PMG Preservation of Traditional Color Photographic Materials

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Photographic Materials Conservation Catalog
Preservation of Traditional Color Photographic Materials

A review of the history of color photographic development and process construction.

Date: Outline initiated, 2009
Compiler: LeeAnn Daffner
Contributors (Alphabetical): Luisa Casella, Paul Messier, Andrew Robb, Diane Tafilowski, Gawain Weaver

The Photographic Materials Conservation Catalog is a publication of the Photographic Materials Group of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. The Photographic Materials Conservation Catalog is published as a convenience for the members of the Photographic Materials Group. Publication does not endorse nor recommend any treatments, methods, or techniques described within the chapter.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
8.1. Purpose
8.2. Factors to Consider
8.3. Color Processes Datasheets
8.3.1. Early Color
8.3.2. Chromogenic Color
8.3.3. Dye Diffusion Transfer
8.3.4. Dye Imbibition
8.3.5. Silver Dye Bleach
8.3.6. Assembly Processes
8.3.7. Dichromated Direct Pigment
8.3.8. Dichromated Pigment Transfer
8.4. Standards, Guidelines, Recommendations
8.5. Glossary
8.5.1. Color Photography Timeline
8.6. Bibliographic References

8.1. Purpose

The goal of the Preservation of Color Photographic Materials Chapter is to provide an overview and guide to preservation and conservation concerns unique to traditional color photographic materials. The specificity of color photography stability and treatment is directly related to the image materials, generally composed of organic dyes or pigments and differ greatly from image materials commonly found in monochrome photographs, such as silver, platinum or iron. In addition, primary support materials, commercial surface finishes and coatings will be considered.

In this chapter color photographic materials refers to images in color (that reproduce the natural colors in the original photographed subject) produced by photochemical processes, including assembly of layers obtained from color separation onto a monochromatic negative. This chapter will not address digital photographic materials.

8.2. Factors to Consider

Color photographic images can be divided as being made using a subtractive or additive system.

There are various methods to produce a color image. They can be produced by color separation, using filters to expose monochromatic negatives to only a part of the visible spectrum, and later assembling these onto one same support.

8.3. Color Processes Datasheets

These process datasheets are based on summaries compiled by Andrew Robb in September 2000 for the Kent Workshop "Treatment of Contemporary Color Photographs".

8.3.1. Early Color

8.3.1.1. Intro and Overview

8.3.1.2. Products

  • Experimental Processes
    • Direct Heliochrome by Becquerel and Niepce de Saint-Victor - 1848-1855
    • Hillotypes - 1850-1860
    • Lippmann Plate - 1891-1914
  • Color Assembly Processes
    • Three-Color Lumiere Transparency ("Chroma")- 1896-1903
    • Louis Ducos du Hauron Heliochrome - 1870's
  • Additive Color Screen Plates
    • Lumiere Autochrome - 1907 - 1935
    • Omnicolore - 1907
    • Finlay Thames - 1908
    • Dioptichromie - 1909
    • Paget Color - 1913
    • Agfacolor Ultra - 1916
    • Finlay Color - 1908
    • Dufaycolor - 1935

8.3.1.3. Characteristics

8.3.1.4. Deterioration

8.3.1.5. Tests

8.3.1.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.2. Chromogenic Color

8.3.2.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time Period: 1935 - present
  • Other names: "C-print"
  • Overview: Three layers of a multilayer material, each containing components to make color separation negatives, are brought into association with dye-forming “couplers.” The couplers may be present in the material or added in processing and form the subtractive dolor dyes when reacting with the oxidizing developing agents. Color as Form, p.39
  • Final Image Material: Chromogenic dyes
  • Maximum Size: 213 cm x 600 cm
  • Binder: Gelatin
  • Support: Resin-Coated Paper; Acetate; Polyester; Paper; Pigmented Acetate

8.3.2.2. Products

  • Agfa 1940-present
  • Ansco Printon 1943-?? (Coote)
  • Kodak:
    • Ektacolor - 1949-present
    • Ektachrome - 1946-present
    • E-6 - present Ektachrome development protocol
    • E-4
    • Kodacolor - 1942-present
    • RA-4 - present print development protocol
    • C-41 - present film development protocol
    • Type C - 1955-1958
    • Kodachrome - 1935-present
    • K-14 - present Kodachrome development protocol
    • K-12

8.3.2.3. Characteristics

  • Front: White margin, narrower than silver dye bleach
  • Back: Backprinting - often

8.3.2.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability: Magenta shift
  • Dark Stability: Cyan shift
  • Staining: Yellow

8.3.2.5. Tests

  • UV Examination: Varied
  • Water Spot Test: Milky blue, typically does not change dye, but may deform gelatin, change gloss

8.3.2.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.3. Dye Diffusion Transfer

8.3.3.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time Period: 1963 - present
  • Other Names: Instant; One-Step
  • Overview: The components to make color separation negatives and the subtractive color dyes exist in separate layers of a multilayer material. As a result of exposure and processing, these dyes selectively migrate to a single layer (also in the material) to form the full-color image. Color as Form, p.39
  • Final Image Material: Metalized dyes Maximum Size ??cm x ??cm
  • Binder: Gelatin
  • Support: Resin-Coated Paper; Pigmented Polyethylene

8.3.3.2. Products

  • Polaroid
    • Peel Apart
    • Polacolor ER 1981-?? Large format only cyan dye is metalized
    • Polacolor II 1975-?? metalized dyes
    • Polacolor I 1963-?? Fiber base, Integral
    • SX-70 1972-??
  • Kodak
    • Ektaflex Pr-10 1981-19?? Matte surface
  • Fuji
    • FI-10 1981-present available only in Japan

8.3.3.3. Characteristics (Polacolor products)

  • Front: Unique; Wider margins than chromogenic prints (generally); Polacolor ER squeegee marks at outer edge; Under magnification micro dust specks and scratches can often be seen running parallel to long edge;Under magnification of 40x, mottled white spots can often be seen in dark areas
  • Back: Backprinting many products have codes in blue ink along lower edge.

8.3.3.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability Integral: Yellow dye most sensitive; Peel Apart: yellow and cyan most sensitive
  • Dark Stability: Dyes have excellent dark stability
  • Staining Integral: Staining in highlights; Peel Apart: little staining

SX-70 often has interlayer cracking at corners due to cycling RH. Polaroid claims this will only occur in “extreme” conditions with post-1980 prints. Polacolor I often is mounted to avoid curl due to being on fiber paper.

8.3.3.5. Tests

  • UV Examination: No noticeable fluoresce
  • Water Spot Test: [?]

8.3.3.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.4. Dye Imbibition

8.3.4.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time Period: 1881 - present
  • Other names:
  • Overview: Three [color] separations are used to print gelatin relief images that will absorb the subtractive color dyes in proportion to the various densities of the images. After immersion in dye baths, each relief in succession is placed in contact with a single layer support material allowing the three dyes to transfer to and be absorbed by this material. Color as Form, p.38-9
  • Final Image Material: Dyes
  • Maximum Size: 40cm x 60cm; Wash-Off Relief Film 11x14 in
  • Binder: Gelatin
  • Support: Paper, fiber

8.3.4.2. Products

  • Dye Transfer Company - Jay Patterson, Dye Transfer Company, 3935 Westheimer Rd., Suite 306, Houston TX 77027
  • Fuji
    • Dyecolor - 1970-present (only available in Japan)
  • Eastman Kodak
    • Dye Transfer - 1946-1993
    • Wash-Off Relief - 1935-46?

Other Earlier Processes:

  • Steichen - 1935
  • Uvatype - 1931
  • Connell - ca. 1930
  • TriChromatic Plate Pack - 1911
  • Pinatype - 1905
  • Sanger-Shepard - 1900
  • Hydrotype - 1881

8.3.4.3. Characteristics

(Eastman Kodak Dye Transfer, may apply to other products)

  • Front:
    • Misregistration, especially at edges
    • Along print margins dye may be noticeable from matrices’ edges and registration holes
    • Bleeding around areas of strong color
    • Retouching can be very difficult to see due to integral nature of dye image
    • Color “holes”, flaws due to dirt specks, scratches, or other flaws in one of the matrices
    • Possible acetic acid smell
    • Often trimmed and mounted
    • Papers used vary somewhat, but typically are fiber base papers with a slightly bumpy gloss surface. Prints can be made with any fixed out paper. Kodak did sell a pre-prepared gelatin-coated paper.
  • Back:
    • Backprinting - (Does special Kodak paper for dye transfer have backprinting?); Dye spots may be evident on back due to large amount of handling needed to apply matrices.

8.3.4.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability: Yellow dye most sensitive
  • Dark Stability: Little fading in dark storage
  • Staining: Little staining due to lack of residual chemistry in highlights

8.3.4.5. Tests

  • UV Examination: Misregistration is more evident under UV examination; these areas are particularly useful for UV examination. *Prior to 1989 (?), Dye Transfer magenta dye fluoresces orange/pink. This can be difficult to see if image is very green
  • Water Spot Test: Can cause permanent change due to dye bleeding.

8.3.4.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.5. Silver Dye Bleach

8.3.5.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time period: 1933 - present
  • Other names:
  • Overview: Three subtractive color dye layers of a multilayer material are placed in direct association with other layers that contain the components that form three color separation negatives. After exposure, the negatives are developed. A special bath bleaches the silver images of the negatives and at the same time destroys related dyes to a degree controlled by the silver image density leaving the positive dye images. Color as Form, p.39
  • Final Image Material: Azo dyes
  • Maximum Size: 130 cm x 336cm
  • Binder: Gelatin
  • Support: Voided Polyester (high gloss); Resin Coated Paper (pearl finish); Paper; Pigmented Acetate

8.3.5.2. Products

  • Ilford
    • Ilfochrome 1991-present
  • Ciba
    • Cibachrome 1963-1991
  • Eastman Kodak
    • Azochrome 1940-1950? Not common, not widely marketed
  • Gaspar
    • Gasparcolor 1949-1952 From 1933 – 1945 only a little used motion picture product. After WWII, briefly used in the US to make motion pictures. Also briefly used to make prints from Kodachrome transparencies in the US and France called Gasparcolor Opaque. During WWII used by the US Air Force and manufactured by Ansco. (Coote 182)

8.3.5.3. Characteristics

(Ilford Cibachrome and Ilfochrome)

  • Front:
    • High color saturation and high contrast
    • Can resolve fine detail, due to use of dye haloes, rather than dye clouds
    • Black margins, due to being a direct positive process. Keep in mind a reversal chromogenic paper can have similar black margins
  • Back
    • Backprinting: often none but can be found: Ilford Cibachrome, Ilfochrome Classic
    • Microbeads: often present when viewing back

8.3.5.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability: Yellow typically most sensitive, moderate stability
  • Dark Stability: Little fading in dark storage
  • Staining: Little staining in dark storage
  • Glossy surface is vulnerable to scratches and fingerprints.
  • Pigmented Acetate can yellow.

8.3.5.5. Tests

  • UV Examination: Ilfochrome Classic – more intense on back, very little on front
  • Water Spot Test: May turn red; this change can be permanent

8.3.5.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.6. Assembly Processes

8.3.6.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time Period:
  • Other names:
  • Overview: Essentially Chromatone consists of making positive prints from the three separation negatives. These prints are made on stripping film. The film and its support are separated from each other. The support is discarded, leaving only the very thin collodion film with its image. These films are bleached and then toned in the subtractive complementary colors. These three thin films are superimposed upon each other upon a white sheet if paper and allowed to dry. This is the final picture. Color Photography for the Amateur, p. 237
  • Final Image Material: Metallic Toner
  • Maximum Size:
  • Binder: Collodion
  • Support: Paper, fiber; Various other materials

Metallic toners could be made by the photographer. One set of formulas uses: for Magenta dye: a combined solution of nickel nitrate and potassium citrate with potassium ferricyanide; for Cyan: potassium ferricyanide and ferric ammonium citrate; and for yellow a combined formula of Lead nitrate and potassium ferricyanide with potassium dichromate. CPA, p.253

8.3.6.2. Products

  • Defender
    • Chromatone 1935-19?
  • Duxochrome
    • Colorstill

8.3.6.3. Characteristics (Chromatone)

May be combined with Carbro (The Camera, September 1937, Harlan Baumbach)

  • Front:
    • May be very glossy
    • There may be more gloss in highlights than the shadows
    • Collodion may yellow, this is most noticeable in highlights
  • Back: Backprinting

8.3.6.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability:
  • Dark Stability:
  • Staining:

8.3.6.5. Tests

  • UV Examination:
  • Water Spot Test:

8.3.6.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.7. Dichromated Direct Pigment

8.3.7.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time Period: 1869 - present
  • Other Names: Transferless Pigment; Direct Carbon
  • Overview: ...a light sensitive, pigmented colliod on a paper support is exposed to light while in contact with a negative image. After exposure, water is used to “develop” the image, swelling and dissolving away the sensitized colloid not hardened by light. The development of [this process] takes place in situ [on the original paper support]. Nora Kennedy, “The Reticulation of Gelatine: Observation on the Direct Carbon Process” York Conference Postprints, p. 102.
  • Final Image Material: Pigments
  • Maximum Size: 120cm x 140cm (theoretical); 60cm x 80cm (practical)
  • Binder: Gelatin; Gum Arabic
  • Support: Paper, fiber; Various other materials

8.3.7.2. Products

  • Fresson
    • Quadrichromie (1952- present)
  • Artigue
  • Gum Dichromate (1894-present)

8.3.7.3. Characteristics

Has a great deal of flexibility, the printer can use this process to create unique images due to the manipulation allowed during development. Typically used by artists / photographers rather than commercial photographers and printers.

  • Front:
    • Reticulation pattern similar to collotype
    • Gum prints often have a diffuse or painterly image quality
  • Back: Backprinting

8.3.7.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability: pigments are typically quite insensitive to fading
  • Dark Stability: pigments are typically quite insensitive to fading
  • Staining: gelatin / gum Arabic and paper may darken upon light exposure
  • Surface can be easily scratched or otherwise physically damaged.

8.3.7.5. Tests

  • UV Examination:
  • Water Spot Test: Gelatin may swell.

8.3.7.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.3.8. Dichromated Pigment Transfer

8.3.8.1. Intro and Overview

  • Time Period: 1869 – present
  • Other Names: Transfer Carbon
  • Overview: …a light sensitive, pigmented colliod on a paper support is exposed to light while in contact with a negative image. After exposure, water is used to “develop” the image, swelling and dissolving away the sensitized colloid not hardened by light. … full development occurs after a transfer to an intermediate or final support. Nora Kennedy, “The Reticulation of Gelatine: Observation on the Direct Carbon Process” York Conference Postprints, p. 102.
  • Final Image Material: Pigments Maximum Size 120cm x 140cm (theoretical)
  • Binder: Gelatin 60cm x 80cm (practical)
  • Support: Paper, fiber; Various other materials

8.3.8.2. Products

  • Ultrastable
    • Name? 1980s-

Other Earlier Processes

  • Vivex 1932
  • Carbro ca. 1912
  • Heliochromie (carbon) 1869
  • Joseph Wilson Swan 1864

8.3.8.3. Characteristics

During its highest use often used by commercial photographers and printers.

  • Front: Relief visible in shadow areas
  • Back: Backprinting

8.3.8.4. Deterioration

  • Light Stability: pigments are typically quite insensitive to fading
  • Dark Stability: pigments are typically quite insensitive to fading
  • Staining: Gelatin and paper may darken upon light exposure
  • Gelatin may crack in shadow areas where it is the thickest

8.3.8.5. Tests

  • UV Examination:
  • Water Spot Test: Gelatin may swell.

8.3.8.6. Conservation and Treatment

8.4. Standards, Guidelines, Recommendations

8.5. Glossary

8.5.1. Color Photography Timeline

Paul Messier and Diane Tafilowski, 9/15/00, revised 11/15/02)

Color Photography Timeline

The first color photographs were most likely produced in the early 1850's. The Hillotype and the Heliochrome processes were both direct color, experimental, processes for making colored daguerreotypes. While these processes were among the first to reproduce natural color, their success was limited and, at least in the case of the Hillotype, a matter of considerable dispute. A truly successful, but largely impractical, direct color process color process was ultimately introduced by Gabriel Lippman nearly forty years later in 1891. As the early work in recording natural color was underway, serious research was being devoted to the development of pigment and dye-based processes based on subtractive color mixing. In 1862 Louis Ducos DuHauron achieved a breakthrough success in this vein. DuHauron produced color prints using three monochromatic separation negatives by printing each onto pigmented bichromated gelatin tissues and then superimposing the pigmented gelatin layers onto a paper support. Similar to DuHauron’s process, most subtractive color printing in the 19th and early 20th century were derived from the carbon transfer process developed by Joseph Swan in 1864. Many years later, in 1881, the first dye-based imbibition process was introduced as the Hydrotype. The additive screen filter process became viable in the latter half of the 19th century led by the Joly Natural Color Plate in 1893 and the McDonough plate in 1897.

These early processes laid the groundwork for the great advances in color photography that took place in the early 20th century. One such advance was the Ozobrome or (Raydex) process invented in 1905 by Thomas Manley. This method linked the development of a silver image with a proportionate deposition of pigment in a carbon tissue. The Ozobrome was a forerunner of the Carbro process, one of the most successful of the pigment processes particularly in the professional / commercial sector in the 1930's and 40's. Dufay and Finlay advanced the screen filter process in 1905 through the introduction of their regular patterned, ruled line adaptations. However, the screen filter process was not brought to true commercial success until the advent of the Lumière Autochrome in 1907. Also in 1905, the dye imbibition process was greatly improved and introduced as the Pinatype. Frederick Ives further advanced the dye imbibition process with the introduction of the Trichromatic Plate Pack in 1911. With this process three negatives were be produced in a single exposure through red, green and blue filters (as opposed to previous methods which required three individual, successive exposures). From WWI to the 1920's there was little new development in color photography with the exception of the introduction of the first silver dye bleach process by F.J. Christenson in 1918.

By the 1930’s another great surge of development was underway: the screen filter process made the transition from glass plates to flexible film with Lumière Filmcolor in 1931; a commercially successful silver dye bleach process, Gasparacolor was introduced in 1933; and the dye imbibition process gained significant ground with the introduction of Eastman Wash-Off Relief in 1935.

Without doubt, the most important innovation during these years was Kodachrome, the first integral tripack color reversal film in 1935, quickly followed by Agfacolor in 1936. These first chromogenic materials produced film-based transparencies. Positive prints from color negatives were introduced Kodacolor in 1942 though this product had poor image stability up until a major refinement in 1953. Agfa’s first chromogenic printing material was the Printon initially marketed in 1945. By the1950's Kodachrome was gradually supplanted by Ektachrome, which debuted in 1946. These films had poor dye permanence and from 1946 to 1976 cyan and yellow dye loss was prevalent in E-1, E-2, and E-3 Ektachrome films. By the release of Ektachrome E-4 in 1966 and E-6 in 1977 dye permanence was substantially improved but still problematic for medium or long-term stability. Chromogenic products, marketed by numerous companies, continued to improve and were the dominant color process through the 1970’s, 80’s and 90's.

Kodak developed a highly stable silver dye bleach process called the Azochrome in 1940. Overshadowed by chromogenic products, the marketing of this product was postponed because of WWII. By the end of the war Kodak decided to abandon the process. Also during this time Kodak made slight refinements to the Eastman Wash-Off Relief, more or less renaming to Kodak Dye Transfer in 1945.

The second half of the century saw the emergence of a highly refined silver dye bleach process and the development of an entirely new class of materials known as dye diffusion transfer. Ilford advanced the silver dye bleach process with the introduction of Cibachrome in 1963 (Ilford renamed Cibachrome to Ilfochrome in 1991). This commercially successful silver dye bleach system allowed direct positive prints to be made from 35mm color slides. 1963 also saw the development of the first major dye diffusion transfer process with the introduction of Polacolor, the first “instant” color process.

In 1972, Polaroid released the commercially successful SX-70, an integral, one-step “instant” process. Kodak created it's own version of instant photography in 1976, but Polaroid continued to dominate the market with improvements to Polacolor and SX-70. In 1986, Kodak lost a patent infringement suit brought by Polaroid and, as a result, Kodak was forced to remove its instant films and cameras from the market. In 1983 Polaroid introduced the first 35mm instant slide film, Polachrome, a revival of the screen filter process.

By the end of the 20th century, the viability of most of silver-halide based color processes came under serious threat by the emergence of professional and consumer-level digital cameras and printers. Existing stocks of Dye Transfer materials were heavily depleted and Ilford significantly scaled back its production of Ilfochrome. A center of innovation for decades, Polaroid declared bankruptcy throwing into question the future of its dye diffusion transfer materials. As industrial-scale production of analog color materials wanes, some photographers are adapting traditional methods, especially 3 and 4-color carbon, due to the superior permanence and beauty of the resulting prints.


8.5.1.1. Chronology

Chronology (by Gawain Weaver)

  • 1861 - James Clerk Maxwell projects a color photograph of a Tartan ribbon using separation positives and red, green, and blue filters in his lecture "On the Theory of the Three Primary Colors" before the Royal Institution in London.
  • 1907 - Homolka demonstrates ability to make a colored image from a silver image
  • 1907 - Autochrome commercially introduced by the Lumière Bros
  • 1911 - Fischer and Siegrist patent a color development process
  • 1935 - Eastman Wash off relief process introduced
  • 1945 - Kodak Dye Transfer (improved replacement for Eastman Wash off-relief)
  • 1935 - Wilhelm Schneider at Agfa Filmfabrik solves dye diffusion problem using long-chain molecules
  • 1936 - Agfacolor-Neu introduced as a reversal film in 35mm cartridges
  • 1936 - Kodachrome introduced for still photography in 35mm format (controlled diffusion bleaching)
  • 1938 - Kodachrome introduced in cut-sheet sizes 1938 - Kodachrome technology improved, greater dye stability (selective re-exposure)
  • 1941 - Prints from Kodachrome transparencies made available on a white pigmented acetate base (from 35mm: Minicolor and from cut-sheet film: Kotavachrome) (discontinued 1946, but similar re-named Kodachrome and Kodachrome Professional prints made until 1955)
  • 1942 - Kodacolor color negative and print system introduced
  • 1946 - Kodak Ektachrome introduced
  • 1949 - Agfacolor negative film and Agfacolor Paper marketed
  • 1955 - Kodachrome cut-sheet films discontinued in favor of Ektachrome cut-sheet film
  • 1955 - Kodak Color Print Material TYPE C introduced (renamed Kodak Ektacolor Paper in 1958)
  • 1961 - Kodachrome's 5th improved version introduced under new name Kodachrome II, Process K-12 (two emulsion layers for each color record)
  • 1968 - Introduction of RC paper
  • 1974 - Kodachrome 25 and 64 introduced, Process K-14

8.6. Bibliographic References

This bibliography was produced for Conservation Issues in Contemporary Photography: 20th Century Color a collaborative workshop in photograph conservation funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Workshop hosted by The Museum of Modern Art, October 20 - 24th, 2008.

8.6.1. History and Manufacture

  • Bello, Hobson J. “Color Negative and Positive Silver Halide Systems.” In Neblette’s Handbook of Photography and Reprography: Materials, Processes, and Systems 7th ed., Ed. by John M. Sturge (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977), 388-396.
  • Coe, B. Colour Photography: The First 100 Years. London: Ash & Grant, 1978.
  • Coote, J. H. The Illustrated History of Colour Photography. Surrey, UK: Fountain Press, 1993.
  • Dobrusskin, Sebastian. “Fotografische Farbstoffrasterverfahren: Prinzip, Technologie und Identifizierung.” In Farbfehler! Gegen das Verschwinden der Farbfotografien (1998), 53-78.
  • Friedman, J. S. History of Color Photography. 2nd ed. London: Focal Press, 1968.
  • Hanson, W. T. “Forty Years of Color Photography.” Photographic Science and Engineering 21, no. 6 (November/December 1977): 293-296.
  • Hanson, W. T. “Color Photography: From Dream, to Reality, to Commonplace.” In Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology. Ed. by E. Ostroff. (Springfield, VA: SPSE, 1987), 200-207.
  • Heidke, Ronald L., Larry H. Feldman and Charleton C. Bard. “Evolution of Kodak Photographic Color Negative Print Papers.” Journal of Imaging Technology 11, no. 3 (June 1985): 93-97.
  • Kapeki, Jon and James Rodgers. “Color Photography.” Reprinted from Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 4th ed., vol. 6 (1993), 965-1002.
  • Koshofer, Gert, Farb Fotografie, 3 volumes. Munich: Lanterna Magica, 1981.
  • Kramer, Hilton. “Art: Focus on Photo Shows.” New York Times (28 May 1976): 62.
  • Krause, Peter. “Pioneering Photographic Color Systems.” In Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology (Springfield, VA: SPSE, 1987), 208-214.
  • Krause, Peter. “Color Photography.” In Imaging Processes and Materials, Neblette’s Eighth Edition. Ed. by John Sturge, Vivian Walworth and Allan Shepp (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), 110-134.
  • Messier, Paul and Diane Tafilowski. “Color Photographs: a Timeline.” Unpublished timeline and notes, 15 September 2000, revised 29 November 2002. Paul Messier LLC. 15 September 2008. <http://paulmessier.com/pm/docs/timeline.pdf> & <http://paulmessier.com/pm/docs/timelinetext.pdf>
  • Roberts, Pamela. A Century of Colour Photography. London: Andre Deutsch, 2007.
  • Scarpetti, J.J., P. M. DuBois, R. M. Friedhoff and V. K. Walworth. "Full-color 3-D Prints and Transparencies." Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 42, no.4 (July/August 1998): 307-310.
  • Scarpetti, J. J., P. M. DuBois, R. M. Friedhoff, and V. K. Walworth. "Developments in StereoJet Technology." Proc. SPIE 3957 (2000): 288-292.
  • Schellenberg, Matthias, Ernst Riolo and Harmut Blaue. “Silver Dye-Bleach Photography.” In Focal Encyclopedia of Photography: Digital Imaging, Theory and Applications, History, and Science. 4th edition, Ed. by Michael R. Peres (Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier; Focal, 2007), 700-711.
  • Szarkowski, John. “Essay.” In William Eggleston’s Guide (New York: Museum of Modern Art; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976), 5-14.

8.6.1.1. Dye Transfer Processes

  • Sipley, L. W. A Half Century of Color. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1951.
  • Theys, Ronald D. and George Sosnovsky. “Chemistry and Processes of Color Photography.” Chemical Reviews 97, no. 1 (1997): 83-132.
  • Wall, E. J. The History of Three-Color Photography. Boston: American Photographic Publishing Company, 1925.

8.6.1.2. Instant Color Photography

  • “Film Identification and Manufacturing Information: Polaroid Land film manufactured in U.S.A.” C28OA 7/80
  • Herchen, Stephen R., William T. Vetterling and John L. Marshall. “ZINK Imaging – Printing with “Zero Ink.” In Technical Programs and Proceedings, Pan Pacific Imaging Conference 2008 (Toyko: The Imaging Society of Japan, 2008).
  • Land, Edwin H., Howard G. Rogers and Vivian K. Walworth. “One-Step Photography*.” In Neblette’s Handbook of Photography and Reprography: Materials, Processes, and Systems 7th ed., Ed. by John M. Sturge (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977), 259-330.
  • Land, E. H. “An Introduction to Polavision.” Photographic Science and Engineering 21 (1977): 225-236.
  • Land, Edwin H. "The Universe of One-Step Photography." In Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1987), 219-248.
  • Liggero, S. H., K. J. McCarthy, and J. A. Stella. Journal of Imaging Technology 10 (1984): 1.
  • Mervis, Stanley H. and Vivian K. Walworth. “Color Photography, Instant.” In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 6, 4th ed. (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1987), 1003-1048.
  • Mervis, Stanley H. and Vivian K. Walworth, Vivian K. “Instant Photography.” In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th ed. (online) New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2001.
  • “Polaroid 20x24 Camera System.” 1-19. Polaroid Corporation. “Material Safety Data Sheet, M-0579.” (7 July 1998), 1-6.
  • Polaroid Corporation. Storing, Handling and Preserving Polaroid Photographs: A Guide. Cambridge, MA: Polaroid Corp; Boston: Focal Press, 1983.
  • Vetterling, W. T., A. Azarov, B. Busch, and C. Liu, "A Model of Direct Thermal Printing." COMSOL News (2008): 18-19.
  • Walworth, Vivian. K., “Color Photography, Instant.” In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 6, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979), 646-682.
  • Walworth, Vivian K. and Stanley H. Mervis. “Instant Photography and Related Reprographic Processes.” In Imaging Processes and Materials, Neblette’s Eighth Edition, Ed. by John Sturge, Vivian Walworth, and Allan Shepp (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), 181-225.
  • Weyde, Edith. “Pioneering the Diffusion-Transfer-Reversal Process.” In Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1987), 215-218.
  • Wolf, E., ed. “A Masterpiece Closeup: The Transfiguration by Raphael.” Libreria Vaticana. Vatican City, 1979.

8.6.2. Finishing Techniques

  • Breitung, Eric. “Survey of Abrasion Resistant Acrylics and Polycarbonates for Face-Mounted Photographs.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 12 (Washington, DC: AIC/PMG, 2007): 114-125.
  • Eastman Kodak. “Effects of Post-Processing Treatments on the Image Stability of Color Prints.” Technical Data/Reference E-176 (October 1998), 1-4.
  • Ilford Photo Corporation. Cibachrome: Technical Information, Mounting and Laminating. 1988.
  • McGlinchey, Chris and Chris Maines. “Chemistry and Analysis of Coatings on Photographs.” In Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Ed. by Constance McCabe (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation, 2005), 22-47.
  • Mesquit, Teresa, and Barbara Lemmen. “Coatings on Polaroid Prints.” In Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Ed. by Constance McCabe (Washington, D.C. AIC, 2005), 180-199.
  • Murphy, Erin. “Basic Care of Face-Mounted Photographs at the Museum of Modern Art.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 12 (Washington, D.C.: AIC/PMG, 2007): 160-174.
  • Mustardo, Peter. "Approaches to Treating Contemporary Photographs." Topics in Photograph Preservation 12 (Washington, D.C.: AIC/PMG, 2007): 126-130.
  • Pénichon, Sylvie and Martin Jürgens. “Issues in the Conservation of Contemporary Photographs: The Case of Diasec or Face-Mounting.” AIC News 27, no. 2 (March 2002): 1, 3-4, 7-8.
  • Pénichon, Sylvie and Martin Jürgens. “Plastic Lamination and Face Mounting of Contemporary Photographs.” In Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Ed. by Constance McCabe (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation, 2005), 218-235.
  • Tragni, Claire Buzit, Corinne Dune, Lene Grinde & Phillipa Morrison. “Coatings on Kodachrome and Ektachrome Films.” In Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Ed. by Constance McCabe (Washington, D.C. AIC, 2005), 168-179.
  • Weaver, Gawain. “Commercial Coatings for Photographs in North America, 1950 to the Present.” In Coatings on Photographs: Materials, Techniques, and Conservation. Ed. by Constance McCabe (Washington, D.C. AIC, 2005), 200-217.
  • Wei, W. “International research on the conservation and restoration of face-mounted photographs.” In Diversity in Heritage Conservation: Tradition, Innovation, and Participation, 15th Triennial Conference, 22-26 September 2008, New Delhi 2 (ICOM/CC, 2008), 702-708.
  • Zorn, Sabine and Sebastian Dobrusskin. “Diasec” – and Other Finishing Techniques – Investigation of Light Induced Aging.” In Archiving 2008 Final Program and Proceedings, Bern, Switzerland, 24-27 June 2008 (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), 159-161.

8.6.3. Conservation

  • “Cleaning Color Photographs, Kent Workshop, September 24-26, 1998.” Unpublished notes (1 October 1998): 1-13.
  • Daffner, Lee Ann and Chris McGlinchey. “The Big Picture: Conservation Research Program for Contemporary Color Photographs.” In Modern Art, New Museums: Contributions to the Bilbao Congress, 13-17 September 2004. Ed. by Ashok Roy and Perry Smith (London: IIC, 2004), 109-113.
  • Kennedy, Nora and Peter Mustardo. “Contemporary Photography from a Conservation Perspective.” In The Imperfect Image: Photographs their Past, Present and Future Conference Proceedings, Centre for Photographic Conservation, Low Wood Conference Centre, Windermere, 6th-10th April 1992 (1992): 367-375.
  • Kennedy, Nora and Peter Mustardo. “Changing perspectives on color photography.” In Diversity in Heritage Conservation: Tradition, Innovation, and Participation, 15th Triennial Conference, 22-26 September 2008, New Delhi 2 (ICOM/CC, 2008), 689-694.
  • McGlinchey, C. and B. Yuan. ‘The Development of Ultra-cool Melt Adhesives for Mounting Resin Coated (RC) Photographic Papers.’ Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VII. Ed. by P. Vandiver, J.L. Mass, and A. Murray (Warrendale, PA: Materials Research Society, 2005), 321-329.
  • “Mellon Collaborative Workshop on Contemporary Photographic Processes: Treatment Issues, Thursday, June 22, 2000.” Chicago, Illinois. 1-17.
  • Morrison, Pip. Solvent Effects on Silver Dye Bleach Materials. Capstone Research Project, Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation, Rochester, NY. 11 July 2005. <http://www.arp-geh.org/FileUpload_demo/Pip_research_compressed.pdf>

8.6.4. Preventative Care

  • Adelstein, P.Z., C. L. Graham, and L. E. West. “Preservation of Motion-Picture Color Films Having Permanent Value.” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 79 (November 1970): 1011-1018.
  • Adelstein, P. Z., ed. “Physical Properties of Imaging Materials.” In Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, 2nd ed., ed. by C. N. Proudfoot (1997): 365-384.
  • Adelstein, Peter Z. “IPI Media Storage Quick Reference.” 2004. Image Permanence Institute. 9 September 2008. http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/shtml_sub/msqr.pdf . The print version of this booklet with wheel may be purchased at www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org
  • Adelstein, P. Z., J.-L. Bigourdan and J. M. Reilly. “Moisture Relationships of Photographic Film.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 36, no. 3 (1997): 193-206. American Institute for Conservation. 29 September 2008. <http://aic.stanford.edu/jaic/articles/jaic36-03-002_indx.html>
  • Bigourdan, Jean-Louis. “Stability of Acetate Film Base: Accelerated-Aging Data Revisited.” Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 50, no. 5 (2006): 494-501.
  • Bigourdan, Jean-Louis, Peter Z. Adelstein and James M. Reilly. “Moisture and Temperature Equilibration: Behavior and Practical Significance in Photographic Film Preservation.” In La Conservation: Une Science en Évolution, Bilans et Perspectives, Actes des troisièmes journées internationals d’études de l’ARSAG Paris, 21-25 April 1997 (Paris: ARSAG, 1997): 154-164.
  • Calhoun, J. M. “Cold Storage of Photographic Film,” Photographic Science and Technique, Section B of PSA Journal 18B, no. 3 (October 1952).
  • Daffner, Lee Ann. “Survey of Cool and Cold Storage Facilities for Fine Art Photograph Collections.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 10 (2003): 151-161.
  • Goos, Roland and Hans-Evert Bloman. “An Inexpensive Method for the Preservation and Long-Term Storage of Color Film.” SMPTE Journal 92 (1983): 1314-1316.
  • International Standard ISO 18924. “Imaging Materials – Test method for Arrhenius-type predictions.” ISO, Case postale 56, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland (may be purchased on line at http://www.iso.org/iso/search.htm).
  • International Standard ISO 18934. “Imaging Materials – Multiple media archives – Storage environment.” ISO Case postale 56, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland (may be purchased on line at http://www.iso.org/iso/search.htm).
  • Kopperl, D. F. and C. C. Bard. “Freeze/Thaw Cycling of Motion-Picture Films.” SMPTE Journal 94, no. 8 (August 1985): 826-827.
  • McCabe, Constance. “Guidelines for Freezer Storage of Film.” Unpublished notes. (28 October 2002): 1-4.
  • McCabe, Constance. “Freezer Storage of Film.” Unpublished notes, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., April 2003.
  • McCabe, Constance, and Sarah S. Wagner. Implementing Cold Storage at the National Gallery of Art. Unpublished presentation notes to the National Park Service, 30 January 2006.
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark H. “The Allowable Temperature and Relative Humidity Range for the Safe Use and Storage of Photographic Materials.” Journal of the Society of Archivists 17, no. 1 (1996): 7-21.
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark. “Methods for creating cold storage environments.” In Care of Photographic Moving Image & Sound Collections (Leigh: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1999), 19-23.
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark H. “On the Cold Storage of Photographic Materials in a Conventional Freezer Using the Critical Moisture Indicator (CMI) Packaging Method.” 31 July 2003. Wilhelm Imaging Research. 29 September 2008. <http://www.wilhelm-research.com/subzero/CMI_Paper_2003_7_31.pdf>
  • McCormick-Goodhart, Mark and Henry Wilhelm. “The Design and Operation of a Passive Humidity-Controlled Cold Storage Vault Using Conventional Freezer Technology and Moisture-Sealed Cabinets.” In Final Program and Proceedings: IS&T Archiving Conference, April 20-23, 2004, San Antonio, Texas (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), 176-182.
  • Pénichon, Sylvie. Twentieth-Century Color Photographs: Identification and Care, Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2013.
  • Phibbs, Hugh. “Climate Resistant Package,” “Water Proof Package,” and “Climate Proof Package.” Unpublished notes, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  • Reilly, James M. “Storage Guide for Color Photographic Materials: Caring for Color Slides, Prints, Negatives, and Movie Stills.” Albany, NY: The State University of New York, 1998.
  • Shashoua, Y. “Modern plastics: do they suffer from the cold?” In Modern Art, New Museums: Contributions to the Bilbao Congress, 13-17 September 2004. Ed. by Ashok Roy and Perry Smith (London: IIC, 2004), 91-95.
  • Townsend, Joyce and Norman Tennent. “Colour Transparencies: Studies on Light Fading and Storage Stability.” In ICOM Committee for Conservation Preprints, 10th Triennial Meeting, Washington, D.C., August 1993 1 (Paris: ICOM, 1993), 281-286.
  • Wagner, Sarah S. “Cold Storage Handling Guidelines for Photographs.” (1991): 1-3. The U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. 30 September 2008. <http://www.archives.gov/preservation/storage/cold-storage-photos.html>
  • Wagner, Sarah. “Cold Storage Options: Costs and Implementation Issues.” Topics in Photographic Preservation 12 (2007): 224-238.
  • Wagner, Sarah. “Cold Storage Costs: Comparison Pricing for Photographic Collections.” AIC News 33, no. 1 (January 2008): 1, 8-9.
  • Wallace, James H. Jr. “A Case Study--Twenty Years Experience at the Smithsonian Institution: The Planning and Operation of a Cold Storage Facility for Photographs.” In Final Program and Proceedings: IS&T Archiving Conference, April 20-23, 2004, San Antonio, Texas (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), 172-175.
  • Whitmore, Paul M., Catherine Bailie and Sandra A. Connors. “Micro-Fading Tests to Predict the Result of Exhibition: Progress and Prospects.” In Tradition and Innovation: Advances in Conservation. Ed. by A. Roy and P. Smith (London: IIC, 2001), 200-205.
  • Wilhelm, Henry. “Accelerated Tests for Measuring Light Fading, Dark Fading, and Yellowish Stain Formation.” The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints. Color Negatives, Slides and Motion Pictures. (Grinnell, 1993), 61-100. Wilhelm Research Institute. 15 September 2008. <http:www.wilhelm-research.com>
  • Zinn, Edward, James M. Reilly, Peter Z. Adelstein and Douglas W. Nishimura. “Preservation of Colour Photographs: The Danger of Atmospheric Oxidants in the Storage Environment.” In Environnement et Conservation de L’Écrit, de L’Image et du Son, Actes des deuxièmes journées internationales d’études de l’ARSAG (Paris : Association Pour la Recherche Scientifique sur les Arts Graphiques, 1994), 25-30.