BPG Papyrus

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History and Production


Material and Structure


Conservation


Imaging and Text Enhancement


Bibliography


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History and Production

Abercrombie, John R. 1978. "Egyptian Papyri." Expedition Magazine. Philadelphia : Penn Museum. 32-37.

Abbott, Nadia. 1938. “The Kurrah Papyri from Aphrodito in the Oriental Institute.” Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 15. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press. 26-27.

Alexander, Shirley. 1965. “Notes on the Use of Gold in Egyptian Papyri.” The Journal of Egyptian Archeology 51: 48-52.

Anderson, Glenn A. 1988. “The Emergence of the Book.” College and Research Libraries. 111-116.

Banik, Gerhard, and Krist, Gabriela. 1984. Lösungsmittel in der Restaurierung (Solvents in restoration). Wien : Verlag Der Apfel.

Barber, Elizabeth Wayland. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles. The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Age with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton : Princeton University Press.

Basile, Corrado. 1972. “A method of making papyrus and fixing and preserving it by means of a chemical treatment." Conservation of paintings and the graphic arts: Preprints of contributions to the Lisbon Congress. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 901-05.

Bauer, J. B. 1983. “Wiener Liturgische Papyri (Viennese liturgical papyri).” Festschrift zum 100-Jährigen Bestehen der Papyrussammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek–-Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer (P. Rainer Cent.). Hrsg. von der Generaldirektion der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Wien: 280-288.

Bell, Lillian A. 1993. Papyrus, Tapa Amate and Rice Paper: Paper Making in Africa and S.E. Asia. McMinnville, Oregon : Liliaceae Press.

Bierbrier, Morris L. 1986. “Papyrus : Structure and Usage.” Occasional Paper 60. London : British Museum.

Bischoff, Bernhard. 2009. Paläographie des römischen Altertums und des abendländischen Mittelalters (Palaeography of Roman antiquity and the occidental Middle Ages). Berlin : Schmidt Erich Verlag.

Blanck, Horst. 1992. Das Buch in der Antike (The book in antiquity). München : Beck.

Boak, Arthur E. R. 1959. “From Egypt To Ann Arbor: The Building of the Papyrus Collection.” The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 66 (10): 35-41. Accessed October 24, 2019.

Bogensperger, Ines. 2015. “Copy & paste: Falschungen von spatantiken Textilien (Copy & Paste: Forgeries of Textiles from Late Antiquity).” Rezeption, Zeitgeist, Fälschung--Umgang mit Antike(n): Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums am 31. Januar und 1. Februar 2014 in Tübingen. London : Institute of Conservation Paintings Group. 167-177. Accessed October 24, 2019.

Bonnet, Maximilian, Heinz Kraft, Richard Adelbert Lipsius, and Constantin von Tischendorf. 1959. Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha. Hildesheim : Georg Olms.

Brock, Sebastian P. 1967. "Testamentum Iobi.“ Pseudepigrapha Veteris Testamenti Graece 2. Leiden : Brill.

Bröker, Günther. 1982. Koptische Stoffe. Leipzig : Insel-Verlag.

Brooke, George. J. 2006. “The Historical Documents at the John Rylands University Library: The Reed Dead Sea Scrolls Collection.” E-Preservation Science 3: 35-40.

Bruckner, Wolfgang W. 2009. "Knoten.“ Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche 6. Hrsg. von Walter Kasper et al. Freiburg et al. 160.

Buschle-Diller, Gisela, and Achim Unger. 1996. "Schreib- und Malmittel auf Papyrus. Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung zur Farbpalette altägyptischer Papyri in Berlin (Writing and painting on papyrus. Scientific study on the color palette of ancient Egyptian papyri in Berlin).“ Restauro 102(2): 108-114.

Caldararo, Niccolo. 2003. "Papyrus." Conservation DistList. Accessed October 25, 2019.

Caminos, Ricardo Augusto. 1986. "Some comments on the reuse of papyrus." Papyrus: Structure and usage. Occasional Paper 60. London : British Museum. 43-61.

Camac, C.N.B. 1931. “The Papyrus Industry of the Ancients.” Proceedings from the Charaka Club 7. New York : Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. 72-80.

Catich, Edward M. 1991. The Origin of the Serif: Brush Writing and Roman Letters. Catich Gallery : St. Ambrose College University.

Cerneý, Jaroslav. 1952. Paper and Books in Ancient Egypt: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at University College, London, 29 May 1947. London : Lewis & Co. Ltd.

Clarke, Mark. 2014. “Dioscorides as an Art Technological Source.” Making and Transforming Art: Technology and Interpretation; Held at the Royal Institute of Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA), Brussels, 22-23 November 2012. Eds. H. Dubois, et. al. London: Archetype Publications, Ltd. 1-9.

Clere, Jacques John. 1967-1968. “The Collection of ‘Book of the Dead’ Papyri in The Brooklyn Museum.” The Brooklyn Museum Annual 9. Brooklyn Museum. 88-93.

Cockle, Walter E. H. 1983. “Restoring and Conserving Papyri.” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London 30.

Cramer, Maria. 1964. Koptische Paläographie. Otto Harrassowitz : Wiesbaden.

Cramer, Maria. 1959. Das christlich-koptische Ägypten einst und heute. Eine Orientierung. Otto Harrassowitz : Wiesbaden.

Darbre, Florence. 2008. “The Papyrus Codex Tchacos. Its Authentication, Conservation, and Future.” Papierrestaurierung 9 (4): 19-25.

Dassmann, Ernst. 1994. "Christusnachfolge durch Weltflucht. Asketische Motive im frühchristlichen Mönchtum Ägyptens.“ Die koptische Kirche: Einführung in das ägyptische Christentum, eds. Albert Gerhards and Heinzgerd Brakkman. Stuttgart. 28-45.

Davy, Sir Humphrey. 1821. “Some observations and experiments on the papyri found in the ruis of Herculaneum.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 111. London : Royal Society. 191-208. Accessed October 25, 2019.

Delange, Elisabeth, M. Grange, B. Kusko, and Eve Menei. 1990. “Apparition de l´encre métallogallique en Égypte à partir de la collection de papyrus du Louvre.” Revue d´Égyptologie 41: 213-217.

Denker, Andrea, et al. 2003. "Chemie in der Kunst. Zerstörungsfreie Analyse von Kunst- und Kulturgütern (Chemistry of Art non-destructive analysis of art and cultural goods).“ Materialprüfung. Werkstoffe und Bauteile, Technologien und Anwendungen 45: 485-503.

Departament d’Afers, Relacions Institucionals, Exteriors, Transparència. 2016. Pharaoh’s Reeds: A Papyrus Journey Up the Nile (exhibition catalog). Barcelona : IEMed (European Institute of the Mediterranean).

Devauchelle, R. 1957. “Papyrus.” Le Papetier de France: revue professionnelle des papetiers-détaillants et papetiers-libraires 11(10): 33-34.

Diringer, David. 1982. “Papyrus Books.” Books Before Printing: Ancient, Medieval, Oriental. New York : Dover. 113-169.

Dimarogonas, Andrew. D. 1995. “Pliny the Elder on the Making of Papyrus Paper.” The Classical Quarterly 45 (2): 588-590. Accessed October 25, 2019.

Döpp, von Sigmar, and Wilhelm Geerlings. 1998. Lexikon der antiken christlichen Literatur. Verlag Herder.

Donnithorne, A. 1986. “The conservation of papyrus in the British Museum.” Papyrus: Structure and Usage, Occasional Papers 60. Ed. by M.L. Bierbrier. British Museum. 1-24.

du Bourguet, Pierre. 1967. Die Kopten. Baden-Baden : Holle Verlag.

Ebers, Georg. 1893. “The Papyrus Plant.” The Cosmopolitan 15: 677-682. Accessed October 25, 2019.

European Institute of the Mediterranean (IEMed). 2016. Pharoah’s Reeds: A Papyrus Journey Up the Nile (Exhibition Catalog). Barcelona: IEMed in collaboration with Abadia de Montserrat and International Association of Papyrolgists.

