PMG Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession Workshop Bibliography

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PMG Collaborative Workshops Bibliographies: Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession[edit | edit source]

29 November - 3 December 2004, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York.

Platinum Printing[edit | edit source]

Technical Literature[edit | edit source]

Early Technical Literature[edit | edit source]

  • Abney, Captain W. De W., and Lyonel Clark. Platinotype: Its Preparation and Manipulation. The Scovill Photographic Series no. 52. New York: Scovill and Adams, 1898.
  • Anderson, Paul. “The Technique of Platinum.” In The Technique of Pictorial Photography. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1923: 194-211.
  • Anderson, Paul L. “Palladium vs. Silver for Photographic Prints.” Photo Technique (August 1940): 58-61.
  • Keiley, Joseph T. “An Improved Method of Developing Platinotypes.” Camera Notes III, no. 3 (1900): 115-116.
  • Keiley, Joseph. “The ‘Camera Notes’ Improved Glycerine Process for the Development of Platinum Prints.” Camera Notes III, no. 4 (April 1900): 221-238.
  • McCorckle, James H. “On the Uranium Toning of Platinum Paper.” Camera Notes VI, no. 2 (1902): 90-92.
  • Pizzighelli, Captain, and Baron A. Hubl. Platinotype. London: Harrison and Sons, 1886.
  • Stevens, Chas. W. “Discolored Platinum Prints.” Camera Notes IV, no. 2 (1900): 101.
  • Stevens, Chas. W. “Home Made Platinum Paper.” Camera Notes V, no. 1 (1901): 56.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “Tints of Prints made on Direct Printing Platinotype Paper.” American Annual of Photography and Photographic Times Almanac for 1891 (1892): 249.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “The Platinotype up to Date.” American Amateur Photographer 4 (1892): 493-497.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. "The Platinotype Process with Cold Development.” American Amateur Photographer 4 (September 1892): 391-392.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “A Use for Spoiled Platinum Paper.” Camera Notes V, no. 3 (1901): 191-192.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “Sloppiness in the Platinum Process and Its Effect.” American Annual of Photography V, no. 3 (1902): 192-195.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “Platinum Printing.” In Picture Taking and Picture Making. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak Co., 1898. Reprinted in The Modern Way of Picture Making. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak Co., 1905: 122-128.
  • Tennant, John A., ed. “Platinotype Processes.” The Photo-Miniature I, no. 7 (1899): 319-355.
  • Tennant, John A., ed. “Platinotype Modifications.” The Photo-Miniature IV, no. 40 (1902): 153-193.
  • Thomson, James. “A Silver-Platinum Printing Paper.” American Photography (November 1915): 630-636.
  • Wall, E. J., and Franklin I. Jordan. “Platinum Printing.” In Photographic Facts and Formulas. New York: Amphoto, 1924: 284-300.

Contemporary Technical Literature[edit | edit source]

  • Crawford, William. “Platinum and Palladium.” In Keepers of Light. New York: Morgan and Morgan, 1979: 167-176.
  • Farber, Richard. “Platinum/Palladium.” In Historic Photographic Processes. New York: Allworth Press, 1998: 93-117.
  • Marshall, Peter. “A Revolution in Platinum.” British Journal of Photography (8 Aug 1991): 20-21.
  • Rice, Ted. “Platinum/Palladium.” In Coming into Focus. Edited by John Barnier. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000: 107-129.
  • Ware, Michael. “Contemporary Platinum-Palladium Printing.” In Platinum-Palladium Workshop Manual. Silverprint Manual Supplement no. 2. Birmingham: AG Photographic, Summer 1991.

