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History and Production

Material and Structure


Imaging and Text Enhancement


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History and Production

Abercrombie, J. R. 1978. "Egyptian Papyri." Expedition. 32-37.

Abbott, N. 1938. The Kurrah Papyri from Aphrodito in the Oriental Institute. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 26-27.

Alexander, S. 1965. “Notes on the Use of Gold in Egyptian Papyri.” The Journal of Egyptian Archeology 51: 48-52.

Anderson, G. A. 1988. “The Emergence of the Book.” College and Research Libraries. 111-116.

Banik, G., Krist, G. 1984. Lösungsmittel in der Restaurierung. Wien.

Barber, E. J.W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles. The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Age with Special Reference to the Aegean. New Jersey.

Basile, C. 1972. “A method of making papyrus and fixing and preserving it by means of a chemical treatment." Conservation of paintings and the graphic arts. Preprints of contributions to the Lisbon Congress. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 901-05.

Bauer, J. B. 1983. “Wiener Liturgische Papyri.” Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer (P. Rainer Cent.). Festschrift zum 100-jährigen Bestehen der Papyrussammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Hrsg. von der Generaldirektion der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Wien: 280-288.

Bell, L. A. 1993. Papyrus, Tapa Amate and Rice Paper: Paper Making in Africa and S.E. Asia. McMinnville, Oregon: Liliaceae Press.

Bierbrier, M. L. 1986. “Papyrus : Structure and Usage.” Occasional Paper 60. London: British Museum.

Bischoff, B. 2009. Paläographie des römischen Altertums und des abendländischen Mittelalters. Berlin.

Blanck, H. 1992. Das Buch in der Antike. München.

Boak, A. E. R. 1959. “From Egypt to Ann Arbor: The Building of the U. of M. Papyrus Collection.” 'The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 66 (10): 35-41.

Bogensperger, I. 2015. ”Copy & Paste: Fälschungen von Spätantiken Textilien (Copy & Paste: Forgeries of Textiles From Late Antiquity).” Rezeption, Zeitgeist, Fälschung--Umgang mit Antike(n): Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums am 31. Januar und 1. Februar 2014 in Tübingen (Reception, Zeitgeist, Falsification--Dealing with Antique(s): Files of the International Colloquium on 31 January and 1 February 2014 in Tübingen). London: Institute of Conservation Paintings Group. Eds. Barros D’Sa, A., L. Bone, R. Clarricoates, H. Dowding, et. al. 167-177.

Maximilian Bonnet, M. 1959. Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha. Darmstadt.

Brock S. P. 1967. "Testamentum Iobi“. Pseudepigrapha Veteris Testamenti Graece 2. Leiden.

Bröker G. 1982. Koptische Stoffe. Leipzig.

Brooke, G. J. 2006. “The Historical Documents at the John Rylands University Library: The Reed Dead Sea Scrolls Collection.” E-Preservation Science 3: 35-40.

Wolfgang Brückner W. 2009. "Knoten“. Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 6. Hrsg. von Walter Kasper et al. Freiburg et al. 160.

Buschle-Diller, G. , Unger A. 1996. "Schreib- und Malmittel auf Papyrus. Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung zur Farbpalette altägyptischer Papyri in Berlin“. Restauro 2. 108-114.

Caldararo, Niccolo. 2003. "Papyrus." Conservation DistList.

Caminos, Ricardo A. 1986. "Some comments on the reuse of papyrus." Papyrus: Structure and usage. ed. M. L. Bierbrier. London: British Museum. 43-61.

Camac, C.N.B. 1931. “The Papyrus Industry of the Ancients.” Proceedings from the Charaka Club 7: 72-80.

Catich, E. M. 1968. The Origin of the Serif: Brush Writing and Roman Letters. Davenport, Iowa: The Catfish Press, St. Ambrose College.

Cerneý, J. 1952. Paper and Books in Ancient Egypt: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at University College, London, 29 May 1947. London: Lewis & Co. Ltd.