Gaudet, John. 2018. The Pharoah’s Treasure: The Origin of Paper and the Rise of Western Civilization. New York : Pegasus Books.

Gaudet, John. 2014. Papyrus: The Plant that Changed the World: From Ancient Egypt to Today’s Water Wars. New York : Pegasus Books.

Grenfell, P. B. 1897. Oxyrhynchus and its Papyri. London.

Hendriks, Ignace H. M. 1980. “Historia Naturalis XIII, 74-82 and the Manufacture of Papyrus.” Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik 37: 121-136.

Hendricks, Ignace H. M. 1984. “More About the Manufacture of Papyrus.” Atti del XVII Congresso Internazionale per lo Paperologia 1. Napoli: Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papyri Ercolanesi. 31-37.

Hepper, Nigel. 1991. "Of Ships and Shoes and Ancient Scribes." Kew. London : The Royal Botanic Gardens. 10-13.

Johnson, Malcolm L. 1973. The Nature and Making of Papyrus. Barkston Ash, Yorkshire : The Elmete Press.

Kenyon, Frederic. 1951. Books and Readers in Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford : The Clarendon Press.

Kulneff-Eriksson, Karin. 2009. “The Papyrus Collection in Lund.” Care and Conservation of Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen, 24th-25th April 2008. Edited by Matthew J. Driscoll and Ragnheiður Mósesdóttir. 91-103.

Krutzsch, Myriam. 1999. "Ein Papyrusfund aus dem Alten Reich. Wie ist er gewickelt, wie kann man ihn entfalten? (Old Kingdom Papyrus Findings. How was it rolled up? How to unfold, unroll it?)." Restauro 105: 461-463.

Leach, Bridget and R. B. Parkinson. 2010. "Creating Borders: New Insights into Making the Papyrus of Ani." British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 15: 35-62.

Leach, Bridget, and John Tait. 2000. "Papyrus." Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Eds. P. T. Nicholson and I. Shaw. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. 227-53.

Leach, Bridget. 2009. "Papyrus Manufacture." UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. Ed. Willeke Wendrich. Los Angeles. 1-5.

Lewis, Naphtali. 1974. Papyrus in Classical Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lucas, Alfred, and John Richard Harris. 1962. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries. London : E. Arnold. 362-364.

Lucas, Alfred. 1922. “The Inks of Ancient and Modern Egypt.” The Analyst 47: 9-14.

Nicholson, Paul T. and Ian Shaw. 2000. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Parkinson, Richard & Stephen Quirke. 1995. Egyptian Bookshelf: Papyrus. Austin : University of Texas Press.

Pattie, Thomas Smith, and Eric Gardner Turner. 1974. The Written Word on Papyrus: An Exhibition Held in the British Museum 30 July - 27 October 1974. British Museum, London : British Museum Publications Limited.

Payne, Joanna. 1983. "Notes and News: Dr. Ragab Papyrus Institute." The Paper Conservation Newsletter.

Posner-Krieger, Paule. 1986. "Old Kingdom Papyri: External Features." Papyrus: Structure and Usage, Occasional Papers 60. Ed. by Morris Leonard Bierbrier. British Museum. 25-41.

Roberts, Colin H. and Theodore Cressy Skeat. 1983. The Birth of the Codex. London : Oxford University Press.

Robinson, James M. 1975. “The Construction of the Nag Hammadi Codices.” Essays on the Nag Hammadi Codices in Honour of Pahor Lahib. Ed. by M. Krause. Leiden : E.J. Brill. 170-190.

Ryan, Donald P. 1988. “Papyrus.” The Biblical Archaeologist 51(3): 132-140.

Santifaller, Leo. 1953. “Beitrage zur Geschichte der Beschreibstoffe im Mittelalter.” Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung, Ergänzungsband 16(1). Graz/Cologne : Böhlau.

Sider, David. 2005. The Library of the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum. Los Angeles : The J. Paul Getty Museum.

Stawick, Stanisław. 1987. “Papirusy Tebańskie: antyczne źródło wiedzy o technikach artystycznych. (The Theban papyri: an Ancient Source of Knowledge About Art Techniques).” Teksty źródłowe do dziejów teorii sztuki 26. Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. Wrocław, Poland : Wydawnictwo Polskeij Akademii Nauk.

Sturman, Shelley. 1987. “Investigations into the Manufacture and Identification of Papyrus.” Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts. University of London Institute of Archaeology. 263-266.

Tadros, T. M. 1940. "Structure and Development of Cyperus Papyrus L." Bulletin of the Faculty of Science, Fouad I. University 20: 3-28.

Thiede, Carsten Peter, and Matthew d´Ancona. Der Jesuspapyrus. Die Entdeckung einer Evangelien-Handschrift aus der Zeit der Augenzeugen. München : Luchterhand.

Turner, Eric Gardener. 1971. Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World. London : University of London, Institute of Classical Studies.

Turner, Eric Gardener. 1968. Greek Papyri: An Introduction. 2nd ed., Princeton : Princeton University Press.

Verhoogt, Arthur. 2017. Discarded, Discovered, Collected: The University of Michigan Papyrus. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2017.

Wallert, Arie. 1989. “The Reconstruction of Papyrus Manufacture: A Preliminary Investigation.” Studies in Conservation 34(1): 1-8.

Wallert, Arie. 1991. “Papyrus Nader Bekeken” (Examination of the Manufacture of Papyrus). Mededelingenblad (IIC Nederland) 8(1): 6-14.

Weber, Max. 1968. "Additum. Une nouvelle version copte du Testament de Job." Philonenko. 61-66.

Wessel, Klaus. 1963. Koptische Kunst: Die Spätantike in Ägypten. Recklinghausen (Verlag Aurel Bongers).

Wiedemann, Hanus G. and Gerd Bayer. 1983. “Papyrus - the Paper of Ancient Egypt.” Analytical Chemistry 55 (12): 1220A-1230A.

Wiedemann, Hanus G. 1979. “Paper Technology from Egyptian, Chinese and Mayan Cultures.” National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 580. Proceedings of the Workshop on the State-of-the-Art of Thermal Analysis held at NBS, Gaithersburg, MD.

Widmann, Hans. 1967. Herstellung und Vertrieb des Buches in der griechisch-römischen Welt. Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens 55. Frankfurt : Borsenbl. 35-81.

Wouters, A. 1991. “From papyrus roll to papyrus codex: Some technical aspects of the ancient book fabrication.” Manuscripts of the Middle East 5: 9-19.

Zaloscer, Hilda. 1974. Die Kunst im christlichen Ägypten. Vienna and Munich : Verlag Anton Schroll.

Papyrology

The Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS UM). Accessed October 28, 2019.

Barns, John 1961. W.B. "The Placing of Papyrus Fragments." Proceedings of the IX International Congress of Papyrology, eds. L. Amundsen and V. Skanland. Boston, MA : Norwegian Universities Press. 134-38.

Bagnall, Roger S. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Bagnall, Roger S. 1995. Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History. London : Routledge.

Barnes, John Wintour Baldwin. 1956. Five Ramesseum Papyri. Oxford : The University Press.

Böhlig, Alexander. 1963. Proverbien-Kodex Faksimile des Codex Ms. or: oct. 987 der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (The book of proverbs (codex). Ratsdruckerei.

Delattre, Daniel and Emmanuel Brun. 2015. "Lire le contenu des rouleaux carbonisés d'Herculanum sans les ouvrir." Support Tracé 15: 9-16.

Caley, Earle Radcliffe. 1926. "The Leyden Papyrus X: An English Translation With Brief Notes." Journal of Chemical Education 3(10): 1149-1166.

Claytor, Graham. and Arthur Verhoogt. 2018. Papyri from Karanis: The Granary C123 (Michigan Papyri Vol. XXI). Ann Arbor, MI : University of Michigan Press.

Emmel, Stephen. 1978. “The Nag Hammadi Codices Editing Project: A Final Report.” American Research Center in Egypt, Inc., Newsletter 110: 10-32.

Emmel, Stephen. 1989. "Antiquity in Fragments: A Hundred Years of Collecting Papyri at Yale." The Yale University Library Gazette 64(1/2): 38-58.