Conservation & Preservation[edit | edit source]

  • Barandiaran, Marta. “Evaluation of Conservation Treatments Applied to Salted Paper Prints, Cyanotypes and Platinotypes.” Studies in Conservation 45, no. 3 (2000): 162-168.
  • Danzing, Rachel. “Alfred Stieglitz: Photographic Processes and Related Conservation Issues.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 4 (1991): 57-77.
  • Gent, Megan, and Jacqueline Rees. “A Conservation Treatment to Remove Residual Iron From Platinum Prints.” The Paper Conservator: Journal of the Institute of Paper Conservation 18 (1994): 90-95
  • Norris, Debbie Hess. “Eakins at Avondale: Discovery, Examination and Treatment of his Platinum Prints.” In American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works Preprints, 22-25 May 1980. Washington, DC: AIC, 1980: 53-61.
  • Norris, Debbie Hess. “Platinum Photographs: Deterioration and Preservation.” PhotographiConservation 7, no. 2 (June 1985): 1.
  • Norris, Debbie Hess, and Nora Kennedy. “Ethical Considerations and Current Practice in the Conservation Treatment of Platinum, Gum and Carbon Processes.” Unpublished lecture notes from the Workshop in Photograph Conservation: Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession (24 June 1999).

Chemistry & Analysis[edit | edit source]

  • Barro, Lisa. “The Deterioration of Paul Strand’s Satista Prints.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 10 (2003): 37-59.
  • Gottlieb, Adam S. “Chemistry and Conservation of Platinum and Palladium Photographs.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 34 (1995): 11-32.
  • Mc Cabe, Connie, and Lisha Deming Glinsman. “Understanding Alfred Stieglitz's Platinum Palladium Prints: Examination by X-Ray Flourescence Spectrometry.” Studies in the History of Art 51: Conservation Research 1995. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1995: 71-130).
  • Severson, Douglas. “Stieglitz’s Palladium Photographs and Their Treatment by Edward Steichen.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 34 (1995): 1-10.
  • Ware, Michael J. “An Investigation of Platinum and Palladium Printing.” Journal of Photographic Science 34 (1986): 13-25.
  • Ware, Michael J. “Chemistry of the Iron-Based Processes: An Outline for the Non-Scientist.” Mike Ware’s Alternative Photography (1 Nov 2004). www.mikeware.demon.co.uk.chem.html.

History[edit | edit source]

  • Norris, Debbie Hess. “Platinum: The Prince of Photographic Materials.” Art Conservation Training Program Conference: Fogg Art Museum. April and May 1979. Cambridge: Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, 1979: 67-77.
  • Shillea, Thomas John. “The Platinotype: A Brief History.” PhotographiConservation 6, no. 4 (December 1984): 1, 4-5.
  • Ware, Michael J. “The Eighth Metal: The Rise of the Platinotype Process.” First Published in Photography 1900: The Edinburgh Symposium. Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland and National Galleries of Scotland, 1993. www.mikeware.demon.co.uk/eighth.html.

Workshop Lecture Notes[edit | edit source]

  • Conner, Lois. “Platinum and Palladium Printing.” Unpublished guide.
  • Daniel, Malcolm. “A Close Look at Platinum Prints.” List of prints examined during June 22, 1999, session at the Department of Photographs, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  • Lemmen, Barb, and Tom Edmondson. Unpublished lecture notes from the Workshop in Photograph Conservation: Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession, 29 November – 3 December 2004.
  • Williams, Scott A. “The Chemistry of the Iron Salt and Dichromated Colloid Photographic Systems.” Unpublished lecture notes from the Workshop in Photograph Conservation: Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession, 29 November – 3 December 2004.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

Aesthetics[edit | edit source]

  • Caffin, Charles H. “The Figure-Subject in Pictorial Photography.” Camera Notes V, no. 2 (1901): 93-101.
  • Demachy, Robert. “What Difference is There Between a Good Photograph and an Artistic Photograph?” Camera Notes III, no.2 (1899): 45-48.
  • Demachy, Robert. “Truth in Art.” Camera Notes III, no. 4 (1900): 183-196.
  • Emerson, P. H. Naturalistic Photography for Students of the Art. New York: The Scovill and Adams Company, 1899: 132-145.
  • Hartman, Sadakichi. “Random Thoughts on Criticism.” Camera Notes III, no.3 (1900): 101-104.
  • Hinton, A. Horsely. “Some Distinctions.” Camera Notes III, no. 3 (1900): 91-101.
  • Keiley, Joseph T. “The Pictorial Movement in Photography and the Significance of the Modern Photographic Salon.” Camera Notes IV, no. 1 (1900): 18-23.