Clarke, M. 2014. “Dioscorides as an Art Technological Source.” Making and Transforming Art: Technology and Interpretation; Held at the Royal Institute of Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA), Brussels, 22-23 November 2012. Eds. H. Dubois, et. al. London: Archetype Publications, Ltd.: 1-9.

Clere, J.J. 1967-1968. “The Collection of ‘Book of the Dead’ Papyri in The Brooklyn Museum.” The Brooklyn Museum Annual 9: 88-93.

Cockle, W.E.H. 1983. “Restoring and Conserving Papyri”. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 30.

Cramer, M. 1964. Koptische Paläographie. Wiesbaden.

Cramer, M. 1959. Das christlich-koptische Ägypten einst und heute. Eine Orientierung. Wiesbaden.

Darbre, F. 2008. “The Papyrus Codex Tchacos. Its Authentication, Conservation, and Future” Papier Restaurierung 9.4: 19-25.

Dassmann, E. 1994. "Christusnachfolge durch Weltflucht. Asketische Motive im frühchristlichen Mönchtum Ägyptens“. Die koptische Kirche. Einführung in das ägyptische Christentum. Hrsg. von Albert Gerhards, Heinzgerd Brokmann. Stuttgart et al. 28-45.

Davy, Sir H. 1821. “Some Observations and Experiments on Papyri Found in the Ruins of Herculaneum.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 111. London: Royal Society: 191-208.

Delange, E., Grange, M., Kusko, B., Menei, E. 1990. “Apparition de l´encre métallogallique en Égypte à partir de la collection de papyrus du Louvre” Revue d´Égyptologie 41: 213-217.

Denker, A., Hahn, O., Kanngießer, B., Malzer, W., Merchel, S., Radtke, M., Röhrs, S., Reiche, I., Stege, H. 2003. "Chemie in der Kunst. Zerstörungsfreie Analyse von Kunst- und Kulturgütern.“ Materialprüfung. Werkstoffe und Bauteile, Technologien und Anwendungen 45. 485-503.

Departament d’Afers, Relacions Institucionals, Exteriors, Transparència. 2016. Pharaoh’s Reeds: A Papyrus Journey Up the Nile (exhibition catalog). Barcelona: IEMed (European Institute of the Mediterranean).

Devauchelle, R. 1957. “Papyrus.” Le Papetier de France: revue professionnelle des papetiers-détaillants et papetiers-libraires 11 (10): 33-34.

Diringer, D. 1982. “Papyrus Books.” Books Before Printing: Ancient, Medieval, Oriental. New York: Dover. 113-169.

Dimarogonas, A. D. 1995. “Pliny the Elder on the Making of Papyrus Paper.” The Classical Quarterly 45 (2): 588-590.

Döpp, S., Geerlings, W. (Hrsg.) 1998. Lexikon der antiken christlichen Literatur. Freiburg et al.

Donnithorne, A. 1986. “The conservation of papyrus in the British Museum” Papyrus. Structure and Usage. Hrsg. von Morris Leonard Bierbier. London: 1-24.

du Bourguet, P. 1967. Die Kopten. Baden-Baden.

Ebers, G. 1893. “The Papyrus Plant.” The Cosmopolitan 15: 677-682.

European Institute of the Mediterranean (IEMed). 2016. Pharoah’s Reeds: A Papyrus Journey Up the Nile (Exhibition Catalog). Barcelona: IEMed in collaboration with Abadia de Montserrat and International Association of Papyrolgists.

Gaudet, J. 2018. The Pharoah’s Treasure: The Origin of Paper and the Rise of Western Civilization. New York: Pegasus Books.

Gaudet, J. 2014. Papyrus: The Plant that Changed the World: From Ancient Egypt to Today’s Water Wars. New York: Pegasus Books.

Grenfell, P. B. 1897. Oxyrhynchus and its Papyri. London.

Hendriks, I. H. M. 1980. “Historia Naturalis XIII, 74-82 and the Manufacture of Papyrus.” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik 37: 121-136.