Essler, Holger. 2007. "Über die Würzburger Papyrussammlung." Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Papyrology 1: 291-298. Accessed October 28, 2019.

Fuchs, Robert. 2006. "Die Totenbuchfragmente der von Portheim-Stiftung Heidelberg. Restaurierung, naturwissenschaftliche Analysen und kultur-historische Bewertung der Maltechnik.“ Totenbuch-Forschungen. Gesammelte Beiträge des 2. Internationalen Totenbuch-Symposiums. Wiesbaden. 35-50.

Harrauer, Hermann. 1985. "Wiener Papyrussammlung (The Vienna Papyrus Collection).” Textilforum 4: 38-39.

Janis, K. 1999. "Ein Interessenkonflikt zwischen Papyrologe und Restaurator. (A Conflict of Interests Between Papyrologist and Conservator).” Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung 13(1): 19-39.

Janis, K. 1997. "Die Bearbeitung eines ptolemäischen Mumienpektorales im Interessenkonflikt zwischen Papyrologie und Restaurator. (The Treatment of a Ptolemaic Mummy Trapping: A Conflict of Interest Between Papyrology and Conservation).” Göttinger Miszellen: Beiträge zur ägyptologischen Diskussion 161: 87-95.

Kenyon, Frederic. 1899. The Palaeography of Greek Papyri. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Accessed October 28, 2019.

Krutzsch, Miriam. 1999. "Ein Papyrusfund aus dem Alten Reich. Wie ist er gewickelt, wie kann man ihn entfalten? (Old Kingdom Papyrus Findings. How Was it Rolled Up? How to Unfold, Unroll It?).” Restauro 105(6): 460-463.

Lehtinen, Marjo. 2002. “Petra Papyri.” Near Eastern Archaeology 65(4): 277 - 278.

Lewis, Naphtali. 1983. “Papyrus and Ancient Writing: The First Hundred Years of Papyrology.” Archaeology 36(4): 31-37.

Lewis, Naphtali. "Open letter to I. H. M. Hendriks and E. G. Turner." Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 42: 293-294.

Luijendijk, Annemarie. 2010. “Sacred Scriptures as Trash: Biblical Papyri from Oxyrhynchus.” Vigiliae Christianae 64(3): 217-254.

Lukaszwewicz, Adam. 1997. "Diviso Acu. Was a needle used in Papyrus Manufacturing?" The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 27: 61-65.

Mazal, Otto. 1999. "Bedeutung und Aufgaben der Handschriftenkunde." Handschrift (Hrsg. von Wilhelm Hemecker). Wien. 23-34.

Morenz, Siegfried. 1959. Das Koptische. Ägyptische Schrift und Sprache (Hrsg. von Hermann Kees). Leiden. 90-104.

Papyri Info. Accessed October 28, 2019.

Pestman, Pieter Willem. 1994. The New Papyrological Primer. London : Brill Academic Publishers.

Porten, Bezalel. “Aramaic Letters: A Study in Papyrological Reconstruction.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 17: 39-75.

Ragab, Hassan. 1980. "Detailed study of the biology of the plant species, historic manufacture, geographic distribution, and usage, by the distinguished Egyptian papyrus specialist." [in French]. Le Payrus, Ragab Papyrus Institute.

Roberts, Colin H. and Theodore Cressy Skeat. 1987. "The Birth of the Codex." Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, James M. 1978, “The Future of Papyrus Codicology.” The Future of Coptic Studies (Coptic Studies Volume I) Ed. by M. Krause. Leiden : E.J. Brill. 23-70.

Robinson, Stephen Edward. 1982. The Testament of Adam. An Examination of the Syriac and Greek Traditions (Society of Biblical Literature 52). Scholars Press.

Rupprecht, Hans-Albert. 1994. Kleine Einführung in die Papyruskunde. Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (WBG Bibliothek).

Oates, John F., and William H. Willis (founding editors). Checklist of Editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic, and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets. Duke University. Last updated 1 June 2011.

Ryholt, Kim. 2004. “The Turin King-List.” Ägypten und Levante/Egypt and the Levant 14: 135 - 155.

Sauneron, Serge. 1968-1969. “The Wilbour Papyri in Brooklyn: A Progress Report.” The Brooklyn Museum Annual 10: 109-113.

Schneider, Karin. 1999. Paläographie und Handschriftenkunde für Germanisten (Paleography and Manuscriptology for Germanists. An introduction). De Gruyter.

Schubart, Wilhelm. 1918. Einführung in die Papyruskunde. Berlin : Weidmannsche Bucchandlung. Accessed October 28, 2019.

Schubart, Wilhelm. 1966. Griechische Paläographie (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft). C. H. Beck.

Stegemann, Viktor. 1936. Koptische Paläographie (Coptic palaeography : 25 plates for the visualization of the writing styles of Coptic monuments on papyrus, parchment and paper for the period of the III - XIV century). Heidelberg.

Thompson, Sir Edward Maunde. 1912. An Introduction to Greek and Latin Paleography. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Accessed October 28, 2919.

Till, Walter Curt. 1931. Koptische Dialektgrammatik. München : C. H. Beck.

Till, Walter Curt. 1960. Die koptischen Ostraka der Papyrussammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Vienna : Böhlau.

Till, Walter Curt. Koptische Grammatik. (Saïdischer Dialekt.) Mit Bibliographie, Lesestücken und Wörterverzeichnissen. Leipzig : Verlag Enzyklopädie.

Turner, Eric C. 1978. “The Terms ‘Recto’ and ‘Verso’ - the Anatomy of a Papyrus Roll.” Actes du Xve Congres International de Papyrologie - Première Partie. Papyrologica Bruxellensia 16.

Turner, Eric Gardner. 1980. Greek Papyri: An Introduction. London: Clarendon Paperbacks.

Turner, Eric Gardner. 1977. The Typology of the Early Codex. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press.

Turner, Eric. Gardner. 1973. The Papyrologist at Work. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Monographs No. 6. Durham : Duke University.

University of Michigan, Papyrology Collection. A Beginner’s Glossary of Papyrological Terms. Last modified 11 March 2014.

Van Haarlem, Willem. 2017. “The Papyrus Puzzle, or How to Unlock a Random Papyrus Collection?” Collections at Risk: New Challenges in a New Environment. 117-120.

Wesseln, Carl. 1914. Aus der Welt der Papyri. Leipzig : H. Haessel. Accessed October 29, 2019.

Willis, William. H. 1976. “Recent Papyrological Work in North America.” Studia Papyrologica 15: 109-117.

Chemistry and Analysis

Banik, Gerhard. and Herbert Stachelberger. 1987. “Salt Migration in Papyrus Fragments.” Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts. 199-201.

Banik, Gerhard, and Irene Brückle. 2011. Paper and Water: A Guide for Conservators. Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann.

Basile, Corrado. 1972. “A Method of Making Papyrus and Fixing and Preserving it by Means of a Chemical Treatment.” Conservation of Paintings and the Graphic Arts: Preprints of Contributions to the Lisbon Congress. 901-906.

Borojevic, Ksenija and Rebecca Mountain. 2013. “Microscopic Identification and Sourcing of Ancient Egyptian Plant Fibres Using Longitudinal Thin Sectioning.” Archaeometry 55(1): 81-112.

Buchala, Antony. J., and Hans Rudolf Meier. 1972. “Hemicelluloses from the Stalk of Cyperus Papyrus.” Phytochemistry 11(11): 3275-3278.

Cappitelli, Francesca and Claudia Sorlini. 2005. “From Papyrus to Compact Disc: The Microbial Deterioration of Documentary Heritage.” Critical Reviews in Microbiology 31(1): 1-10.

Christiansen, Thomas, David. Buti, Kim Nicole Dalby, Poul Erik Lindelof, Kim Ryholt, and Anna Vila. 2017. “Chemical Characterization of Black and Red Inks Inscribed on Ancient Egyptian Papyri: The Tebtunis Temple Library.” Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 14: 208-219.