The Platinum Process[edit | edit source]

  • Anderson, Paul L. “Hand Sensitized Palladium Paper.” American Photography XXXII, no. 7 (1938): 457-460.
  • Anderson, Paul. “Special Printing Processes.” In Handbook of Photography. Edited by Henny and Dudley. New York: Whittlesey House, 1939.
  • Burbank, Rev. W. H. “The Platinotype.” In Photographic Printing Methods: A Practical Guide to the Professional and Amateur Worker. 3rd ed. New York: The Scovill & Adams Company, 1891: 55-64.
  • Candelario, John. “The Platinum Process.” Minicam Photography (Nov-Dec 1944): 60-67, 108-109.
  • Cottington, Ian E. “Platinum and Early Photography: Some Aspects of the Evolution of the Platinotype.” Platinum Metals Review 28, no. 4 (1984): 178-188.
  • Hafey, John, and Tom Shillea. The Platinum Print. Rochester: Rochester Institute of Technology, 1979.
  • Hinton, A. Horsley. Platinotype Printing: A Simple Book on the Process. In The Amateur Photographer’s Library No. II. London: Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ltd., 1897.
  • Hinton, A. Horsley. “Platinotype Printing” In The Barnet Book of Photography. Herts: Elliott & Son, 1898: 197-224.
  • Hinton, Horsley, ed. “The Platinotype in Colours: Controlled Development by Glycerine Process.” The American Amateur Photographer XXXI, no. 813 (4 May 1900): 351-355.
  • Nadeau, Luis. The History and Practice of Platinum Printing. 2nd rev ed. New Brunswick: Atelier Luis Nadeau, 1989.
  • Neblette, C. B. “Printing Processes: Platinotype, Iron and Plan-Copying Processes.” In Photography: Its Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1938: 505-515.
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “Points on Developing Cold Bath Platinotype.” American Amateur Photographer 5 (1893): 209.
  • Tennant, John A. “Platinum Printing.” The Photo-Miniature X, no. 115 (1911): 305-342.
  • Turner, Peter, and Richard Wood. “Emerson’s Technique.” London: Gordon Fraser, 1974: 29-30.
  • Wall, E. J. “The Platinotype Process: The Chemicals and Papers.” The British Journal of Photography. (4 July 1902): 531-532.
  • Wall, E.J. "The Platinotype Process: The Cold Bath Process." The British Journal of Photography (18 July 1902): 570-571.
  • Wall, E. J. “The Platinotype Process: Print-Out Sepia Paper.“ The British Journal of Photography (8 August 1902): 612-613.
  • Wall, E. J. “The Platinotype Process: After Treatment of the Prints.“ The British Journal of Photography (8 August 1902): 630.
  • Wall, E. J. “Platinum/Platinum Paper for Printing-out/Platinum Process.” The Dictionary of Photography. London: Iliffe & Sons Ltd., 1897: 515-527.

Pigment Processes[edit | edit source]

