PMG Nineteen Century Silver Based Photographic Print Processes Workshop Bibliography

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PMG Collaborative Workshops Bibliographies: Nineteen Century Silver Based Photographic Print Processes[edit | edit source]

October 8 - 12, 2007. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Printing-Out Processes[edit | edit source]

Beginnings – Photogenic Drawing and Salted Paper[edit | edit source]

  • Talbot, H. Fox. “Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing.” Philosophical Magazine 14, no. 88 (1839): 196-208. (Talbot’s first communication to the Royal Society on January 31, 1839, contained no working details.)
  • Talbot, W. H. Fox. “An Account of the Processes employed in Photogenic Drawing.” Philosophical Magazine 14, no. 88 (1839): 209-211 (Responding to several requests, Talbot provides working details on February 21, 1839.)
  • Talbot, H. F. “The Process of Talbotype (Formerly Called Calotype). In Photogenic Drawing. Communicated to the Royal Society, June 10, 1841.” London: J. & H. Cox Brothers, 1841: 1-4. (Talbot notes that his Talbotype process can be used to make positive prints, but he prefers the use of his photographic [sic] paper.)
  • Le Gray, Gustave. A Practical Treatise on Photography, Upon Paper and Glass. London: T. & R. Willats, 1850: 7-24, with preface, introduction, and appendix. (An account by an important early practitioner.)
  • Baldus, Édouard. Concours de Photographie: Mémoire Dèposé au Secretariat de la Société d’Encouragement pour l’Industrie Nationale. Paris: Victor Masson, 1852: 5-32. (Another account by an important early practitioner.)

Albumen Paper in the 1860s & 1870s[edit | edit source]

  • Hardwich, T. Frederick. “The Practical Details of Photographic Printing.” In A Manual of Photographic Chemistry, Including the Practice of the Collodion Process. 5th edition. (London: John Churchill, 1859), 305-339. (An early, compendious manual on photography. Comparing editions of Hardwich traces the technical evolution of early British photography.)
  • Towler, J. “Manipulation of Positive Printing,” “The Printing of Sensitized Paper,” and “Bertrand’s New Process for Positive Printing.” In The Silver Sunbeam: A Practical and Theoretical Text-Book on Sun Drawing and Photographic Printing. New York: Joseph H. Ladd, 1864: 192-211. Reprinted Hastings-on-Hudson, New York: Morgan & Morgan, 1969. (Towler is to American photography what Hardwich is to England.)
  • Wilson, Edward L. “Printing on Albumen Paper.” In Wilson’s Photographics: A Series of Lessons Accompanied by Notes, on All the Processes Which Are Needful in the Art of Photography. Philadelphia: Edward L. Wilson, 1881: 189-210. (Wilson was editor of the Philadelphia Photographer. His Photographics is in the style of a moderated chat room: he provides the authoritative context to his readers’ anecdotal experiences.)

End of the 19th Century and the Printing-Out Emulsions[edit | edit source]

  • Woodbury, Walter E. Aristotypes and How to Make Them. New York: The Scovill & Adams Company, 1893: 8-12, 41-105, 128-149. (A major American publication of the making and processing of gelatine and collodion POP papers. We have reprinted the processing section only.)
  • Stieglitz, Alfred. “Toning Aristo Prints with Platinum.” American Annual of Photography, and Photographic Times Almanac (1890): 120-121. (An interesting note by someone we do not normally associate with silver printing-out papers.)
  • Woodbury, Walter E. The Encyclopædic Dictionary of Photography. New York: The Scovill & Adams Company, 1898: 492-499. Reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1979. (At the turn of the century, the POP processes are still fully represented in photographic encyclopedias.)
  • Jones, Bernard E., ed. Cassell’s Cyclopaedia of Photography. London: Cassell, 1911: 118-119 and 214. Reprinted as Encyclopedia of Photography. New York: Arno Press, 1974.

