BPG Non-Western Bookbinding Structures and Their Conservation

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This page is an attempt to expand the Book Conservation Wiki to include non-Western binding traditions. We welcome citations to useful articles or books, links to online resources, original content, images and pdfs, and conservation tips. Many of the sections could develop into stand-alone wiki topics, and if you are interested in helping with this effort, please get in touch.

The BPG Wiki page on Culturally Sensitive Treatment discusses conservation ethics and the components of artifacts that should not be lost during treatment. These issues are particularly relevant when conservators educated in one culture conserve objects from another, so these two pages will overlap substantially. If a resource is useful in both pages, please include it in both or provide links back and forth.

Wiki Contributors: Rachel Bissonnette, Xiaoping Cai, Amélie Couvrat Desvergnes, Tessa Gadomski, Marieka Kaye, Katherine Kelly, Yasmeen Khan, Suzy Morgan, Jan Paris, Dan Paterson, Kristine Rose-Beers, Michelle C. Smith, María Helena Vargas, Aisha Wahab, Emily Williams, please add your name here

Copyright 2020. The Book and Paper Group Wiki is a publication of the Book and Paper Group of the American Institute for Conservation. It is published as a convenience for the members of the Book and Paper Group. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described herein. Please follow these instructions for citing the BPG Wiki, keeping in mind that the Wiki is a work in progress and is frequently updated. The BPG Wiki coordinators can be reached at bo[email protected].


See also: BPG Endbands

Hille, Jenny and Sylvie L. Merian. 2011. “The Armenian Endband: History and Technique.The New Bookbinder 31: 45-59. Accessed online through Academia.edu April 15, 2020.

Khan, Yasmeen, and Tamara Ohanyan. 2013. "Deceptive Covers: Armenian Bindings of 18th-Century Imprints from Constantinople." The Book and Paper Group Annual 32. Accessed March 13, 2017.

Merian, Sylvie. 1993. "The Structure of Armenian Bindings and its Relation to Near Eastern Bookmaking Traditions" Ph.D, diss., Columbia University

Referenced in Julia Miller's book below.

Merian, Sylvie L. 2013. “Protection against the Evil Eye? Votive Offerings on Armenian Manuscript Bindings.” in Suave Mechanicals. Essays on the history of bookbinding, vol. 1, ed. Julia Miller. Ann Arbor, MI, The Legacy Press. 42-93.

Miller, Julia. 2010. Books Will Speak Plain: a Handbook for Identifying and Describing Historical Bindings. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Legacy Press.

Discusses Armenian bindings, with illustrations, in the chapter on "The Early History of the Codex"

Byzantine / Medieval Bookbinding

Boudalis, Georgios. 2004? "Surveying bindings of the late 15th-early 18th century in the libraries of the Iviron monastery / Mount Athos and the St. Catherine’s monastery / Sinai." Unpublished (?), possibly part of the authors PhD thesis. Accessed online through Academia.edu June 12, 2017.

From the introduction: "The following paper concerns the methodological approach used for the survey of post-Byzantine binding structures."

Boudalis, Georgios. 2010. "Preserving the book as artefact: Conservation as the ideal occasion in which books are both repaired and structurally understood." In Choices In Conservation Practice Versus Research." Graphic Documents Working Group – Interim Meeting ICOM-CC. Accessed online though Academia.edu June 12, 2017.

The author states in this conclusions that "book conservation cannot be regarded merely as an occasion for repairing a book but also as a rare instance in which the inner, often hidden, structure of the book can be glimpsed and recorded. Such documentation not only improves and enriches our knowledge of the evolution of book structures but also allows for a more sympathetic conservation in which materials and techniques used could be inspired by or even copy old techniques, originally found on the same books due to be repaired."

Boudalis, Georgios. 2012. "The conservation of an early sixteenth-century bound Greek manuscript: An insight into Byzantine bookbinding through conservation." In Care and conservation of manuscripts 13. Proceedings of the thirteenth international seminar held at the University of Copenhagen 13th–15th April 2011. Accessed online though Academia.edu June 12, 2017.

From the introduction: "This paper presents the conservation of a bound paper codex from the collection of the Aristotle University Library in Thessaloniki and the insights into hitherto unrecorded technical features that were gained through this process."

Boudalis, Georgios. 2016. "The Transition from Byzantine to post-Byzantine Bookbindings: A Statistical Analysis of Some Crucial Changes." Book and Paper Conservation 2: 12-29. Accessed online through Academia.edu April 15, 2020.

The Codex and Crafts in Late Antiquity. 2018. Bard Graduate Center. Accessed May 19, 2020. https://exhibitions.bgc.bard.edu/craftandcodex

East Asian Bookbinding

See also: East Asian Scrolls

There is a rich history in the West of collecting books from East Asia, predominantly from China, Korea, and Japan. Woodblock imprints started to arrive in significant numbers in the US during the second half of the 19th century, brought over by missionaries or as gifts from governments, scholars, and students of East Asia. The top 10 largest East Asian rare book collections in the United States are held at the following institutions:

  1. Library of Congress
  2. Harvard University
  3. University of California, Berkeley
  4. Columbia University
  5. Yale University
  6. University of Michigan
  7. University of Chicago
  8. Princeton University
  9. Cornell University
  10. Stanford University

Bibliography and philology is very interconnected between the three countries, therefore studying the history of the book across East Asia will assist a conservator in making the appropriate, culturally sensitive decisions when major intervention is required, such as re-binding, extensive paper repair, and new housing.

Jesse Munn’s important article in the Journal of the Institute of Conservation (2009) should be carefully studied by anyone working with East Asian collections. A direct link can be found here: Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections. Her work emphasizes the importance of cultural sensitivity when approaching materials from different countries that appear similar on first glance but have varying characteristics that must be respected and preserved by the conservator.