Arranged Chronologically

  • Gandolfo, Jean-Paul. “History of Pigment Processes: A Timeline.” Unpublished timeline from the Workshop in Photograph Conservation: Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession, 29 November – 3 December 2004.
  • Gandolfo, Jean-Paul. “History of Pigment Processes: Bibliography.” Unpublished timeline from the Workshop in Photograph Conservation: Pictorialist Processes of the Photo-Secession, 29 November – 3 December 2004.
  • Kirschner, Pam. “Gum Bichromate Bibliography.” Unpublished.
  • Hunt, Robert. “Chapter VI: Mr. Ponton’s Process.” In A Manual of Photography. London: John Joseph Griffin & Co., 1853: 73-76.
  • Woodcroft, B. Patents for Inventions: Abridgements of Specifications Relating to Photography. London: George E. Eyre & William Spottiswoode, 1861: 55-56, 113-114.
  • Wilson, Edward L. The American Carbon Manual: or The Production of Photographic Prints in Permanent Pigments. New York: Scovill Manufacturing Company, 1868: iii-100.
  • Burbank, Rev. W. H. “Chapter IX: Carbon Printing.” In Photographic Printing Methods: A Practical Guide to the Professional and Amateur Worker. 3rd ed. New York: The Scovill & Adams Company, 1891: 96-104.
  • Jones, Chapman. "Carbon Prints." In The American Annual of Photography and Photographic Times Almanac for 1897. Edited by Walter E. Woodbury. New York: The Scovill & Adams Company, 1897: 60-61.
  • Skelton, Thomas S. “An Introduction to Carbon Printing for Beginners” and “The Carbon Process.” In Barnet Book of Photography. 3rd ed. London: Percy Lund, Humphries & Co., Ltd., 1898: 253-284.
  • Packham, James. “The Gum Bichromate Process.” In Barnet Book of Photography. 3rd ed. London: Percy Lund, Humphries & Co., Ltd., 1898: 241-252.
  • Maskell, Alfred, and Robert Demachy. Photo-Aquatint; or, The Gum Bichromate Process of Printing. 2nd ed. London: Hazel, Watson, & Viney, Ltd., 1898.
  • Carlin, W.R. “The Gum-Bichromate Process.” Camera Notes. 3, no. 2 (October 1899): 66-72.
  • Stevens, Charles W. “Improved Gum-Bichromate Process.” Camera Notes. 4, no. 2 (October 1900): 102.
  • Tennant, John A., ed. “Gum-Bichromate Printing.” Photo-Miniature 2, no. 22 (January 1901): 399-420.
  • Baldwin, T. Stith. “The Gum-Bichromate Process.” In Picture Making for Pleasure and Profit. Chicago: Frederick J. Drake & Co., 1903: 244-253.
  • Anderson, Paul. “Technique of Carbon.” In The Technique of Pictorial Photography. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1923: 213-236.
  • Anderson, Paul. “Technique of Gum Palladium.” In The Technique of Pictorial Photography. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1923: 286-291.
  • Wall, E. J., and Franklin I. Jordan. Revised by John S. Carroll. “Gum-Bichromate Printing.” In Photographic Facts and Formulas. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1924: 312-317.
  • Jordan, Franklin I. “Gum Printing.” In Photographic Control Process. New York: Galleon Publishers, Inc., 1937: 83-102.
  • Jordan, Franklin I. “Carbon.” Photographic Control Process. New York: Galleon Publishers, Inc., 1937: 105-118.
  • Neblette, C. B. “Printing Processes: Carbro and Bromoil.” In Photography: Its Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1938: 489-504.
  • Willis, C. H. “The Woodburytype and Carbon Printing Processes as Used in Book Illustration in the Victorian Era.” Lecturer, Department of Photography, West Bromwich College of Commerce and Technology; Midland Representative, RPS Historical Society.
  • Matus, Todd. “Carbon Printing Manual,” Unpublished paper. 1983.
  • Sjölinder, Sven. “The Swelling of Dichromated Gelatin.” Photographic Science and Engineering 28, no. 5 (September/October 1984): 180-184.
  • Sjölinder, Sven. “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity.” Journal of Imaging Science 30, no. 4 (July/August 1986): 151-154.
  • Van den Berg, Willem A. “Cracked and Flaking: A Diaporama.” In Conference Proceedings: The Imperfect Image; Photographs, Their Past, Present and Future, Windemere, England, April 6-10 1992. (1993): 316-322.
  • Connelly, C. L. “Experiments With the Revival of a Nineteenth Century Photographic Process: Gum Dichromate Prints.” Unpublished paper for the course: Alteration and Deterioration of Photographic Materials, New York University Conservation Center, Spring, 1994.
  • Koseki, Toshiaki. “Effect of Aqueous Treatment of Gum Bichromate Prints.” Unpublished paper for the University of Delaware Art Conservation Program, 1996.
  • Kennedy, Nora W. “The Reticulation of Gelatine: Observations on the Direct Carbon Process.” In Care of Photographic, Moving Image & Sound Collections, 20-24 July 1998, Conference Papers. London: Institute for Paper Conservation, 1999: 102-108.
  • Watanabe, Shin, et al. “Photochemical Reaction of Aqueous Dichromated Gelatin Solution.” Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 43, no. 2 (March/April 1999): 139-144.


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