The 20th Century: Decline and Reintroduction[edit | edit source]

  • Kodak Ltd. Price List of General Photographic Apparatus and Materials. London: Kodak Ltd., January 1904: 229-242.
  • Lumière-Jougla. Agenda Lumière-Jougla. Paris: Librairie Gauthier-Villars, 1922: 259-278.
  • “Printing out Papers” and “Toning Bath.” In Photo-Lab-Index. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Morgan & Morgan, 1967: Quarterly Supplement no. 111 (Replacement Page). (Into the early 1970s, there were still two or three gelatin chloride printing-out papers on the market, Kodak and GAF/Ansco among them.)
  • Kodak Studio Proof Paper Data Sheet. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, reprinted 1976. (Even before it discontinued Studio Proof Paper, Kodak had forgotten it could be processed.)
  • Chicago Albumen Works. Centennial™ DW Gelatine Chloride Printing-out Paper Data Sheet. Housatonic, MA: Chicago Albumen Works, Rev. June 2006: 1-8.
  • Baker, T. Thorne. “Printing–out Emulsion.” In Photographic Emulsion Technique. Boston: American Photographic Publishing Co., 1941: 192-201.
  • Chicago Albumen Works. “Characteristic Curves for Various Printing-out Photographic Papers.” Unpublished. Housatonic, MA: Chicago Albumen Works, 2002.
    • -Albumen Paper toned in Borax/Gold
    • -Centennial™ DW toned in Thiocyanate/Gold
    • -Centennial™ DW toned in Borax/Gold
    • -Centennial™ RC toned in Thiocyanate/Gold
    • -Centennial™ DW vs. Ilford Multigrade IV RC (Grade 00)

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • Abney, W. de W. “Photography.” In Encyclopaedia Britannica. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1885.
  • Blanquart-Évrard, M. Photographic sur Papier. Paris: Librairie Encyclopedique de Roret, 1851.
  • Burbank, W. H.. Photographic Printing Methods: A Practical Guide. New York: Scoville & Adams, 1891. Reprinted New York: Amo Press, 1973.
  • Eder, Josef Maria,. “Die Photographischen Copirverfahren mit Silbersalzen” In Ausfuhrliches Handbuch der Photographic, Zwfilftes Heft. Halle: Wilhelm Knapp, 1887.
  • Munson, Doug. “Gelatin Chloride Printing-Out Papers: Some Historical and Contemporary Notes.” Housatonic, MA: Chicago Albumen Works, 1995, rev. 2004.
  • Randall, John A. “A History of Photographic Prices.” The British Journal of Photography 44, no. 1938 (25 June 1897): 410-411.
  • Roche, T. C.. How to Make Photographs. New York: E. & H. T. Anthony, 1886.
  • Snelling, Mr. “Fixing Photographic Prints.” The Photographic News 2, no. 51 (26 August 1859): 290-291.
  • Sutton, Thomas. “The Printing Process.” In The Calotype Process, A Handbook to Photography on Paper. London: Joseph Cundall, 1855: 49-74.
  • Tripe, Captain [Linneaus]. “On a Photographic Printing Process.” Madras Journal of Literature and Science 2 (January-March 1857): 166-169.
  • Wall, E. J. “Collodio-Chloride Printing-out Paper.” In The Dictionary of Photography: And Reference Book for Amateur and Professional Photographers. 10th ed. Edited by F. J. Mortimer. London: Iliffe & Sons, 1920: 146-150.

Twentieth Century Secondary Sources With Working Formulae[edit | edit source]

  • Barnier, John. Coming Into Focus: A Step-by-Step Guide to Alternative Photographic Printing Processes. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000.
  • Crawford, William. The Keepers of Light: A History and Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes. Hastings-on-Hudson: Morgan and Morgan, 1979.
  • Farber, Richard. Historic Photographic Processes: A Guide to Creating Handmade Photographic Images. New York: Allworth Press, 1998.
  • Webb, Randall, and Reed, Martin.. Alternative Photographic Processes: A Working Guide for Image Makers. Rochester: Silver Pixel Press, 2000.
  • Reilly, James M. The Albumen and Salted Paper Book. Rochester: Light Impressions, 1980.