Clark, Robin J. H. 2005. "Raman Microscopy in the Identification of Pigments on Manuscripts and Other Artwork." Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis. Washington, DC : National Academies Press, 162-185. Accessed 10/31/2019.

Cooper, David, Carolyn King, and Judith Segal. 1987. "The Use of Enzymes in Partially Non-Aqueous Media." Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Ed. by G. Petherbridge. London : The Institute of Paper Conservation and the Society of Archivists. 25-30.

Daniels, Vincent and Bridget Leach. 2004. "The Occurrence and Alteration of Realgar on Ancient Egyptian Papyri." Studies in Conservation 49(2): 73-84.

de Bignicourt, Marie-Caroline and Françoise Flieder. 1996. “L'analyse des papyrus. (Analysis of Papyrus).” 11th Triennial Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1-6 September, 1996 : Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation). Bridgland, J. (Editor). London : Earthscan Ltd. 488-493.

El-Hamidi, A. and Souad El-Gengaihi. 1975. “Photochemical Investigation of Cyperus Papyrus.” Pharmazie 30(8): 541-542.

Farke, Heidemarie. 1986. "Archäologische Fasern, Geflechte, Gewebe. Bestimmung und Konservierung (Archaeological fibers, braids, tissues : identification and conservation).“ Restaurierung und Museumstechnik 7. Weimar : Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens.

Flieder, Françoise and Elisabeth Delange. 2001. "Papyrus: The Need for Analysis." Restaurator 22(2): 84-106.

Forbes, Robert Jacobus. 1955. Studies in Ancient Technology, Volume 3. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 228-231.

Fuchs, Robert. 2010. "Analyse von Tinten und Tuschen. Eine archäometrische Herausforderung." Praxis der Naturwissenschaften – Chemie in der Schule 59(5): 27-34.

Fuchs, Robert.1999. "Der Tintenfraß historischer Tinten und Tuschen. Ein komplexes, nie enden wollendes Problem." Tintenfraßschäden und ihre Behandlung. Hrsg. von Gerhard Banik, Hartmut Weber. Stuttgart: 37-75.

Garcia, Julia Martinez, and Marta E. Martinez Armero. 2013. "Κóμαρι: Some Hypotheses on an Enigmatic Dyestuff Described in Certain Recipes of Greek Alchemical Papyri." e-Preservation Science 10: 90-98. Accessed November 6, 2019.

Geiseler, Sophie-Elisabeth. 2004. "Der Papyrus ÄS 818. Identifizierung und Abnahme des Trägermaterials." Unveröff. Diplomarbeit FHTW Berlin.

Goler, Sarah, Alexis Hagadorn, David M. Ratzan, Roger Bagnall, Angela Cacciola, James McInerney, and James T. Yardley. 2019. "Using Raman spectroscopy to estimate the dates of carbon-based inks from Ancient Egypt." Journal of Cultural Heritage 38: 106-117.

Goler, Sarah, James T. Yardley, Angela Cacciola, Alexis Hagadorn, David Ratzan, and Roger Bagnall. 2016. “Characterizing the Age of Ancient Egyptian Manuscripts Through Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 47(10): 1185-1193.

Grasselli, Jeanette G. 1983. “Papyrus: The Paper of Ancient Egypt.” Analytical Chemistry 55(12). Washington DC : American Chemical Society. 1220A-1230A. Accessed November 1, 2019.

Graf, Jörg, Beate Villmann, and Evelyn Schlattner. 2018. “Composition and source of white precipitations on the inner Side of Papyrus Glazings.” Restaurator 39 (2): 85-107.

Graf, Jörg. 2016. "Glass Corrosion: The Cause of the White/Grey Precipitation on the Insides of Papyrus Glass Frames”." British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 23: 47-56.

Graf, Jörg, and Fabian Schumacher. 2008. “Möglichkeiten der Ionenchromatografie: Identifizierung und quantitative Bestimmung wasserlöslicher Ablagerungen auf Papyrus-Fragmenten (Possible Uses of Ion Chromatography: Identification and Quantification of Water-soluble Deposits on Papyrus Fragments).” Restauro 114 (4): 242-248.

Hahn, Oliver. 2006. "Eisengallustinten. Materialanalyse historischer Schreibmaterialien durch zerstörungsfreie naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung“ Editio 20. 143-157.

Haudek, Heinz Werner and Erna Viti. 1980. Textilfasern. Herkunft, Herstellung, Aufbau, Eigenschaften, Verwendung. Heidelberg : Melliand Textilberichte. 1980.

Hecht, Ernst. 1961. Welches Gewebe ist das? Stuttgart : Franckh.

Hepper, Frank Nigel and T. Reynolds. 1967. “Papyrus and the Adhesive Properties of the Cell Sap in Relation to Papermaking.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 53(1): 156-157.

Hermes-Wladarsch, Maria, and Jörg Graf. 2018. "Natriumchloridablagerungen auf den Innenseiten der historischen Gläser von verglasten Papyrusfragmenten Bericht über das Projekt 'Die Bremer Papyri glasklar.'" Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete 64 (2): 358-374.

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Ilvessalo-Pfäffli, Marja-Sisko. 1995. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers. Berlin Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag.

Jones, Melissa Beaudet, and Thomas Milburn. 1978. “Photosynthesis in Papyrus (Cyperus Papyrus).” Photosynthetica 12: 197-199.

Kowalik, Romuald. 1980. "Microbiodeterioration of Library Materials: Decomposition of Papyrus by Microorganisms." Restaurator 4 (3-4): 163-170.

Kowalik, Romuald, and Irena Sadurska. 1973. “Microflora of Papyrus from Samples of the Cairo Museums.” Studies in Conservation 18(1): 1-24.

Kowalik, Romuald, Irena Sadurska, and Elzbieta Czerwinska. 1962. “Microbiological Deterioration of Old Books and Manuscripts Remedies.” Bolletino dell’Instituto de Patologia del Libro 21: 116-151.

Krekel, Christoph. 1999. "Chemische Struktur historischer Eisengallustinten." Tintenfraßschäden und ihre Behandlung. Stuttgart. 25-35.

Krutzsch, Myriam. 2015. "Materialtechnische Beobachtungen während der Restaurierung." Magika Hieratika in Berlin, Hannover, Heidelberg und München (Ägyptische und Orientalische Papyri und Handschriften des Ägyptischen Museums und Papyrussammlung Berlin, Band 2). Berlin : De Gruyter. 1-74.

Krutzsch, Myriam, and Ira Rabin. 2015. "Material Criteria and Their Clues for Dating." New Testament Studies 61. Cambridge University Press. 356-367.

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Lynn, Thomas C. 1988. “Dating Papyrus Manuscripts by the AMS Carbon-14 Method.” The Biblical Archaeologist 51(3): 141-142.

Mairinger, Franz. 2003. Strahlenuntersuchung an Kunstwerken. Leipzig : Seemann.

Manso, Marta, et. al. 2005. “Studies in Ancient Papers and Papyri by EDXRF.” 8th International Conference on “Non-destructive Investigations and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage,” Lecce, Italy, 15-19 May 2005. Eds. C. Parisi, G. Buzzanca, and A. Paradisi. Rome: Universitá Degli Studi di Lecce.

Matteini, Mauro, Arcangelo Moles, and Andreas Burmester. 1990. Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungsmethoden in der Restaurierung. München : Callwey.

McGovern, J. N. 1982. “Bonding in Papyrus and Papyrus-like Mats.” TAPPI 65(5): 159-162.

Michałowski, K. 1962. "Badania naukowe nad starozytnoscia (Scientific studies of antiquity).” Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie 6: 133-164.

Michel, Rudolph H., and Patrick E. McGovern. 1990. "The Chemical Processing of Royal Purple Dye: Ancient Descriptions as Elucidated by Modern Science, Part 2." Archeomaterials 4(1): 97-104.

Neate, Sarah, Sandrine Decoux, and Mark Pollard. 2011. An Investigation of the Extent and Causes of Salt Migration in the Papyrus and Related Collections in the Bodleian Library.“ Restaurator 32: 135-159.

Nedelcheva, E. 1974. “On the Behavior of Lignin Isolated from Cyperus Papyrus L. in Aqueous Solutions of Sugars.” Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 8(1): 79-88.

Nielson, Ingelise. 1985. "Papyrus: Structure, Manufacture and Deterioration." Copenhagen: Konservatorskolen. 185.

Olsson, A. M., et. al. 2001. “Micro-PIXE Analysis of an Ancient Egyptian Papyrus: Identification of Pigments Used for the ‘Book of the Dead.” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 181(1-4): 707-714.

Ost, Hermann, Berthold Rassow, and Wilhelm Karl Schwarze,. 1955. Lehrbuch der chemischen Technologie. Leipzig.

Rabin, Ira, Roman Schütz, Anka Kohl, Timo de Wolff, Roald Tagle, Simone Pentzien, Oliver Hahn, and Stephen Emmel. 2012. "Identification and classification of historical writing inks in spectroscopy." Compatative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter 3: 26-31.

Rajab, Hasan, Adnane El-Hamidi, and Frank Nigel Hepper. 1980. “A New Theory Brought Forward about the Adhesion of Papyrus Strips.” Basle : IPH Edition.

Reynolds, Tom. 1967. “Adhesive Substances in Cyperus Papyrus L.” Chemistry and Industry. 704-705.

Ribaucourt, N. 1797. "Über gewöhnlich schwarze Tinte." Die Neuesten Entdeckungen in der Chemie. Crell. 27. S. 45.

Riederer, Josef. 1981. Kunstwerke chemisch betrachtet: Materialien, Analysen, Altersbestimmung. Berlin : Springer.

Riederer, Josef. 1987. Archäologie und Chemie. Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz.

Schweppe, Helmut. 1993. Handbuch der Naturfarbstoffe: Vorkommen, Verwendung, Nachweis (Handbook of Natural Dyes). Landsberg am Lech.

Segal, Judith, and David Cooper. 1977. “The Use of Enzymes to Release Adhesives.” The Paper Conservator 2: 47-50.

Sider, David. 1976. "Pliny on the Manufacture of Paste for Papyrus." Zeitschrift Für Papyrologie Und Epigraphik 22: 74.

Schoppen, Armin. 2006. Tinten und Tuschen des arabisch-islamischen Mittelalters (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Dritte Folge, Band 269. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Wagner, Barbara, et. al., 2002. “Identification of inks and pigments in ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead by SEM-EDS.” Art 2002: 7th International Conference on Non-destructive Testing and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage: 2-6 June 2002, Congress Centre Elzenveld, Antwerp, Belgium. Proceedings. Eds. van Grieken, R.; Janssens, K.; Van't dack, L.; and Meersman, G. University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Wagner, Barbara et. al. “Analytical approach to the conservation of the ancient Egyptian manuscript ‘Bakai book of the Dead’ : a case study.” Microchim Acta 159 (1-2): 101-108.

Wallert, Arie, B. M. Moeliono, and J. D. Kruijer. 1989. "Mikroskopische Untersuchung von Papyrus und Plinius." Historia Naturalis XIII: 74-83.

Wiedemann, Hanus G., U. G. Mueller, and Gerd. Bayer. 1977. ”Old Egyptian Papyrus Investigated by Thermodynamical Methods.“ Thermal Analysis: Proceedings of the International Conference on Thermal Analysis. Kagaku Gyutsu-sha, Japan: 373-375.

Wildung, Dietrich. 1993. “Einblicke-Zerstörungsfreie Untersuchungen an altägyptischen Objekten. (Nondestructive Testing of Ancient Egyptian Objects).” Jahrbuch preußischer Kulturbesitz 29: 133-156.

Wilbrandt Gunter. 1971. Faserstofflehre. Leipzig : Fachbuchverlag.

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Yardley, James T. and Alexis Hagadorn. 2014. "Characterization of the Chemical Nature of the Black Ink in the Manuscript of The Gospel of Jesus’s Wife through Micro-Raman Spectroscopy." Harvard Theological Review 107(2): 162-164.

Conservation

Assis, Vania. 2016. “A Coptic Jigsaw Puzzle - Conservation of a group of Papyri.” British Museum Studies in the Ancient Egypt and Sudan. 23: 21-25.

Baker, Cathleen A. 1982. "Methylcellulose and Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose: Uses in Paper Conservation." Book and Paper Group Annual 1: 16-19. Accessed November 8, 2019.

Basile, Corrado. 1977. "Metodo usato dagli antichi Egizi per la fabbricazione e la preservazione della carta-papiro." Aegyptus 57(1): 190-199.

Beny, Ana. 2014. “Persevering After a 1,000 Years and a Blast.” Poster presented at the 10th Islamic Manuscript Association Conference, Cambridge. Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation & Dar Al Kutub Manuscript Project.

Beny, Ana, Ahmed Youssef, Mohamed Hassan, Maiada Esmail, and Noha Said. 2010. "Low-Budget and ‘Low-Tech’ Solutions for Papyrus Conservation and Storage at the National Library of Egypt." Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the 2010 IIC Congress. Accessed November 8, 2019.

Blanchard, Alain. 1993. “Les Papyrus Litteraires Grecs Extraits de Cartonnages: Etudes de Bibliologie.” Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques, Vol. 1 Eds. by M. Maniaci and P.F. Munago. Vatican City : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. 15-40.

Boffula, Paola and Sandra Hodeček. 2013. "Papyrussammlung-Österreichische Nationalbibliothek di Vienna: Il papiro P. Vindob. A. P. 9081. Restauro, digitalizzazione e catalogazione on-line.“ Department of Papyri of the Austrian National Library in Vienna. La Rivista del Restauro 26(92): 39-46. Accessed November 19, 2019.

Braat, C. C. 1985. “Papyrus: Conservatie en Restauratie (Papyrus: Conservation and Restoration).” Mededelingenblad (IIC Nederland) 2: 18-29.

Caminos, Ricardo Augusto. 1986. “Some Comments on the Reuse of Papyrus.” Papyrus: Structure and Usage. Occasional Paper 60, Ed. by M.L. Bierbrier. British Museum. 43-61.

Ciatti, Marco, Susanna Conti, Maria Cristina Guidotti and Guia Rossignoli. 2005. “Tecnica e conservazione di manufatti archeologici in fibre vegetali del Museo Egizio di Firenze. (Techniques and Conservation of Archaeological Plant-fiber Artifacts in the Egyptian Museum in Florence).” OPD Restauro 17: 285-303.

Cockle, Walter E. H. 1983. “Restoring and Conserving Papyri.” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 30: 147-165.

Dabre, Florence. 2008. "The Papyrus Codex Tchacos; Its Authentication, Conservation, and Future." Papier Restaurierung 9(4): 19-25.

Dawson, Julie. 2006. "Conserving Ancient Egypt in Cambridge." ICON News: The Magazine of the Institute of Conservation 7: 30-34.

Donnithorne, Alan. 1986. “The Conservation of Papyrus in the British Museum.” Papyrus: Structure and Usage. Occasional Paper 60, Ed. by M.L. Bierbrier. British Museum. 1-23.

Elliot, Frances. and Eric Harding. 1987. "A Modern Approach to Papyrus Conservation; Materials and Techniques as Applied at The British Museum." The Paper Conservator 11(1): 63-68.

El-Meligy, Magda G. and Wafika N. Wahba. 2002. "True Paper from Papyrus." Restaurator 23(1): 27-28. Accessed November 11, 2019.

Elnaggar, Abdelrazek, Paul Fitzsimmons, Austin Nevin, Kenneth Watkins, and Matija Strlic. 2015. “Viability of Laser Cleaning of Papyrus: Conservation and Scientific Assessment.” Studies in Conservation 60(S1): S73-S81.

Evans, Debra, Doris Hamburg, and Meredith Mickelson. 1980. "A Papyrus Treatment: Bringing the Book of the Dead to Life." Papers Presented at the Art Conservation Training Programs Conference. University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation : Winterthur, Delaware. 109-126.

Evans, Debra. 1984. Funori: A Short Description, Recipe, and Source." The Book and Paper Group Annual 3. Accessed November 19, 2019.

Doyle, Beth. 2013. "Tip: A Papyrus Rehousing Project at Duke University Libraries." In Book and Paper Group Tips Session 2013: Contemporary Treatment - Tips and Techniques.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 32: 81-82.

Fackelmann, Michael. 1985. “Restaurierung von Papyrus und Anderen Schriftträgern aus Ägypten (Restoration of Papyrus and Other Writing Supports from Egypt).” Studia Amstelodamensia ad epigraphicam, ius antiquum et papyrologicam pertinentia 24. Zutphen, Holland : Terra Publishing Co.

Fackelmann, Michael. 1981. “Neurungen in der Papyrusrestaurierung.” Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Congress of Papyrology: American Studies in Papyrology 23: 657-663.

Fackelmann, Anton. 1970. “The Restoration of the Herculaneum Papyri and Other Recent Finds.” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 17: 144-147.

Fischer, Anton. 1958. "Die Wiederinstandsetzung des Codex traditionum ecclesiae Ravennatis der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München." Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie 5: 291-305.

Flood, Per R. and Øystein Wendelbo. 1975. "The Enzymatic Extraction of Papyri from Cartonnage: A Control Study by Light- and Scanning Electron Microscopy." Restaurator 2(2): 53-59.

Fosse, Brynjhulf, Fredrik C. Störmer, and Knut Kleve. 1981. “An Easy and Cheap Method of Removing Papyrus from Gesso Cartonnage.” Symbolae Osloeness 56: 171-179.

Fuchs, Robert. 2012. “Unrolling a Papyrus: Investigations into an Extraordinary 3500-year Book of the Dead.” Care and Conservation of Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen, 13th-15th April 2011 13: 215-234.

Galinsky, Eva, Gerhard Banik, and Wolfgang Wächter. 2001. "Kunststoff-Folien in der Papierrestaurierung 1950-1970. Schwerpunkt Deutschland.“ Leipzig : Zentrum für Bucherhaltung.

Gilberg, Mark. 1988. “Antonio Piaggio and the Conservation of the Herculaneum Papyri.” Early Advances in Conservation. Occasional Paper 65: 1-6.

Graf, Jörg. 2004. "Ein Papyruskonvolut wird lesbar: Kiste A der Papyrussammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. (A Convolute of Papyri is Made Legible: Box A of the Papyrus Collection of the University Library)." Restauro 110(8): 527-531.

Graf, Jörg, Margit Homann, and Reinhold Scholl. 2010. "...mit einer Nadel in sehr dünne, aber möglichst breite Häute geteilt... oder Papyrusherstellung und Beschreibung (...divided with a needle into thin but very broad skins... or papyrus production and description).“ Katalog zur Ausstellung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig 18.06.- 26.09.2010-08-06. Leipzig : Schriften der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. 20 S.10-13.

Graf, Jörg. 2012. "Papyrusrestaurierung an der Universitätsbibliothek.“ Das Buch in Antike, Mittelalter und Neuzeit, Sonderbestände der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz Verlag.

Halleux, Robert. 1981. “The Stockholm Papyrus.” Les Alchimistes grecs: Tome 1, Papyrus de Leyde, papyrus de Stockholm, fragments de recettes. Paris : Les Belles-Lettres.

Hanley, Victoria. 2017. "Reed All About It: Conservation, Framing & Glazing of Papyri at National Museums Scotland." Tru Vue.

Harrauer, Hermann. 1985. Bericht über das 1. Wiener Symposium für Papyrusrestaurierung 4.-8.06.1984. Wien : Holzhausen.

Harrauer, Hermann. 1985. “Wiener Papyrussammlung (The Vienna papyrus collection).” Textilforum 4: 38-39.

Hedrick, C. W. 1976. “Techniques in the Placement of Papyrus Fibres.” The Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 13: 143-155.

Hermes-Wladarsch, Maria, and Jörg Graf. 2018. "Natriumchloridablagerungen auf den Innenseiten der historischen Gläser von verglasten Papyrusfragmenten."  Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete 64(2): 358-374.

Hunt, Arthur Surridge. 1983. “The Damping out and Flattening of Papyri.” The Oxyrhynchas Papyri 50. The British Academy by the Egypt Exploration Society.

Ibscher, Hugo. 1941. "Über die Wiederherstellung und Konservierung der Vendidad Handschrift K 1." The Avesta Codices K 3a, K 3b and K 1. Bd. 1. Kopenhagen. 13-17.

Ibscher, Rolf. 1959. "Die Wiederherstellung des Berliner Proverbienkodex. Der Weg zu einer neuen Konservierungsmethode für Papyri." Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen Heft 73: 362-371.

Ibscher, Rolf. 1964. “Wandlungen in der Praxis der Papyruskonservation.” Actes du Xe Congres Int.de Papyrologues, Wrocklaw-Krakau. 249-257.

Iskander, Nasry. 1996. "The Conservation and Preservation of Islamic Books, Papers, Manuscripts, Papyri, and Parchments." The Conservation and Preservation of Islamic Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation: 18th-19th November 1995. London: al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation. 119-130.

Janis, K. 1997. "Die Bearbeitung eines ptolemäischen Mumienpektorales im Interessenkonflikt zwischen Papyrologie und Restaurator (The Treatment of a Ptolemaic Mummy Trapping: A Conflict of Interest Between Papyrology and Conservation)." Göttinger Miszellen: Beiträge zur ägyptologischen Diskussion 161. 87-95.

Kamrin, Janice. 2016. "Scrolling through Imhotep's Book of the Dead." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Blogs : Now at the Met. Accessed November 19, 2019.

Kaye, Marieka. 2016. "Exploring New Glass Technology for the Glazing of Papyri." Proceedings of the 28th Congress of Papyrology: Barcelona 1-6 August 2016.

Kaye, Marieka. 2015. "Housing Papyrus at the University of Michigan Library." Archival Products 19(1): 1-3. Accessed November 19, 2019.

Krutzsch, Myriam. 1999. "Ein Papyrusfund aus dem Alten Reich: wie ist er gewickelt, wie kann man ihn entfalten? (Old Kingdom papyrus findings: how was it rolled up? How to unfold, unroll it?)." Restauro Forum 6: 460-463.

Krutzsch, Myriam, and Jörg Graf. 2006. "Falttechniken an altägyptischen Handschriften." Ägypten lesbar machen – die klassische Konservierung/Restaurierung von Papyri und neuere Verfahren, eds. J. Graf and M. Krutzsch. Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. 71-83.

Krutzsch, Myriam. 1994. "Geduld will beim Werke sein. Zur Erinnerung an Hugo Ibschers Aufnahme in der Berliner Papyrussammlung 1894." Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete 40(2): 165-166.

Krutzsch, Myriam. 2009. "Geduld Will Beim Dem Werke Sein. (Conservation Research in the Berlin Papyrus Collection)." Research in Book and Paper Conservation in Europe: A State of the Art, Ed. P. Engel. Austria : Ferdinand Berger. 43-50.

Krutzsch, Myriam. 2016. “Mounting of Papyrus Codex Sheets.” Journal of Paper Conservation 17(2): 67-69.

Krutzsch, Myriam, and Jörg Graf. 2008. "Ägypten lesbar machen- die klassische Konservierung/ Restaurierung von Papyri und neuere Verfahren." Gesammelte Beiträge des 1. Internationalen Workshops der Papyrusrestauratoren, Leipzig 7.-9. September 2006 (Archiv für Papyrusforschung, Beih. 24), hrsg. v. Jörg Graf und Myriam Krutzsch. Walter de Gruyter. 28-33.

Kulneff-Eriksson, Karin. 2009. "The Papyrus Collection in Lund." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 11: Proceedings of the 11th International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen 24-25 April 2008. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen. 91-103.

Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jerzy J. 2008. "Unstable historic glass: symptoms, causes, mechanisms and conservation." Studies in Conservation 53(sup2): 47-60.

Lau-Lamb, Leyla. 2010. "Advanced Papyrological Information System Guidelines for Conservation of Papyrus." University of Michigan Library.

Lau-Lamb, Leyla. 2007. "A New Material for the Conservation of Papyrus." The Book and Paper Group Annual 26: 187-188.

Leach, Bridget. 1999. "Conservation of Papyrus." Report on The Tomb of Senneferi, Theban Tomb 99.

Leach, Bridget. 2005. "Mounting Papyri at the British Museum." Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing, Eds. J. Rayner, J. M. Kosek, and B. Christensen. London : Archetype Publications. 193-198.

Leach, Bridget. 2006. “A Conservation History of the Ramesseum Papyri.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 92: 225 - 240.

Leach, Bridget. 1995. "Papyrus conservation at the British Museum." II rotolo librario.fabbricazione, restauro, organizzazione interna: Papyrologica Lupiensia. Lecce : Universita degli Studi di Lecce. 137-161.

Leach, Bridget and Lorna Green. 1995. "Removal of Unsuitable Linings from Illustrated Papyri: An Investigation into Suitable Consolidants and Facings." Conservation in Ancient Egyptian Collections: papers given at the conference organized by the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation, Archaeology Section, and International Academic Projects, held at London, 20-21 July 1995, Eds. C. E. Brown, F. Macalister, and M. M. Wright. London: Archetype Publications. 29-35.

Lewis, Nicola. 2005. “East Meets West: Solutions for Housing Papyri and Thangkas.” Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing, Eds. J. Rayner, J.M. Kosek, and B. Christensen. London: Archetype Publications. 187-192.

Maehler, Herwig. 1980. “A New Method of Dismounting Papyrus Cartonnage.” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 27: 120-122.

Maggen, Michael. 1997. "The Conservation of Papyri Documents Dated to the 4th Century BCE." Restaurator18(3): 153-61.

Makar, Ragai. 1984. “Conservation of Special Materials in the University of Utah Middle East Library.” MELA Notes 31 (Winter): 17 - 24.

Menei, Eve. 2017. "Use of East Asian materials and techniques on papyrus: Inspiration and adaptation ." Adapt & Evolve 2015: East Asian Materials and Techniques in Western Conservation. Proceedings from the International Conference of the Icon Book & Paper Group, London 8-10 April, 2015. London: The Institute of Conservation. 118-127.

Menei, Eve. and Laurence Caylux. 2016. “Study of Inlay Mounting of Prints and Drawings at the Louvre Museum: The Results of Several Decades of Experience.” Journal of Paper Conservation 17(1): 20-27.

Menei, Eve. and Laurence Caylux. 2013. ”Strategy in the Case of a Wrecked Papyrus: Is an Intervention Appropriate?” Paper Conservation: Decisions & Compromises, ICOM-CC Graphic Documents Working Group Interim Meeting, Vienna 17-19 April 2013. 135-138.

Menei, Eve. 2012. “Montage de Papyri Recto/Verso: Bilan, Réalisations et Recherches.” Support Tracé 12: 48-54.

Menei, Eve. 2008. "Fifteen Years of Papyri Conservation at the Louvre: The Influence of Japanese Techniques." Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete - Beihefte 24. 62-67.

Miller, Julia. 2010. Books Will Speak Plain. A Handbook for Identifying and Describing Historical Bindings. Ann Arbor, Michigan : The Legacy Press.

Nielsen, Ingelise. 1985. Papyrus, structure, manufacture and deterioration. Konservatorskolen, Copenhagen. 104-150.

Noack, Gisela. 1986. "Conservation of Yale's Papyrus Collection." The Book and Paper Group Annual 4: 61-73.

Novak, Vanessa. 2016. “Wiedergeburt eines vergessenen Papyrus: zur Konservierung und Restaurierung einer Papyrusrolle der Ägyptisch-Orientalischen Sammlung (Rebirth of a Forgotten Papyrus: The Preservation and Restoration of a Papyrus Scroll from the Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection)." Technologische Studien: Konservierung, Restaurierung, Forschung, Technologie 12: 96-123.

Oltrogge, Doris and Fuchs, Robert. 2009. Die Maltechnik des Codex Aurens aus Echternach: Ein Meisterwerk im Wandel. Nürnberg : Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums.

Owen, Antoinette, and Rachel Danzing. 1993. "The History and Treatment of the Papyrus Collection at The Brooklyn Museum." The Book and Paper Group Annual 12. Accessed November 21, 2019.

Pack, Susanne P., and Nathan Stolow. 1978. “A Microclimate for a Fayum Painting.” Studies in Conservation 23: 47-56.

Peterman, Glen. 1994. “Conservation of the Petra Papyri.” The Biblical Archaeologist 57(4): 242-243.

Pintaudi, Rosario. 1976/77. “Il Restauro dei Papiri: Note, Proposte, Esemplificazioni (The Restoration of Papyri: Notes, Proposals, Case Studies).” Bolletino dell’Istituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro “Alfonso Gallo” 34: 3-33.

Plenderleith, Harold James and Alfred Emil Anthony Werner. 1971. The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art: Treatment, Repair, and Restoration. London : Oxford University Press. 44-69.

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Quandt, Abigail. 2002. "The Archimedes palimpsest: Conservation treatment, digital imaging and transcription of a rare medieval manuscript." Studies in Conservation 47(Supplement 3): 165-170.

Ragab, Hasan. 1984. “Establishment of an International Papyrus Restoration Centre.” Spirit of Enterprise: The 1984 Rolex Awards. London : Aurum Press Ltd.. 298-301.

Ragab, Hasan. 1982. “Une Nouvelle Methode Pour la Restauration Integrate du Papyrus Avarie (A New Method for the Complete Restoration of Damaged Papyrus)." La Conservazione delle Carte Antiche 3: 11-18.

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Regulski, Ilona. 2016. "“Fill my hand with a papyrus sheet so that I can tell you a lot!” A papyrus bundle for Bridget Leach ." British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 23: 1-5.

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Salz, Karl and Ladislav Skrivanek. 1972. "Application of Copolymers for Polyvinyl Acetals as a Means for Protection, Preservation, Restoration, Stabilization, Hydrophobization of Papyrus, Papers, Books and/or Manuscripts." U.S. Patent No. 3,698,925. Washington, DC : US Patent Office.

Schluttig, Oswald and Neumann, Georg Sigismund. 1890. Die Eisengallustinten zu ihrer Beurtheilung. Dresden : V. Zahn and Jaensch.

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Streri, A. 2012. "Mounting Papyri: Example of Mounting a Papyrus Collection of the Islamic Art Department in the Louvre Museum." Journal of Paper Conservation: IADA Reports 13(3): 32-35.

Sutter, Hans-Peter. 2002. Holzschädlinge an Kulturgütern erkennen und bekämpfen. Handbuch für Denkmalpfleger, Restauratoren, Konservatoren, Architekten und Holzfachleute. Bern : Haupt Verlag.

Taylor, John, Bridget Leach, and Helen Sharp. 2001. "The history and conservation of the papyrus of Tuy." The British Museum Technical Research Bulletin 5: 95-104. Accessed November 21, 2019.

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Wallert, Arie. 1989. "The reconstruction of papyrus manufacture: A preliminary investigation." Studies in Conservation 34(1): 1-8.

Watteeuw, Lieve and Christa Hofmann, eds., 2013. "Paper Conservation: Decisions & Compromises." Extended Abstracts presented at the ICOM-CC Graphic Document Working Group - Interim Meeting. Vienna: International Council of Museums.

Wendelbo, Oystein. 1974. “Extraction of Papyri from Gesso Cartonnage: A New Method Based on an Enzymatic Approach.” Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Papyrologists. Oxford. 337-340.

Wendelbo, Oystein. 1977. “The Enzymatic Scalpel - on the Use of Proteolytic Enzymes in Restoration of Paper and Papyrus.” Research in Norway Ed. by M.S. Morlensen. Oslo: Norwegian Council for Science and the Humanities. 9-15.

Wendelbo, Oystein. 1975. “The Freeing of Papyri from Cartonnage.” Restaurator 2(2): 41-52.

Wendelbo, Oystein. 1975. “The Removal of Papyrus from Gesso Cartonnage with Some Remarks on the Separation of Glued Papyri.” Symbolae Osloenses 50: 155-157.

Wendelbo, Oystein. 1974. “The Use of Enzymes for Restoration Purposes.” Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgique 12.

Wendelbo, Oystein. 1976. The Use of Proteolytic Enzymes in the Restoration of Paper and Papyrus : a Contribution to Interdisciplinary Applied Research. Bergen, Norway : University Library of Bergen, Division of the Faculty of Medicine.

Wright, Margot M. 1983. “A Method of Extracting Papyri from Cartonnage.” Studies in Conservation 28(3): 1983: 122-126.

Wunderlich, Christian-Heinrich. 1994. Zur Zuverlässigkeit des Korrosionsschutzverfahrens mit Tannin (On the reliability of a corrosion protection procedure using tannin)." Arbeitsblätter für Restauratoren 1: 280-286.

Photography and Imaging

Alexopoulou, Athina, Agathi-Anthoula Kaminari, Athanasios Panagopoulos, and Egert Pöhlmann. 2013. “Multispectral Documentation and Image Processing Analysis of the Papyrus of Tomb II at Daphne, Greece.” Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2): 1242-1249.

Andorlini, Isabella et. al. 1993. “Use of CCD Cameras and Red-extended Photographic Film for Inspection and Recording of Dark Papyri.” Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 2: 115-122.

Bay, Stephen, Roger Macfarlane, Thomas Wayment and Gregory Bearman. 2010. “Multi-Spectral Imaging vs. Monospectral Infrared Imaging.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik Bd. 173: 211 - 217.

Bearman, Gregory. H. and Sheila I. Spiro. 1996. “Archaeological Applications of Advanced Imaging Techniques.” The Biblical Archaeologist 59(1): 56-66.

Bridgman, Clarence F. 1973. "The Radiography of Museum Objects." Expedition Magazine 15(3): 2-14.

Bulow-Jacobsen, Adam. 1979. "Some Considerations on the Quality of Microfilms of Manuscripts." Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen Âge Grec et Latin 30: 91-104.

Cockle, Walter E. H. 1974. “Taking Photographs of Papyri.” Akten des XIII. Internationalen Papyrologenkongressess, Marburg/Lahn, 2-6 August 1971, Eds. Von E. Kiebling and H.A. Rupprecht. Munich. 83-88.

Coles, Revel. 1978. “International Papyrological Photographic Archive: Report of the Cairo Mission, February/March 1978.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 32: 223 - 231.

Helgerson, L. 1987. “Scanners Present Maze of Options.” Mini-Micro Systems 20(1): 71-81.

Labaune, Julien, et. al. 2010. “Papyrus Imaging with Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy.” Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing 100(3): 607-612.

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Enhancement of Script

Allegra, Dario, et al.. 2016. “X-ray Computed Tomography for Virtually Unrolling Damaged Papyri.” Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 122(3): 1-7.

Andorlini, Isabella, et al.. 1993. "Use of CCD Cameras and Red-extended Photographic film for Inspection and Recording of Dark Papyri." Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage 2: 115-122.

Baum, Daniel, et al.. 2017. "Revealing hidden text in rolled and folded papyri." Applied Physics 123(171). Accessed November 21, 2019.

Bertani, Duilio et al. 2008. "High Resolution Digital Recording of Papyri in the Visible and Near Infrared." 17th International Meeting on Heritage Conservation: 20-22 November, Castellón, Vila-Real, Burriana, 2008: Preprints of the Papers to the Congress. Fundación de la Comunidad Valenciana La Llum de les Imatges, Valencia, Spain. 135-138.

Brun, Emmanuel, Marine Cotte, Jon P. Wright, and Marie Ruat. 2016. “Revealing Metallic Ink in Herculaneum Papyri.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" 113(14): 3751-3754.

Coughlin, Ellen K. 1987. “Cameras, Computers Help to Decipher Ancient Texts.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 34(11): A6-A9.

Delattre, Daniel and Emmanuel Brun. 2015. "Lire le contenu des rouleaux carbonisés d'Herculanum sans les ouvrir (Reading the contents of charred Herculaneum rolled papyri without opening them)." Support Tracé 15: 9-16.

Elmer-DeWitt, Philip. 1988. “When the Dead are Revived.” Time. 80-81.

Engel, Patricia. 2014. “Deletions in Manuscripts: Historical Sources and Physical Traces.” Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 14: 109-135.

Fackelmann, Michael. 1971. "Ein neuer Weg zur Wiederherstellung von Papyrus- Kodizes: Die Restaurierung des Wiener Hilarius." Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 13: 187-194.

Gargano, Marco, et. al. 2015. "A perceptual approach to the fusion of visible and NIR images in the examination of ancient documents.” Journal of Cultural Heritage 16(4): 518-525.

Gibson, Adam, et. al. 2018. "An Assessment of Multimodal Imaging of Subsurface Text in Mummy Cartonnage Using Surrogate Papyrus Phantoms." Heritage Science 6(7): 1-13.

Scholl, Reinhold. 2008. "Das Papyrusprojekt Halle-Jena-Leipzig (The papyrus project Halle-Jena-Leipzig)." Ägypten lesbar machen- die klassische Konservierung/ Restaurierung von Papyri und neuere Verfahren: Gesammelte Beiträge des 1. Internationalen Workshops der Papyrusrestauratoren, Leipzig, 7-9.09.2006. Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. 28-33.

Graf, Jörg. 2004. "Ein Papyruskonvolut wird lesbar: Kiste A der Papyrussammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. (A Convolute of Papyri is Made Legible: Box A of the Papyrus Collection of the University Library Leipzig).” Restauro: Forum für Restauratoren, Konservatoren und Denkmalpfleger 110(8): 527-531.

Graf, Jörg. 2008. Kapillarreinigung, eine schonende Methode in der Restaurierung (Capillary cleaning, a gentle method in the restoration)?“ Ägypten lesbar machen- die klassische Konservierung/Restaurierung von Papyri und neure Verfahren: Gesammelte Beiträge des 1. Internationalen Workshops der Papyrusrestauratoren Leipzig, 7-9.09.2006. Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. 23-27.

Kwiatkowski, Kazimierz. 1950. ”Zastosowanie lamp analitycznych do odczytywania papirusów (The Use of Analytical Lamps for Reading Papyri).” Meander 5(8): 469-478.

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Mrusek, Ralf, Fuchs, Robert, and Oltrogge, Doris. 1995. "Spektrale Fenster der Vergangenheit Ein neues Reflektographieverfahren zur Untersuchung von Buchmalerei und historischem Schriftgut (Spectral windows on the past A new reflectography method for investigating book illumination and historical documents)." Naturwissenschaften 82: 68-79.

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Stege, Heike, Hahn, Oliver, and Müller, Jörn. 2004. "Die mobile Mikro-Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse. Neue Möglichkeiten der In-situ-Untersuchung (Mobile micro X-ray fluorescent analysis: new possibilities for in-situ examination)." Restauro: Forum für Restauratoren, Konservatoren und Denkmalpfleger 6: 385-389.

Terras, Melissa. 2017. “Mummy Mask Cartonnage Imaging Program.” University College London, Arcadia Grant 3733 Project Report. 1-38.

Toth, Michael. 2018. "Integrating Optical Imaging of Mummy Mask Cartonnage." Proceedings of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology Archiving 2018 Conference. Washington D.C.

Oates, Joh F., Richard J. Weinberg, Joshua D. Sosin and Paul B. Johnson. 1999. “Reading Invisible Ink: Digital Imaging of P.Duk.Inv 716.” Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik 127: 127-130.

Oltrogge, Doris. 2006. "Zerfallen – nicht lesbar – nicht sichtbar. Die Bandpaßfilter-Reflektographie als Hilfsmittel der Handschriftenkunde." Totenbuch-Forschungen. Gesammelte Beiträge des 2. Internationalen Totenbuch-Symposiums 2005. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz Verlag. 273-282.

History of This Chapter


This page was created in October, 2018 by Alexander Bero using material contributed by Marieka Kaye and Theresa Smith.


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