Characteristics of East Asian Books

The following information was collected during a course taken through the California Rare Book School, titled The History of the Book in East Asia. This course was held in 2014 at the University of California, Berkeley’s C.V. Starr East Asian Library, taught by Peter Zhou and Deborah Rudolph.

East Asian books may be considered rare or remarkable for one or more of the following distinct elements:

  • Generally dated before 1796 – books dated prior to 1796 can no longer be legally obtained unless by auction or official permit to bring it out of its country of origin
  • Woodblock printing
  • Movable type printing – clay, wood, metal type
  • Manuscripts or hand-copied books
  • Important collectors’ stamps, annotations, color printing, seals

Characteristics particular to country of origin:

  • Korean: larger sizes and fonts, thicker and shinier cover, five stitches, Korean paper
  • Japanese: not as large as Korean but wider than Chinese, cover page with title label, fonts less varied and more rigid/mechanical
  • Chinese: four holes are standard but six holes were also used for more important books

Historically, local book collectors would purchase books and immediately replace the covers and cases. Rebinding volumes was very commonplace. Therefore, the number of chapters is important because when books were rebound, volume numbers changed but chapter numbers remained the same. It is also important to note that book dealers would sometimes remove content that might identify the date of an engraving, add forged (or real) ex libris seals, and add a different title. Other printers’ practices to watch out for include the production of pirated editions from print copies and passing off facsimiles as older editions.

Today the principals of book conservation in East Asian countries align with Western principals: preserve the original look and feel of the book, intervene as little as possible, and conduct treatments that may be reversed if needed in the future.

Important parts of a book that may not be original but were added by the collector and must remain in situ (particularly in Chinese bindings):

  • Title page: not many title pages remain because they were more prone to damage and subsequent loss, or were sold off by dealers
  • Preface and back matter: collectors frequently wrote about the book in the back
  • Table of contents
  • “Editorial principles” (fanli): “to the reader” section explaining why the book is organized a certain way
  • First page of text (juanduan): name of annotator and publisher may be included here, instead of the author
  • Last page of text (juanmo): states “The End”
  • Printer’s colophon: may include year, month, printer’s name, and “book forest” – the part of town where printers and publishers would be established

Placement of key elements of the book, important if considering collation:

Format of a leaf in a block-printed Chinese book
  • Title: opening text/first chapter, end of text/last chapter, table of contents, preface, postscript, heart of the block (title abbrev.), title page, original printed title slip pasted to the front cover, printer’s colophon (except in Chinese books), on the housing (less reliable), on the tail edge (less reliable)
  • Author: opening text/first chapter, table of contents, preface, title page; if no author is found, the leaf may be missing, an alternate name was used, a pseudonoym was used, or it is falsely attributed
  • Publisher: printer’s colophon, title page, heart of the block (bottom), sometimes at a chapter opening
  • Date of engraving (different from date of printing): printer’s colophon, title page, sometimes preface
  • Date of printing: rarely included, sometimes handwritten
  • Engravers: heart of the block with character count, heart of the block with notation bu

Important aspects of the leaf layout (see illustration for detail on terminology):

  • Not all books have an upper register
  • The margin at the head is larger than the margin at the foot
  • The center of the sheet contains a guide as to where to fold the sheet with an “elephant trunk” at the top and a “fish tail” at the bottom


Chinese bookbinding

Allen, S.M., Zuzao, L., Xiaolan, C. and Bos, J. eds., 2010. The history and cultural heritage of Chinese calligraphy, printing and library work. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Accessed April 23, 2017.

Brokaw, C. 2005. On the History of the Book in China. In Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China, edited by Cynthia, B and Chow, K.W, 3–54. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chang, P. 1993. Chinese Rare Book Collections in Taiwan: Their History, Cataloging and Conservation. Journal of East Asian Libraries 1993 (101): 24. Accessed March 26, 2017.

Chia, Lucille. 2002. Printing For Profit: The Commercial Publishers of Jianyang, Fujian (11th-17th centuries). Harvard-Yenching Institute monograph series, 56. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center for Harvard-Yenching Institute: distributed by Harvard University Press.

Chinnery, T. 2007. Some Characteristics of the Dunhuang Booklets. The International Dunhuang Project.

Illustrated article describing the various Chinese bookbinding styles found in the Dunhuang collection of the British Library. Includes butterfly binding (hudie zhuang), stitched binding (xian zhuang), Chinese pothi (fanjia zhuang), whirlwind binding (xuanfeng zhuang), concertina binding (jingzhe zhuang), wrapped-back binding (baobei zhuang), and a selective bibliography.

Conservation & Collection Care. Conservation of Chinese Books. Post on the website of Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Accessed March 26, 2017.

Edgren, J.S. 2009. China. In A Companion to the History of the Book, edited by Eliot, S. and Rose, J, 97-110. John Wiley & Sons.

Edgren, J. S. 2010. The History of the Book in China. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, edited by Suarez, M.F. and Woudhuysen, H.R, 353–365. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Edgren, J.S. 2013. “The History of the Book in China.” Michael F. Suarez, S.J., and H.R. Woodhausen (eds.). The Book: A Global History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 571-592.

Helliwell, David (trans. & ed.). 1998. “The Repair and Binding of Old Chinese Books Translated and Adapted for Western Conservators (from a manual of traditional restoration techniques by Xiao Zhentang and Ding Yu).” The East Asian Library Journal 8 (Spring): 27-149.

Koretsky, Elaine. 2009. Killing Green: An Account of Hand Papermaking in China. Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press.

Lee, V. C. 1929. "A Sketch of the Evolution of Chinese Book-Binding." Library Science Quarterly 3: 539-550.

Li, Mingjie and Jinfang Niu. 2010. “A Preservation Framework for Chinese Ancient Books.Journal of Documentation 66 (2): 259-278.