Paper Negatives[edit | edit source]

  • Daffner, Lee Ann. “Nineteenth Century Paper Negatives: Historical, Technical and Preservation Bibliography.” Unpublished bibliography (2002).
  • Daniel, Malcolm. “Appendix 12: Concours de Photographie.” In The Photographs of Édouard Baldus. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994: 250-254.
  • Jammes, Andre, and Eugenia Parry Janis. “The Light: The Photographers Set Out.” In The Art of the French Calotype, With a Critical Dictionary of Photographers, 1845-1870. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983: 44-56.
  • Keith, Dr. Thomas. “Dr. Thomas Keith’s Prescription for Waxed Paper Negatives.” In Sun Pictures, Catalogue Six: Dr. Thomas Keith and John Forbes White. New York: Hans P. Kraus, Jr., 1993: 61-63.
  • Kline, Jonathan. “Making Paper Negatives.” Unpublished instructions (January 2002).
  • Sutton, Thomas. The Calotype Process: A Handbook to Photography on Paper. London: Joseph Cundall, 1855: 49-74.
  • Taylor, Roger, and Mike Ware. “Pilgrims of the Sun: The Chemical Evolution of the Calotype 1840-1852.” History of Photography 27, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 308-319.
  • Ware, Mike. “Calotype in the Tropics.” In Alexander Greenlaw and Other Photographers at Vijayanagara. Edited by G. Michell. London: Alkazi Collection of Photography, 2007: 1-14.
  • Ware, Mike. “WHF Talbot’s Paper Photography.” In Huellas de Luz. Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, 2001: 343-346.
  • Wood, Rupert Derek. “Latent Developments from Gallic Acid, 1839.” Journal of Photographic Science 28, no. 1 (January/February 1980): 36-41.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • “Amateurs’ Column: Photographic Paper.” The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 14 (15 July 1857): 151.
  • “Amateurs’ Column: Photographic Paper.” The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 14 (1 August 1857): 163.
  • “Amateurs’ Column: Photographic Paper.” The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 16 (15 August 1857): 174.
  • “Amateurs’ Column: Photographic Paper.” The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 17 (1 September 1857): 182.
  • “Amateurs’ Column: Photographic Paper.” The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 19 (1 October 1857): 214.
  • “Amateurs’ Column: Photographic Paper.” The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 21 (1 November 1857): 237.
  • Herschel, J. F. W. “The Origin of Fixing Processes.” The Photographic News 10, no. 402 (18 May 1866): 229-231.
  • Le Gray, Gustave. Photographic Manipulation: The Waxed Paper Process of Gustave Le Gray. 3rd ed. London: George Knight and Sons, 1855: 7-37 (with preface).
  • Untitled editorial regarding paper for photography. The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal 1, no. 20 (15 October 1857): 217.

Chemistry[edit | edit source]

  • Haist, Grant. “Chemical Treatment of the Silver Image.” In Modern Photographic Processing. Vol. 2. Okemos, MI: Haist Press, (2000): 89-154.
  • Ware, Mike. “Gold Toning.” In Gold in Photography: The History and Art of Chrysotype. Brighton: Ffotoffilm Publishing, 2006: 109-127.
  • Ware, Mike. Image Deterioration in Early Silver Photographs on Paper. Athens: Benaki Museum, (to be published).
  • Williams, Scott. “Review of Silver Image Formation and Toning Mechanisms.” Unpublished lecture notes (2002): 1-23.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • Crawford, William. “Salted Paper.” In Keepers of Light: A History & Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan, 1979: 151-162.
  • “Table of Necessaries for Beginners in Photography.” The Photographic News 3, no. 53 (9 September 1859): 10- 11.

Conservation & Analysis[edit | edit source]