Hendricks, I. H. M. 1984. “More About the Manufacture of Papyrus.” Atti del XVII Congresso Internazionale per lo Paperologia 1. Napoli: Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papyri Ercolanesi. 31-37.

Hepper, N. 1991. Of Ships and Shoes and Ancient Scribes. Kew, London: The Royal Botanic Gardens. 10-13.

Kenyon, F. 1951. Books and Readers in Ancient Greece and Rome, 2nd ed. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

Kulneff-Eriksson, K. 2009. “The Papyrus Collection in Lund.” Care and Conservation of Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen, 24th-25th April 2008. edited by M. J. Driscoll and R. Mósesdóttir: 91-103.

Krutzsch, M. 1999. "Ein Papyrusfund aus dem Alten Reich. Wie ist er gewickelt, wie kann man ihn entfalten? (Old Kingdom Papyrus Findings. How was it rolled up? How to unfold, unroll it?)." Restauro 105 (6): 460-463.

Leach, B., and R. B. Parkinson. 2010. "Creating Borders: New Insights into Making the Papyrus of Ani." British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 15: 35-62.

Leach, B., and J. Tait. 2000. "Papyrus." Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Eds. P. T. Nicholson and I. Shaw. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 227-53.

Leach, B. 2009. "Papyrus Manufacture." UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. Ed. W. Wendrich. Los Angeles: 1 – 5.

Lewis, N.1974. Papyrus in Classical Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lucas, A. and J. R. Harris. 1962. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries. London: E. Arnold: 362-364.

Lucas, A. 1922. “The Inks of Ancient and Modern Egypt.” The Analyst 47: 9-14.

Maney, A. S. (ed.), et. al. 1973. The Nature and Making of Papyrus. Leeds, UK: Elmete Press.

Nicholson, P. T. & I. Shaw. 2000. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Parkinson, R. & S. Quirke. 1995. Egyptian Bookshelf: Papyrus. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Pattie, T.S. and E.G. Turner. 1974. The Written Word on Papyrus. Exh. cat. British Museum, London: British Museum Publications Limited.

Payne, J. 1983. "Notes and News: Dr. Ragab Papyrus Institute." The Paper Conservation Newsletter.

Posner-Krieger, P. 1986. "Old Kingdom Papyri: External Features." Papyrus: Structure and Usage, Occasional Papers 60. Ed. by M.L. Bierbrier. British Museum: 25-41.

Roberts, C. H. and T. C. Skeat. 1983. The Birth of the Codex. London: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, J. M. 1975. “The Construction of the Nag Hammadi Codices.” Essays on the Nag Hammadi Codices in Honour of Pahor Lahib. Ed. by M. Krause. Leiden: E.J. Brill: 170-190.

Ryan, D. P. 1988. “Papyrus.” The Biblical Archaeologist 51 (3): 132-140.

Santifaller, L. 1953. “Beitrage zur Geschichte der Beschreibstoffe im Mittelalter.” Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung, Ergänzungsband 16 (1). Graz/Cologne: Böhlau.

Sider, D. 2005. The Library of the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum.

Stawick, S. 1987. “Papirusy Tebańskie: antyczne źródło wiedzy o technikach artystycznych. (The Theban papyri: an Ancient Source of Knowledge About Art Techniques).” Teksty źródłowe do dziejów teorii sztuki 26. Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. Wrocław, Poland: Wydawnictwo Polskeij Akademii Nauk.

Sturman, S. 1987. “Investigations into the Manufacture and Identification of Papyrus.” Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts. 263-265.

Tadros, T. M. “Structure and Development of Cyperus Papyrus L.” Bulletin of the Faculty of Science, Fouad I. University, Vol. 20, 1940, pp. 3-28.

Thiede C.P. and d´Ancona, M.: Der Jesuspapyrus. Die Entdeckung einer Evangelien-Handschrift aus der Zeit der Augenzeugen. München 1996.

Turner, E. G. Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.

Turner, E. G. Greek Papyri: An Introduction. 2nd ed., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968.

Verhoogt, A. Discarded, Discovered, Collected: The University of Michigan Papyrus. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017.