Lin,M., Qiu, W., and Zhang, L. 2014. Traditional Chinese Book and Document Preservation: Brief History and Essential Techniques and Their Contemporary Applications. Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture 43(4): 142-161.

Liu, Jiazhen. 1999. “Preservation of Library Materials in China: Problems and Solutions.Asian Libraries 8 (12): 480-483. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Marshall, Heather. 2016 (Oct. 17). “From West to East: Conservation of the Chinese novel ‘Dream of the Red Chamber.'British Library Collection Care Blog. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Martinique, Edward. 1973. "The Binding and Preservation of Chinese Double-Leaved Books." The Library Quarterly 43 (3): 227-236. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Martinique, Edward. 1983. Chinese Traditional Bookbinding: A Study of Its Evolution and Techniques. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center.

McDermott, J. P. 2006. "A social history of the Chinese book: books and literati culture in late imperial China". Hong Kong University Press.

Ming, Lin and Qiu Weiqing. 2014. “Traditional Chinese Book and Document Preservation: Brief History and Essential Techniques and Their Contemporary Applications.Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture 43 (4): 142-161. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Munn, Jesse. 2009. "Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 103-127. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Tsien, T. 2008. Written on Bamboo and Silk: the Beginnings of Chinese Books and Inscriptions". 2nd ed. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press; 2nd edition.

Korean bookbinding

Kornicki, P.F. 2009. Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In A Companion to the History of the Book, edited by Eliot, S. and Rose, J, 111-125. John Wiley & Sons.

Kornicki, Peter. 2013. “The History of the Book in Korea.” Michael F. Suarez, S.J., and H.R. Woodhausen (eds.). The Book: A Global History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 605-621.

Lee, Aimee. 2012. Hanji Unfurled: One Journey into Korean Papermaking. Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press.

McKillop, Beth. 2010. The History of the Book in Korea. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, edited by Suarez, M.F. and Woudhuysen, H.R, 366–373. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Munn, Jesse. 2009. "Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 103-127. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Song, Minah. 2009. "The History and Characteristics of Traditional Korean Books and Bookbinding." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 53-78. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Japanese bookbinding

Atwood, Catherine. 1987. "Japanese Folded Sheet Books: Construction, Materials and Conservation." The Paper Conservator 11 (1): 10-21.

Barrett, Timothy. 1984. Japanese Papermaking: Traditions, Tools, and Techniques. Boston: Weatherhill.

Hioki, Kazuko. 2009. "Japanese Printed Books of the Edo Period (1603–1867): History and Characteristics of Block‐Printed Books." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 79-101. Accessed March 11, 2017.

Ikegami, Kojiro, and Barbara B. Stephan. 1986. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Craftsman. First edition. New York: Weatherhill.

Korbel, Barbara, and Janice Katz. 2005. "Binding Beauty: Conserving a Collection of Japanese Printed Books." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 31 (2): 16-105. Accessed March 23, 2017.

Kornicki, P.F. 1998. The book in Japan: A cultural history from the beginnings to the nineteenth century. University of Hawaii Press.

Kornicki, P.F. 2009. Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In A Companion to the History of the Book, edited by Eliot, S. and Rose, J, 111-125. John Wiley & Sons.

Kornicki, P.F. 2010. The History of the Book in Japan. In The Oxford Companion to the Book, edited by Suarez, M.F. and Woudhuysen, H.R, 375–385. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McKillop, Beth. 2013. “The History of the Book in Japan.” Michael F. Suarez, S.J., and H.R. Woodhausen (eds.). The Book: A Global History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 593-604.

Munn, Jesse. 2009. "Side‐Stitched Books of China, Korea and Japan in Western Collections." Journal of the Institute of Conservation 32 (1): 103-127. Accessed March 23, 2017.


Di Bella , Marco and Nikolas Sarris. 2014. “Field conservation in East Tigray, Ethiopia.” Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 14. 271-307.

Hanscom, Bill. 2016. “Towards a Morphology of the Ethiopian Book Satchel.” .” In Suave Mechanicals, Vol. 3, edited by Julia Miller. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Legacy Press. 300-355.

Paterson, Dan. 2008. "An Investigation and Treatment of an Uncommon Ethiopian Binding and Consideration of its Historical Context." The Book and Paper Group Annual 27: 55-62.


Line drawing of archetypal Islamic manuscript reproduced from Bosch et. al (1981), pg. 38. Note several disclaimers: the “endcap” is a later English term (leather at head and tail of the spine is not turned in), the continuous doublure and additional fore-edge lining represent a hybrid structure, and the envelope flap likely tucked under the upper cover.

See also: BPG Endbands

Annotated Bibliography

Abdul Razak, Rajabi, and Idries Trevathan. 2010. "The 19th-Century Malay Qurān A Comparative Study of Materials and Techniques." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 1 (1): 79-94.

Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. 2016. Persian Bookbindings of the Fifteenth Century. [S.l.]: Univ. of Michigan Press.

Descriptions of ornamental designs on 15th century Persian bookbindings with black and white images.

Anselmi, Chiara , Paola Ricciardi, David Buti, Aldo Romani, Patrizia Moretti, Kristine Rose Beers, Brunetto Giovanni Brunetti, Costanza Miliani, and Antonio Sgamellotti. 2015. "MOLAB® meets Persia: Non-invasive study of a sixteenth-century illuminated manuscript." Studies in Conservation 60 Suppl. 1. 185- 192. DOI:10.1179/0039363015Z.000000000223.

Full analytical report on the non-invasive analysis of an illustrated 16th century volume of Persian poetry, carried out in collaboration with the EU-funded MOLAB initiative, at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge.

Anvari, Marjan and Roozbeh Mafi. 2014. “Applying New Techniques on A Traditional Adhesive for Book Conservation.” Poster presented at the annual meeting for the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, San Francisco, California. Accessed March 2017.