  • Barro, Lisa. “Image Color and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometric Analysis of Silver Images.” Unpublished lecture notes (2002): 1-9.
  • Cartier-Bresson, Anne. “Les Papiers Salés: Alteration et Restauration des Premières Photographies sur Papier.” In Les Annales Photographiques de la Ville de Paris. Paris: Paris Audiovisuel, 1984: 105-109.
  • Eremin, Katherine, James Tate, and James Berry. “On the Chemistry of John and Robert Adamson’s Salted Paper Prints and Calotype Negatives.” History of Photography 27, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 25-34.
  • Lavédrine, Bertrand. “Les Artistotypes ou les Papiers à Noircissement Direct à Émulsion.” In Les Documents Graphiques et Photographiques: Analyse et Conservation: Travaux du Centre de Recherches sur la Conservation des Documents Graphiques 1988-1989. Paris: Archives nationals, La Documentation Française, 1991: 149-219.
  • Messier, Paul. “Protein Chemistry of Albumen Photographs.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 4 (1991): 124-135.
  • Messier, Paul, and Timothy Vitale. “Cracking in Albumen Photographs: An ESEM Investigation.” Microscopy Research and Technique 25 (1993): 374-383.
  • Messier, Paul, and Timothy Vitale. “Effects of Aqueous treatment on Albumen Photographs.” Journal of The American Institute for Conservation 33, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 1994): 257-278.
  • Pénichon, Sylvie. “Differences in Image Tonality Produced by Different Toning Protocols for Matte Collodion Photographs.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 38, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 124-143.
  • Reilly, James M. “The Manufacture and Use of Albumen Paper.” The Journal of Photographic Science 26 (1978): 156-161.
  • Reilly, James M. “Role of the Maillard, or ‘Protein-Sugar’ Reaction in Highlight Yellowing of Albumen Photographic Prints.” In Preprints of Papers Presented at the Tenth Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 26-30 May 1982. Washington, D.C.: The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1982: 160-168.
  • Reilly, James M., Douglas Severson, and Constance McCabe. “Image Deterioration in Albumen Photographic Prints.” Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation: Preprints of the Contributions to the Washington Congress, 3-9 September 1982. Edited by N. S. Brommelle and Garry Thomson. London: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1982: 166-171.
  • Reilly, James M., Nora Kennedy, Donald Black, and Theodore Van Dam. “Image Structure and Deterioration in Albumen Prints.” Photographic Science and Engineering 28, no. 4 (July-August 1984): 166-171.
  • Severson, Douglas G. “The Effects of Exhibition on Photographs.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 1 (1986): 38-42.
  • Sugiura, Kakuya, and Hiroshi Okayama. “Image Stability of Printing–Out Images.” Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 43, no. 6 (November-December 1999): 567-572.
  • Vitale, Timothy, and Paul Messier. “Physical and Mechanical Properties of Albumen Photographs.” Journal of The American Institute for Conservation 33, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 1994): 279-299.
  • Ware, Mike. “On the Stability of Robert Adamson’s Salted Paper Prints.” History of Photography 27, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 35-39.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • “Causes of Print Fading.” Philadelphia Photographer 16 (1879): 130-133.
  • Hunt, Robert. “On the Fading of Photographic Pictures.” The Art-Journal 1 (1 July 1855): 210-211.
  • “Newton Method Frees Prints from Hypo Contamination.” Photographic Times 4 (November 1874): 171-172.
  • “Print Fading.” Humphrey’s Journal 7 (1 January 1856): 274-276.
  • “Snelling-Out of Step-Argues Against Use of Albumen Paper.” American Journal of Photography 3 (13 April 1861): 337-338.
  • Lavédrine, Bertrand. (re)Connaître et Conserver les Photographies Anciennes. Paris: Éditions du Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, 2007.
  • Ware, Mike. Mechanisms of Image Deterioration in Early Photographs. London: Science Museum, 1994.

Context & Connoisseurship[edit | edit source]

  • Daniel, Malcolm. “Salted Paper and Albumen Silver Prints in The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Unpublished presentation list (9 October 2007): 1-4.
  • “Familiar Instructions in Photography. Preliminary Step for Young Persons.” May 1839.
  • Hambourg, Maria Morris, et al. “Picturing Victorian England.” In The Waking Dream: Photography’s First Century: Selections From the Gilman Paper Company Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993: 2-41.
  • Jacobson, Ken. “Problematic Low-Sheen Salt and Albumen Prints: A Proposed Nomenclature.” History of Photography 15, no. 4 (Winter 1991): 287-293.
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art. “First Major Survey of Rare British Photographs from Paper Negatives to be Presented at Metropolitan.” Press release (2007): 1-5.
  • Sanford, John. “Price List of the Calotype and Talbotype Papers.” Journal of the Photographic Society (21 February 1857).
  • Sanford, John. “Price List of Plain and Prepared Papers made expressly for Photography.” The Photographic Journal 7, no. 112 (15 August 1861): ii-iii.
  • Taylor, Roger. “The Graphic Society and Photography, 1839: Priority and Precedence.” History of Photography 23, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 59-67.

Further Reading[edit | edit source]

  • Encyclopedia of 19th Century Photography. Edited by Prof. John Hannavy. New York: Routledge, 200?
  • Taylor, Roger. Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. Exhibition Catalogue.


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