Wallert, A. “The Reconstruction of Papyrus Manufacture: A Preliminary Investigation.” Studies in Conservation, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1989, pp. 1-8.

Wallert, A. “Papyrus Nader Bekeken” (Examination of the Manufacture of Papyrus). Mededelingenblad (IIC Nederland), Vol. 8, No. 1, 1991, pp. 6-14.

Weber, M.: Additum. Une nouvelle version copte du Testament de Job. In: Le testament de Job. Hrsg. von Marc Eugène Philonenko. (Semitica 18). Paris 1968, S. 61-63.

Wessel, K.: Koptische Kunst. Die Spätantike in Ägypten. Recklinghausen 1963.

Wiedemann, H. G. and G. Bayer. “Papyrus - the Paper of Ancient Egypt.” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 55, 1983, pp. 1220A-1230A.

Wiedemann, H. G. “Paper Technology from Egyptian, Chinese and Mayan Cultures.” National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 580. Proceedings of the Workshop on the State-of-the-Art of Thermal Analysis held at NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, May 21-22, 1979, issued May 1980.

Widmann, H.: Herstellung und Vertrieb des Buches in der griechisch-römischen Welt. In: Börsenblatt für den Deutschen Buchhandel. Frankfurter Ausgabe 2, 1967, S. 35-79.

Wouters, A. “From Papyrus Roll to Papyrus Codex. Some Technical Aspects of the Ancient Book Fabrication.” Manuscripts of the Middle East, Vol. 5, 1991, pp. 9-19.

Zaloscer, H.: Die Kunst im christlichen Ägypten. Wien, München 1974


Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS UM).

Barns, J.W.B. "The Placing of Papyrus Fragments." Proceedings of the IX International Congress of Papyrology, eds. L. Amundsen and V. Skanland. Boston, MA: Norwegian Universities Press, 1961, pp. 134-38.

Bagnall, R. S. The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Bagnall, R. S. Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History. London: Routledge, 1995.

Barnes, J. W. B. Five Ramesseum Papyri. Oxford: The University Press, 1956.

Böhlig,A.: Proverbien-Kodex : [Faksimile des Codex Ms. or. oct. 987 der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin] = The book of proverbs (codex) / Nachw. [von Alexander Böhlig]

Delattre, Daniel and E. Brun. "Lire le contenu des rouleaux carbonisés d'Herculanum sans les ouvrir." Support Tracé, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 9-16.

Caley, E. R. (Editor). The Leyden Papyrus X: An English Translation With Brief Notes. Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 3, No. 10, 1926 Oct, pp. 1149-1166.

Claytor, G. and A. Verhoogt. Papyri from Karanis: The Granary C123. Michigan Papyri, Vol. XXI. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2018.

Emmel, S. “The Nag Hammadi Codices Editing Project: A Final report.” American Research Center in Egypt, Inc. Newsletter l10, 1978, pp. 10-32.

Emmel, S. “Antiquity in Fragments: A Hundred Years of Collecting Papyri at Yale.” The Yale University Library Gazette, Vol 64, No 1/2 Oct. 1989, pp 38-58.

Essler, H. „Über die Würzburger Papyrussammlung“ In: Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Papyrology Helsinki 1.8.-7.8.2004. Hrsg. Von Jaakko Frösén et al. Helsinki 2007, S. 291-298.

Fuchs, R. „Die Totenbuchfragmente der von Portheim-Stiftung Heidelberg. Restaurierung, naturwissenschaftliche Analysen und kultur-historische Bewertung der Maltechnik“ In: Totenbuch-Forschungen. Gesammelte Beiträge des 2. Internationalen Totenbuch-Symposiums 2005. Hrsg. von Burkhard Backes et al. Wiesbaden 2006, S. 35-50.

Harrauer, H. "Wiener Papyrussammlung (The Vienna Papyrus Collection).” Textilforum, Vol. 4, 1985, Dec, pp. 38-39.

Janis, K. "Ein Interessenkonflikt zwischen Papyrologe und Restaurator. (A Conflict of Interests Between Papyrologist and Conservator).” Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1999, pp. 19-39.

Janis, K. "Die Bearbeitung eines ptolemäischen Mumienpektorales im Interessenkonflikt zwischen Papyrologie und Restaurator. (The Treatment of a Ptolemaic Mummy Trapping: A Conflict of Interest Between Papyrology and Conservation).” Göttinger Miszellen: Beiträge zur ägyptologischen Diskussion, Vol. 161, 1997, pp. 87-95.

Kenyon, F. The Paleography of Greek Papyri. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1898.

Krutzsch, M. "Ein Papyrusfund aus dem Alten Reich. Wie ist er gewickelt, wie kann man ihn entfalten? (Old Kingdom Papyrus Findings. How Was it Rolled Up? How to Unfold, Unroll It?).” Restauro, Vol. 105, No. 6, 1999, pp. 460-463.

Lehtinen, M. “Petra Papyri.” Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 65 No.4, 2002, pp. 277 - 278.

Lewis, N. “Papyrus and Ancient Writing: The First Hundred Years of Papyrology.” Archaeology, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1983 Jul-Aug, pp. 31-37.

Lewis, N.: Open letter to I. H. M. Hendriks and E. G. Turner. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 42:293-94.

Luijendijk, A. “Sacred Scriptures as Trash: Biblical Papyri from Oxyrhynchus.” Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 64, No. 3 2010 pp. 217 - 254.

Lukaszwewicz, A.: Diviso Acu, Was a needle used in PapyrusManufacturing?,The Journal of Juristic Papyrology,Vol.XXVII,p.61-65,1997

Mazal, O.: Bedeutung und Aufgaben der Handschriftenkunde. In: Handschrift. Hrsg. von Wilhelm Hemecker. Wien 1999, S. 23-34.

Morenz, S.: Das Koptische. In: Ägyptische Schrift und Sprache. Hrsg. von Hermann Kees. Leiden 1959, S. 90-104.

Pestman, P. W. The New Papyrological Primer. London: Brill Academic Publishers, 1994.

Porten, B. “Aramaic Letters: A Study in Papyrological Reconstruction.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 17, pp. 39-75.

Ragab, Hassan. Le Payrus, Ragab Papyrus Institute, 1980. Detailed study of the biology of the plant species, historic manufacture, geographic distribution, and usage, by the distinguished Egyptian papyrus specialist. [in French]

Roberts, C. H. and Skeat, T. H.: The birth of the codex. Oxford 21985.

Robinson, J. M. “The Future of Papyrus Codicology.” In The Future of Coptic Studies, Coptic Studies Volume I, Ed. by M. Krause. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1978, pp. 23-70.

Robinson, S. E.: The Testament of Adam. An Examination of the Syriac and Greek Traditions. (Society of Biblical Literature 52). Chico 1982.

Rupprecht, H.: Kleine Einführung in die Papyruskunde. Darmstadt 1994. Sosin, J. D. and R. S. Bagnall, J. Cowey, M. Depauw, T. G. Wilfong, and K. A. Worp (editors). Checklist of Editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic, and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets. Founding editors J. F. Oates and W. H. Willis. Duke University, last updated 1 June 2011,

Ryholt, K. “The Turin King-List.” Ägypten und Levante/Egypt and the Levant, Vol. 14 2004, pp. 135 - 155.

Sauneron, S. “The Wilbour Papyri in Brooklyn: A Progress Report.” The Brooklyn Museum Annual, Vol. 10, 1968-1969, pp. 109 - 113.

Schneider, K.: Paläographie und Handschriftenkunde für Germanisten. Eine Einführung (Sammlung kurzer Grammatiken germanistischer Dialekte Ergänzungsreihe 8). Tübingen 21999.

Schubart, W.: Einführung in die Papyruskunde. Berlin 1918

Schubart, W.: Griechische Paläographie. (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft 1.4.1). München 1925. Reprint München 1966.

Stegemann, V.: Koptische Paläographie. 25 Tafeln zur Veranschaulichung der Schreibstile koptischer Schriftdenkmäler auf Papyrus, Pergament und Papier für die Zeit des II.-XIV. Jahrhunderts. Mit einem Versuch einer Stilgeschichte der koptischen Schrift. Textband und Tafelband. (Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums und des Mittelalters. Reihe C. Hilfsbücher 1). Heidelberg 1936.

Straus, J. A. and E. G. Turner. “The Terms ‘Recto’ and ‘Verso’ - the Anatomy of a Papyrus Roll.” Actes du Xve Congres International de Papyrologie - Première Partie. Papyrologica Bruxellensia, Vol. 16, 1978.

Thompson, Sir E. M. An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1912.

Thompson, Sir E. M.: An Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography. Oxford 1912.

Till, W. C.: Koptische Dialektgrammatik. Mit Lesestücken und Wörterbuch. München 1931.

Till, W. C.: Die koptischen Ostraka der Papyrussammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Texte, Übersetzungen, Indices. (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Denkschriften 78.1). Wien 1960.

Till, W. C.: Koptische Grammatik (Sahidischer Dialekt) mit Bibliographie, Lesestücken und Wörterverzeichnissen. (Lehrbücher für das Studium der orientalischen und afrikanischen Sprachen 1). Leipzig 31966.

Turner, E. G. Greek Papyri: An Introduction. London: Clarendon Paperbacks, 1980.

Turner, E. G. The Typology of the Early Codex. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977.

Turner, E. G. The Papyrologist at Work: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Monographs NO. 6. Durham: Duke University, 1973.

University of Michigan, Papyrology Collection. A Beginner’s Glossary of Papyrological Terms. Last modified 11 March 2014.

Van Haarlem, W. “The Papyrus Puzzle, or How to Unlock a Random Papyrus Collection?” ed. Claire Derriks. Collections at Risk, New Challenges in a New Environment. 2017 pp. 117 - 120.

Wesseln, C.: Aus der Welt der Papyri. Leipzig 1914.

Willis, W. H. “Recent Papyrological Work in North America.” Studia Papyrologica, Vol. 15, 1976, pp. 109-117.

Chemistry and Analysis

Banik, G. and H. Stachelberger. “Salt Migration in Papyrus Fragments.” Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, 1987, pp. 199-201.

Banik,G ,Brückle,I.: Paper and Water, A Guide for Conservators. Amsterdam 2011

Basile, C. “A Method of Making Papyrus and Fixing and Preserving it by Means of a Chemical Treatment.” In Conservation of Paintings and the Graphic Arts: Preprints of Contributions to the Lisbon Congress, 9-14 October 1972, pp. 901-906.

Borojevic, K. and R. Mountain. “Microscopic Identification and Sourcing of Ancient Egyptian Plant Fibres Using Longitudinal Thin Sectioning.” Archaeometry, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2013 Feb., pp. 81-112.

Buchala, A. J. and H. Meier. “Hemicelluloses from the Stalk of Cyperus Papyrus.” Photochemistry, Vol. 2, 1972, pp. 3275-3278.

Cappitelli, F. and C. Sorlini. “From Papyrus to Compact Disc: The Microbial Deterioration of Documentary Heritage.” Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-10.

Christiansen, T., D. Buti, K. N. Dalby, P. E. Lindelof, K. Ryholt, A. Vila. “Chemical Characterization of Black and Red Inks Inscribed on Ancient Egyptian Papyri: The Tebtunis Temple Library.” Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 14 (2017) pp.208-219.

Clark, R. J. H. Raman Microscopy in the Identification of Pigments on Manuscripts and Other Artwork. In Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005, pp. 162-185.

Cooper, D., C. King, and J. Segal. "The Use of Enzymes in Partially Non-Aqueous Media." Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Ed. by G. Petherbridge. London: The Institute of Paper Conservation and the Society of Archivists, 1987, pp. 25-30.

Daniels, Vincent and Bridget Leach. "The Occurrence and Alteration of Realgar on Ancient Egyptian Papyri." Studies in Conservation Vol. 49, NO. 2, 2004, pp. 73-84.

de Bignicourt, M. C. and F. Flieder. “L'analyse des papyrus. (Analysis of Papyrus).” In 11th Triennial Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1-6 September, 1996: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation). Bridgland, J. (Editor). London: Earthscan Ltd, 1996, pp. 488-493.

El-Hamidi, A. and S. El-Gengaihi. “Photochemical Investigation of Cyperus Papyrus.” Pharmazie, Vol. 30, NO. 8, 1975.

Farke, H. „Archäologische Fasern, Geflechte, Gewebe. Bestimmung und Konservierung“. Restaurierung und Museumstechnik 7). Weimar 1986.

Flieder, F. and E. Delange. "Papyrus: The Need for Analysis." Restaurator, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 84-106.

Forbes, J. R. Studies in Ancient Technology. Vol. 3. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1955, pp. 228-231.

Fuchs, R. „Analyse von Tinten und Tuschen. Eine archäometrische Herausforderung“ In: Praxis der Naturwissenschaften – Chemie in der Schule 59, 5, 2010, S. 27-34.

Fuchs, R. „Der Tintenfraß historischer Tinten und Tuschen. Ein komplexes, nie enden wollendes Problem“ In: Tintenfraßschäden und ihre Behandlung. Hrsg. von Gerhard Banik, Hartmut Weber. Stuttgart 1999, S. 37-75.

Geiseler, S.-E. „Der Papyrus ÄS 818. Identifizierung und Abnahme des Trägermaterials“ Unveröff. Diplomarbeit FHTW Berlin 2004.

Goler, S., et. al. “Characterizing the Age of Ancient Egyptian Manuscripts Through Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 47, Issue 10, October 2016, pp. 1185-1193.

Grasselli, J. G. “The Analytical Approach: Papyrus and Paper of Ancient Egypt.” Analytical Chemistry, Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 1983, pp.1220A.

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Weber, D.: Berliner Pahlavi-Dokumente;Zeugnisse spätsassanidischer Brief-und Rechtskultur aus frühislamischer Zeit. (Mit Beiträgen von M.Krutzsch und M.Macuch) Harrassowitz Verlag Wiesbaden,Iranica Bd.15,2008

Walker, A. “The Use of a Facing Technique in the Treatment of Fragile Papyri.” Conservation of Ancient Egyptian Materials: Preprints, Eds. S.C. Watkins and C.E. Brown. Bristol: Conference of the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation, Archeology Section, 1988, pp. 51-53.

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Wendelbo, O. “The Enzymatic Scalpel - on the Use of Proteolytic Enzymes in Restoration of Paper and Papyrus.” Research in Norway, Ed. by M.S. Morlensen. Oslo: Norwegian Council for Science and the Humanities, 1977, pp. 9-15.

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Photography and Imaging

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Cockle, W. E. H. “Taking Photographs of Papyri.” Akten des XIII. Internationalen Papyrologenkongressess, Marburg/Lahn, 2-6 August 1971, Eds. Von E. Kiebling and H.A. Rupprecht. Munich, 1974, pp. 83-88.

Coles, R. “International Papyrological Photographic Archive: Report of the Cairo Mission, February/March 1978.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 32 (1978) pp. 223 - 231.

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Enhancement of Script

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Bertani, D., et al. High Resolution Digital Recording of Papyri in the Visible and Near Infrared. In 17th International Meeting on Heritage Conservation: 20-22 November, Castellón, Vila-Real, Burriana, 2008: Preprints of the Papers to the Congress. Roig Picazo, Pilar; Bernal Navarro, Juana C.; Moltó Orts, Maria Teresa; and Nebot Díaz, Esther (Editors). Generalitat Valenciana. Conselleria de Cultura i Esport. Fundación de la Comunidad Valenciana La Llum de les Imatges, Valencia, Spain, 2008, pp. 135-138.

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This page was created in October, 2018 by Alexander Bero using material contributed by Marieka Kaye and Theresa Smith.

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