Arnold, Thomas Walker, Adolf Grohmann, and J. Allan. 1929. The Islamic Book; A Contribution to Its Art and History from the VII-XVIII century. [Paris]: Pegasus Press.

Baker, Cathleen A., and Evyn Kropf. 2013. "A Conservative Tradition? Arab Papers of the 12th-17th Centuries from the Islamic Manuscripts Collection at the University of Michigan." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 4 (1): 1-48.

Survey of 15th century Damascus papers, analyzing production technique and material qualities, promoting datable and localizable features of Islamic papers. Addressing historical resources and the study of paper and papermaking in the Islamic world.

Baydar, Nil. 2002. "Structural Features and Conservation Problems of Turkish Manuscripts and Suggestions for Solutions." Works of Art on Paper Books, Documents and Photographs : Techniques and Conservation : Contributions to the Baltimore Congress, IIC, 2-6 September 2002. 5-10.

Baydar, Nil. 2005. "Conservation Aspects of Ottoman Period Manuscripts: Binding Decoration and Hand Tools for Making Bindings." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts. 190-207.

Baydar, Nil. 2010. "Newly Identified Techniques In The Production Of Islamic Manuscripts." Studies in Conservation = Études De Conservation 55 (3): 69.

Beaty, Katherine. 2005. 21st C. Remedies to 19th C. Repairs of an 18th C. Koran: Materials Analysis, Treatment, and Housing. Poster presented at the 2005 ANAGPIC Annual Student Conference. Accessed March 21, 2017.

Ben Azzouna, Nourane, and Patricia Roger-Puyo. 2016. "The Question of the Formation of Manuscript Production Workshops in Iran According to Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍl Allah al-Hamadhānī’s Majmūʿa Rashīdiyya in the Bibliothèque nationale de France " Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7 (2): 152-194.

Benson, Jake. 2012. "Naqsh Bar Āb: Safavid marbled papers of the late 16th to early 17th centuries." Paper presented at the Historians of Islamic Art Association biannual symposium, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 18–20 October 2012.

This presentation is available as a video (accessed March 21, 2017).

Beny A., Arias T.E., and Torres J.P.A. 2015. "Andalusi Binding: A Model of Islamic Binding from the Iberian Peninsula, 14th-16th Century." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 6 (2-3): 157-173.

Beny, Ana and Kristine Rose Beers. 2016. "An Inspiration for Conservation: An Historic Andalusi Binding Structure." In Suave Mechanicals: Essays on the History of Bookbinding, vol. 3, edited by Julia Miller, 160-195. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Legacy Press.

A detailed historical study of the Andalusi binding typology, and its relevance to book conservators today. This study includes a review of recent literature, and a practical, illustrated guide to the use of culturally sympathetic techniques for the conservation of Islamic manuscript material.

Biddle, Michaelle. 2011. "Inks in the Islamic Manuscripts of Northern Nigeria Old Recipes, Modern Analysis and Medicine." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 2 (1): 1-35.

Biddle, Michaelle. 2012. "Recent Preservation and Conservation Activities for Northern Nigerian Manuscripts in Arabic Script." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 3 (2): 211-229.

Bloom, Jonathan. 2001. Paper Before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World. New Haven: Yale University Press.

History of paper and papermaking in the Islamic world, its impact on book production, literacy, scholarship, and art. Book also looks at Islamic world bringing paper to Europe, the development of printing and its impact, and lack of scholarship in the history and study of Islamic paper.

Bosch, Gulnar, John Carswell, and Guy Betherbridge. 1981. Islamic Binding and Bookmaking: a Catalogue of an Exhibition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

A fundamental and frequently cited text. Catalogue in three parts— chapter two on materials and techniques is likely the most valuable for the conservation audience. At the time of its publication this study offered a clear overview of the construction of Islamic manuscripts, however since the body of scholarship surrounding Islamic bookmaking has grown some of the assumptions set forth by Bosch et. al have been altered. Notably the notion that Islamic book structures function only as case-bindings has been discredited.

Brockett, Adrian Alan. 1987. Aspects of the Physical Transmission of the Qur'ān in 19th-century Sudan: Script, Decoration, Binding and Paper. Leiden: Lugt Press.

Brown, Christopher. 1998. “Ottoman Bookbinding.” Post on the BookArts email list, April 17, 1998. Accessed March 2017.

Burgio L., Clark R.J.H., Muralha V.S.F., and Stanley T. 2008. "Pigment Analysis by Raman Microscopy of the Non-Figurative Illumination in 16th- to 18th-Century Islamic Manuscripts." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39 (10): 1482-1493.

Campbell, Elissa. 2013. “A Look at the World of Islamic Book­bind­ing with Yas­meen Khan – Day 1.” Blog post, May 18, 2013. Accessed March 2017.

Chaplin, T. D., R. J. Clark, A. McKay, and S. Pugh. 2006. "Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Selected Astronomical and Cartographic Folios from the Early 13th century Islamic `Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes.'" Journal of Raman Spectroscopy : JRS 37 (8): 865-877.

Checkley-Scott, Caroline. 2008. “The Syriac Book.” Contributions to the Symposium on the Care and Conservation of Middle Eastern Manuscripts. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne: 49–54.

Chowdry, Anita. The Book of Gold: Making and Using Shell Gold. An Artist's Resource Book. Self-published e-book on Etsy. Accessed March 2017.

Colini C. 2016. "How Conservation Can Unveil the Story of a Manuscript. An Arabic Quran Commentary from the Yemen." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7 (3): 261-293.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. 2014. "The Conservation of the Islamic Book Bindings of the Department of Islamic Art, Musée du Louvre". Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 5. Brill, Leiden.

Describes the project on Islamic bookbinding conservation for the reopening of the Islamic department, Musée du Louvre, in 2012.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. January 2014. "Of Books & Men: Past Cultural Practices and Methods of Islamic Manuscripts Preservation in Iran and India. PART I: Identification of Historical Interleaving Materials Used in the Iranian and Indian Manuscripts". COMSt e-Newsletter 7. Accessed March 14, 2017.

