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Health & Safety Guides
Health and Safety Health and Safety Technical Resources for the Conservator



TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Professional and Standards/Refernces Organizations
Specialized Consulting Organizations
International Regulatory and Professional Organizations
Health & Safety Committee Suggested Readings
U.S. Government Publications
General Safety and Fire Prevention
Industrial Hygiene / Occupational Health
Hazardous Materials References
Laboratory Safety
Pesticides & Fumigants
Art/Conservation Hazards
Workplace Controls


The Health and Safety Committee has compiled resources related to regulatory, research, and toxicological information that we believe conservators will find useful in their work. This document includes a list of relevant books, selected because of reference information that can assist conservators as they evaluate specific workplace hazards. It also provides URLs for accessing professional and standards/reference organizations, as well as pertinent government agencies on the Internet.

The Bibliography and Technical Resource List are meant to be reference guides, helping conservators to navigate the existing literature as it pertains to health and safety hazards and general legal requirements. While every effort will be made to update these listings as needed, the Committee cannot guarantee that every address published here will be accessible or current. Our intent is to make important health and safety information accessible to the entire AIC membership, giving individual conservators the tools by which they can begin to answer some of their own health and safety questions.

—Hilary A. Kaplan, Conservator, Georgia Department of Archives and History, 330 Capitol Ave., Atlanta, GA 30334; (404) 656-3554; fax: (404) 651-8471; [email protected]


Professional and Standards/References Organizations

American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
Sources of standards for accreditation and list of accredited laboratories in all scientific disciplines; reciprocal acceptance with Canada.


American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN)
Administers a national certification program, and maintains roster, for nurses specializing in the field of occupational health.


American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH)
Establishes professional industrial hygiene certification criteria, maintains listing of Certified Industrial Hygienists (CIH), references for accredited college and graduate level degree programs in industrial hygiene.


American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(ACOEM)
Locations of occupational medical clinics and clinicians; information on accreditation and training requirements; publishes Journal of Occupational Medicine; and other literature resources. See also: Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics, below.


American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Major consensus-setting organization within the field of industrial hygiene and occupational/environmental safety and health. Source of annually updated recommended exposure guidelines for wide variety of chemical and physical agents (Threshold Limit Values - TLVs). Publishes biological monitoring guidelines, reference materials, training aids.


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Source of professional consensus standards often adopted into regulations. Excellent guidance in areas of respiratory protection and ventilation.


Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
Extensive listing of U.S. clinics by state; related research projects.


American Public Health Association (APHA)
Leading professional organization for all public health disciplines; includes an Occupational Health Section.</P>


American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Publishes variety of engineering consensus standards, including widely accepted performance standards for building and laboratory ventilation, and indoor air quality.


American Society of Safety Engineers
Leading professional organization in the occupational safety field; publications, training aids, technical assistance.


Board of Certified Safety Professionals
Establishes professional occupational safety specialist certification criteria, maintains listing of Certified Safety Professionals (CSP).


Health Physics Society
Leading professional organization in the field of radiation health physics; administers certification program and maintains list of Certified Health Physicists (CHP).


Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
Source of consensus standards on illumination levels and devices appropriate to type of building, activity, and task.


National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Professional consensus organization disseminating information on and recommendations for radiation measurement criteria and guidelines for protection.


National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
of national fire codes and supplemental explanatory handbooks such as Flammable & Combustible Liquids Code Handbook, