechanisms of Image Deterioration in Early Photographs. The Sensitivity to Light of WHF Talbot’s Halide-Fixed Images 1834-1844. London: Science Museum; Bradford, West Yorkshire: National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, 1994.
  • Wood, R. Derek. “Latent Developments from Gallic Acid, 1839.” The Journal of Photographic Science 28, no. 1 (January/February 1980): 36-41.
  • Yates, Sally Ann. “The Conservation of Nineteenth Century Tracing Papers.” The Paper Conservator 8 (1984): 20-39.


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