Gives an insight on interleaving materials encountered in Islamic manuscripts and points out the importance of documenting and keeping these materials as pieces of evidences for book history.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. July 2014. "Of Books & Men: Past Cultural Practices and Methods of Islamic Manuscripts Preservation in Iran and India. PART II: Protecting Indo Islamic Manuscripts, Cultural Human Behaviours for Pest Control". COMSt e-Newsletter 8. Accessed March 14, 2017.

Provides an overview on some of the indigenous methods implemented to prevent insect ingress in manuscripts in India. Emphasis is also given to document and preserve every pieces of evidence which illustrate cultural practices and concerns for book preservation and pest control.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. 2015. "Skin Against Paper: Identification of Historical Interleaving Materials in Indo-Iranian Manuscripts". Book and Paper Group Annual 34.

Gives an insight on a specific material encountered in some 19th century Iranian manuscripts: the interleaves made of sheep skin splits.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. January 2015. "De l’importance de l’histoire et des techniques pour la restauration d’un Coran Safavide". Conservation Restauration des Biens Culturels, ARAAFU number 32. Paris.

In French with English abstract. Illustrated. Discusses through the case study of an Iranian Qur'an conservation, the importance of historical and artistic knowledge in the treatment decision making.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. 2016. "Identification et signification des serpentes rencontrées dans des copies marocaines du DalĀ’il al-ḫayrĀt: premiers résultats" in Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen, number 22.

Reports the first results on the significance of interleaves found in copies of Dala'il al Khayrat in Morocco and on the scientific identification of the dyestuffs used to tone the papers of these materials.

de Vries, Herre. 2016. "Reading the Book’s History. Understanding the Repairs and Rebindings on Islamic Manuscripts in the Vatican Library and Their Implications for Conservation." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7 (3): 339-383.

Déroche, François. 2006. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script. London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation.

Provides criteria for classifying Islamic bindings into subdivisions: box bindings (Type I), fore-edge and envelope flap bindings (Type II), and bindings without flaps (Type III). This study is somewhat light on technical details, but is an excellent introduction to the codicology of Islamic manuscripts for conservators.

Di Bella, Marco. 2011. "An Attempt at a Reconstruction of Early Islamic Bookbinding: The Box Binding." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts. 99-115.

D’Ottone, Arianna. 2007. “Some Remarks on Yemeni Medieval Bookbindings.” A. Arioli (ed.) Arabica 2007 , Roma, Universit. degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”-Facolt. di Studi Orientali: 42–55.

Ebeid, Hassan, Jean Brown, Ysanne Holt and Brian Singer. 2013. “A Study of Dyed Endpapers During Islamic Mediaeval Times in Egypt: Purpose, Materials and Techniques.” Lieve Watteeuw and Christa Hofmann (eds.) Paper conservation: Decisions & compromises, ICOM-CC Graphic documents working group interim meeting, Vienna 17–19 April: 61–65.

Eremin, Katherine, and Penley Knipe, and Claire Grech. “Materials and Techniques of Painted Islamic Manuscripts.” Poster presented at the annual meeting for the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Montreal, Canada, May 2016.

Espejo Arias, Teresa, Ana López Montes, Ana García Bueno, Adrián Durán Benito, and Rosario Blanc García. 2008. “A Study about Colourants in the Arabic Manuscript Collection of the Sacromonte Abbey, Granada, Spain. A New Methodology for Chemical Analysis.Restaurator 29: 76–106.

Espejo, Teresa, and Ana Beny. 2009. "Book I from the Collection of Arabic Manuscripts from the Historical Archives of the Province of Málaga: An Example of al-Andalus Binding." In: Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 11: 121–133.

Gacek, Adam. 1990. "Arabic Bookmaking and Terminology as Portrayed by Bakr al-Ishbili in his "Kitab al-taysir fi sina at al-tasfir." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5: 106-113.

Gacek, Adam. 1992. “Ibn Abī Hamīdah’s Didactic Poem for Bookbinders.” Manuscripts of the Middle East 6: 41–58.

Gacek, Adam. 1997. “Instructions on the art of Bookbinding Attributed to the Rasulid Ruler of Yemen Al-Malik al-Muȥaffar.” Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. 57–63.

Gacek, Adam. 2001. The Arabic Manuscript Tradition: A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. Leiden, Brill.

Romanized Arabic glossary of terms concerning the Arabic manuscript book, organized in alphabetical order according to Arabic root letters. Extensive bibliography organized into various materials, techniques, and other codicological subjects.

Gacek, Adam. 2004. “Scribes, Amanuenses, and Scholars: A Bibliographic Survey of Published Arabic Literature from the Manuscript Age on Various Aspects of Penmanship, Bookmaking, and the Transmission of Knowledge.” In: Manuscripta Orientalia 10: 3–29.

Gacek, Adam. 2009. Arabic Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. Leiden, Brill.

Grech, Claire, and Katherine Eremin, Narayan Khandekar, and Mary McWilliams. “What Lies Beneath: A Study of the Materials and Techniques of Persian Lacquerware.” Poster presented at the annual meeting for the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Montreal, Canada, May 2016.

Grech, Claire, and Katherine Eremin. 2017. "Materials and Techniques of Persian Lacquerwork." In A Collector's Passion: Ezzat-Malek Soudavar and Persian Lacquer: 39-48.

Guesdon, Marie-Geneviève. 2009. "Bookbinding." Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. Accessed March 21, 2017.

Haldane, Duncan. 1983. Islamic Bookbindings in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London: World of Islam Festival Trust in association with the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Focuses on bookbinding decoration, distinguishing between Arab, Persian, Turkish, and Indian bookbinding. Small chapter on bookbinding tools. Not much text, mostly color images of ornamental bindings from the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Hepworth, Paul, and Nil Baydar. 2007. “Islamic Manuscript Conservation and Its Vocabulary.”. Paper presented at The Third Islamic Manuscript Conference, 28-31 August 2007, Magdalene College, University of Cambridge. Accessed March 21, 2017.

Hepworth, Paul and Karin Scheper. “Glossary for the Conservation and Description of Islamic Manuscripts.” Accessed March 14, 2017.

Hollenberg, David, Christoph Rauch, and Sabine Schmidtke. 2015. The Yemeni Manuscript Tradition. Leiden: Brill.

Husby, Scott. 1990. “Islamic Book Conservation.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 9. Accessed March 14, 2017.

Jacobs, David, and Barbara Rodgers. 1990. "Developments in the Conservation of Oriental (Islamic) Manuscripts at the India Office Library, London." Restaurator. 110-138.

Jones, R.A. 1993. "European and Asian Papers in Malay Manuscripts: a Provisional Assessment." Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 149 (3): 475-502. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003117.

Jones, Russell. 1999. "Malay Manuscripts: Gatherings and Soiled Pages." Archipel : Études Interdisciplinaires Sur Le Monde Insulindien 57: 97-108.

Ketzer, Roswitha. 1991. "A Conservation Project in Kairouan." 7. Internationaler Graphischer Restauratorentag, 26.-30. August 1991, Uppsala : Preprints. 56-60.

Keus, Katinka. 2010. "Bringing the Maqrīzī in a Better State. The Restoration and Binding of MS Leiden Or. 14.533." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 1 (1): 37-60.

Khalili, Nasser D., Nasser D. Khalili, B. W. Robinson, and Tim Stanley. 1996. Lacquer of the Islamic lands. New York: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press.

Khan, Yasmeen. 2007. “Treatment Techniques for Persian and Arabic Bindings at the Library of Congress (Abstract).” The Book and Paper Group Annual 26. Accessed March 2017.

Khan, Yasmeen. April 2016. "Conservation Treatment of 'Islamic' Manuscripts at the Library of Congress in the 21st Century". Poster presentation at the Sixteenth International Seminar on the Care and Conservation of Manuscripts, Copenhagen.

This poster focuses on full treatments. It highlights the pros and cons of different approaches based on the media and formats typically associated with bound manuscripts from the Muslim world.

Kropf, Evyn. 2013. “Historical Repair, Recycling, and Recovering Phenomena in the Islamic Bindings of the University of Michigan Library: Exploring the Codicological Evidence.” in Suave Mechanicals. Essays on the History of Bookbinding ,vol. 1, ed. Julia Miller (Ann Arbor, MI, The Legacy Press). 1-41.

Presents source material for the study of repair and restoration in Islamic bookmaking tradition, the different types of mends and repairs observed, and comparative case studies with color images.

Levey, Martin. 1966. Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology. Philadelphia: American Philos. Soc.

Losty, Jeremiah P. 1982. The Art of the Book in India. London: British Library.

Loveday, Helen. 2001. Islamic Paper: A Study of the Ancient Craft. London, The Don Baker Memorial Fund.

Pedersen, Johannes P.E. 1984. The Arabic book. translated by Geoffrey French; edited with an introduction by Robert Hillenbrand. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Pickwoad, Nicholas. 2004. "The Condition Survey of the Manuscripts in the Monastery of Saint Catherine on Mount Sinai." The Paper Conservator 28 (1): 33-61.

Plomp, M. 1993. "Traditional Bookbindings from Indonesia: Materials and Decorations." Bijdragen Tot De Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde. 571-592.

Raby, Julian, Zeren Tanindi, and Tim Stanley. 1993. Turkish Bookbinding in the 15th Century: The Foundation of an Ottoman Court Style. London: Azimuth, on behalf of L'Association Internationale de Bibliophilie.

Raggetti L. 2016. "Cum grano salis. Some Arabic Ink Recipes in Their Historical and Literary Context." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7 (3): 294-338.

Redhouse, James W. 1978. A Turkish and English Lexicon: Shewing in English the Significations of the Turkish Terms. İstanbul: Çağrı yayınları. (Reprint of the edition Constantinople, 1890).

Rogers, Mary E. 1868. “Books and Book-Binding in Syria and Palestine.” The Art-journal 7: 113–115.

Rose, Kristine. 2007. "The Conservation of a seventeenth-century Persian Shahnama." Edinburgh Conference papers 2006. Edited by Shulla Jaques. London: Institute of Conservation. 79-86.

An in-depth case-study of the conservation and rebinding of a highly illustrated Persian manuscript at Cambridge University Library. This paper includes details of the treatment methodology used for the repair of copper-corroded frame lines.

Rose, Kristine. 2010. "Conservation of the Turkish Collection at the Chester Beatty Library: A New Study of Turkish Book Construction." Studies in Conservation 55 (2 supplement): 45. DOI: 10.1179/sic.2010.55.Supplement-2.45.

Rose Beers, Kristine. 2017. "Reading with Conservators: the language of book archaeology." In By the Pen and What They Write: Writing in Islamic Art and Culture (Series: The Biennial Hamad bin Khalifa Symposium on Islamic Art). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Based on a presentation given at the Sixth Biennial Hamad bin Khalifa Symposium on Islamic Art and Culture at the Museum of Islamic Art, Qatar, this paper explores the materiality of Islamic manuscript material, from the unique perspective of the conservator.

Rose Beers, Kristine. 2018. "Investigating the Palette of the Ruzbihan Qur’an." In Lapis and Gold: Exploring Chester Beatty’s Ruzbihan Qur’an. London: Ad Illisum/ Chester Beatty Library.

Results of the non-invasive analysis of a mid-16th century Qur’an manuscript, carried out in collaboration with the EU-funded MOLAB initiative, at the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin.

Rose, Kristine and Paola Riccardi. 2014. "Fusing Findings: a cross-disciplinary approach to material analysis of manuscripts at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge." Uluslararasi cilt sanati buluşmasi sempozyumu, tebliğler. Istanbul. 92- 97.

Details of the non-invasive analytical examination of two mid-16th century Persian manuscripts at the Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge.

Russo, Maria Luisa. 2015. "Islamic Bookbindings in the University of Turin. Some Particular Features and Preservation Issues." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 6 (1): 47-65.

Ruzicka, Glen. 1996. "A Yemenite Taj: a Case History in Cooperative Book Conservation." The Book and Paper Group Annual. 119-126.

Scheper, Karin. 2008. " The Conservation of the Middle Eastern manuscript collection in the Leiden University Library: Results of a Conservation Assessment Survey ." Contributions to the Symposium on the Care and Conservation of Middle Eastern Manuscripts. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne: 66-73.

Scheper, Karin. 2010. "Considering Book Conservation: Developments in Materials, Techniques, and Approaches." Journal of Paper Conservation 11 (2): 31-36.

Scheper, Karin. 2011. "Islamic Manuscripts in a Western Research Library: The Conservation Approach of Leiden University Library." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts. 151-169.

Scheper, Karin. 2011. Refining the Classification of Islamic Manuscript Structures. New Approaches to Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration. 357-388.

Scheper, Karin. 2013. "Three Very Specific Binding Features, Shedding New Light on Islamic Manuscript Structures." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 4 (1): 82-109.

Scheper, Karin. 2014. The Islamic Bookbinding Tradition a Book Archaeological Study. [Netherlands]: [publisher not identified].

Scheper, Karin. 2014. "Neither Weak Nor Simple: Adjusting Our Perception of Islamic Manuscript Structures." Care and Conservation of Manuscripts. 253-269.

Scheper, Karin. 2014. " Preserving the Islamic Manuscript as an Artefact. Some Object Characteristics and Treatment Considerations." Uluslararasi cilt sanati buluşmasi sempozyumu: Tebliğler (International meeting of bookbinding: Bijdragen) 98–104.

Scheper, Karin. 2015. The Technique of Islamic Bookbinding: Methods, Materials and Regional Varieties. Leiden: Brill.

In-depth book, overviewing: Islamic book structures with detailed photographs and some binding and sewing structure illustrations, the study of Islamic book making, and identifying and analyzing datable and localizable book features.

Scheper, Karin and Arnoud Vrolijk. 2011. "Made in China. Physical Aspects of Islamic Manuscripts from Xinjiang in Leiden University Library." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 2 (1): 50-69.

Smith, Martha M. 1990. “Conservation of Islamic Book Pages.” The Book and Paper Group Annual 9. Accessed March 14, 2017.

Szirmai, János A. 2007. The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding. Aldershot [u.a.]: Ashgate.

Chapter on the Islamic codex with some good drawings and descriptions of sewing structures. Outdated in terms of Islamic codicology with Orientalist perspective of Islamic manuscripts as weak structures, and labeling Islamic manuscripts as case-bindings.

Tanındı, Zeren, 1900-1991. “Manuscript Production in the Ottoman Palace Workshop.” Manuscripts of the Middle East 5: 67–98.

Teh Gallop, Annabel. 2004. “An Acehnese Style of Manuscript Illumination.” Archipel 68: 193–240.

Teh Gallop, Annabel. 2005. “The Spirit of Langkasuka? Illuminated Manuscripts from the East Coast of the Malay Peninsula.” Indonesia and the Malay World 33: 113–182.

Waley, Muhammad Isa. 1989. “Problems and Possibilities in Dating Persian Manuscripts.” François Déroche (ed.), Les manuscrits du Moyen-Orient: Essais de codicologie et de paléographie. Actes du colloque d’Istanbul (Istanbul, 26–29 Mai 1986) . Istanbul, IFEA. Paris, Biblioth.que Nationale: 7–15. (Varia turcica, 8).

Zaki, Mahmoud. 2011. "Early Arabic Bookmaking Techniques as Described by al-Rāzī in His Recently Rediscovered Zīnat al-Katabah." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 2 (2): 223-234.

Videos of Current and Traditional Conservation Techniques

Palm-Leaf Manuscripts

Annotated Bibliography

See also Support Problems, the sections on Traditional Non-Paper Supports: Palm Leaf and Bibliography: Palm Leaf.

Agrawal, O.P. 1984. Conservation of Manuscripts and Paintings of South-east Asia. London: Butterworths

Contains a chapter on palm leaf.

Crowley, Alfred S. 1970. "Repair and Conservation of Palm-leaf Manuscripts." Restaurator 1 (2):105-114.

Lammerts, Christian. 2010. “Notes on Burmese Manuscripts: Text and Images.” The Journal of Burma Studies 14: 229-254.

Lawson, Peter. “Conservation of Palm Leaf Books.” Conservation News 36, 1983, pp. 14–19.

Sah, Anupam. 2002. “Palm Leaf Manuscripts of the World: Material, Technology, and Conservation.” Studies in Conservation 47:sup1. 15-24

Suryawanshi, D.G., M.V. Nair, & P.M. Sinha. 1992. "Improving the Flexibility of Palm Leaf." Restaurator 13 (1):37-46.

Suryawanshi, D.G., P.M. Sinha & O.P. Agrawal. 1994. "Basic Studies on the Properties of Palm Leaf." Restaurator 15 (2): 65-78.

Van Dyke, Y. 2009. “Sacred Leaves: The Conservation and Exhibition of Early Buddhist Manuscripts on Palm Leaves.” The Book and Paper Annual, Vol. 28, pp. 83-97.

The article describes the material composition and preparation of a collection of Indian paintings on palm leaf and paper, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The author describes in detail the different types of palm leaves and their physical properties as well as the methods used to process the leaves to make them suitable to paint on. These methods include: smoking, soaking, being boiled in water, hung over a charcoal fire and dried by the sun or kiln.
The pigments were identified, though the method of identification was not mentioned, and due to the brittle nature of the palm leaf these pigments had to be consolidated. The choice of consolidant was made based on the desired working properties, which included strength, ageing, flexibility, viscosity, aesthetic and penetration. Gelatines and methyl cellulose were tested on the manuscript but they were not strong enough, left tidelines and dried glossy. Isinglass was chosen and used as a warm solution at 1%, this adhesive proved to be the best consolidant for both the flaking paint and the actual palm leaf. The leaves were humidified to rehydrate them and reduce the planar distortion, once humidified the leaves were less brittle so they could be more easily repaired using acrylic-dyed Japanese tengujo papers. The article also described the ethical consideration made when treating these objects, the storage solutions adopted to safely house the manuscript, and the exhibition conditions including mounting and display.
The paper is a very detailed and comprehensive conservation case study, which included the historical context of the object, material analysis, ethical considerations and future storage recommendations. Though the paper was aimed at professionals in conservation, the article appeals to a wider audience, providing useful information to researchers, historians and curators; this added importance to the content as it promoted interdisciplinary collaboration and awareness.

Videos of Current and Traditional Conservation Techniques

Thai Manuscripts

Agrawal, O.P. 1984. Conservation of manuscripts and paintings of south-east Asia. London: Butterworths (in association with IIC).

"Ancient Historical Records in Siam. "Welcome to Chiangmai and Chiangrai Magazine. Last modified on 30 Oct. 2004. Retrieved March 2017.

Aranyanak, C. 1988. Conservation of ancient Thai books. In The conservation of far eastern art: preprints of the contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19-23 September 1988, ed. J.S. Mills et al. International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 22-24.

Boisselier, J. (translated by J. Seligman). 1976. Thai painting. Tokyo: Kodansha International.

Burgio, L., R.J.H. Clark, and P. Gibbs. 1999. Pigment identification studies in situ of Javanese, Thai, Korean, Chinese and Uighar manuscripts by Raman microscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 30: 181-184.

Eremin, K. et al. 2008. Materials and techniques of Thai painting. In Materials issues in art and archaeology VIII: symposium held November 26-28, 2007, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, 1047, ed. P.B. Vandiver et al. Warrendale, PA: Materials Research Society. 31-43.

Giaccai, J. 2008. Pigment analysis of two Thai paintings. In Materials issues in art and archaeology VIII: symposium held November 26-28, 2007, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, 1047, ed. P.B. Vandiver et al. Warrendale, PA: Materials Research Society. 45-53.

Ginsberg, H. 2000. Thai art and culture: historic manuscripts from western collections. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Ginsberg, H. 1989. Thai manuscript painting. London: The British Library.

Huang, J. 2006. A technical examination of 7 Thai manuscripts in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. In ANAGPIC 2006 student papers: presented at the 2006 annual student conference hosted by the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation Department. Delaware: Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation.

Kaye, M. 2005. Phra Malai blessing the devils: Technical analysis and treatment of an illustrated Thai manuscript (Masters thesis). Buffalo, NY: Buffalo State College Art Conservation Department.

Koretsky, E. Apr. 1996. A new Thailand/Burma papermaking adventure: Nov. 1-22, 1997. Alkaline Paper Advocate, vol. 10, no. 1.

Leksukhum, S. 2000. Temples of gold: seven centuries of Thai Buddhist paintings. New York: George Braziller Publisher.

Lyons, E. 1963. Thai culture, new series no. 20: Thai traditional painting. Bangkok: The Fine Arts Department.

Tschudin, Dr. W. Fr. 1958. Älteste papierbereitungsverfahren im fernen osten (Oldest paper making processes in the far east). Überreicht von der Sandoz AG, Basel/Schweitz.

Van Beek, S. and L.I. Tettoni. 1985. An introduction to the arts of Thailand. Hong Kong: Travel Publishing Asia Ltd.


Canary, J. 2014. Thingshog (mthing shog): Luxury illuminated manuscripts on blueblack Paper. In Buddha's Words. The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond, edited by M. Elliot, H. Diemberger, and M. Clemente,109-110. Cambridge: Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Diemberger, Hildegard, et al., eds. 2016. Tibetan Printing: Comparison, Continuities, and Change. Boston, MA: Brill. Accessed July 10, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/10.1163/j.ctt1w8h246

Helman-Ważny, A. 2014. The archaeology of Tibetan books. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

Helman-Ważny, A., Kriakina, L., and Zorin, A. 2015. The First Tibetan Leaves Acquired by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences: Conservation Issues, Contents and Paper Analysis . In Written Monuments of the Orient 2,61-76. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura. Accessed March 26, 2017.

Helman-Ważny, A. 2016. More than meets the eye: Fibre and Paper Analysis of the Chinese Manuscripts from the Silk Roads. STAR: Science & Technology of Archaeological Research 2 (02): 127-140.

Ricciardi, P., Pallipurath, A. 2014. Colours. In Buddha's Words. The Life of Books in Tibet and Beyond, edited by M. Elliot, H. Diemberger, and M. Clemente,109-110. Cambridge: Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

van Schaik, S. 2002. The Tibetan Dunhuang manuscripts in China. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 65 (01): 129-139.

van Schaik, S., Helman-Ważny, A., and Nöller,R. 2015. Writing, painting and sketching at Dunhuang: assessing the materiality and function of early Tibetan manuscripts and ritual items." Journal of Archaeological Science 53: 110-132.

Zorin, A. 2015. The History of the First Tibetan Texts Acquired by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in the 18th Century. Journal of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies 19: 184-142. Accessed March 26, 2017.

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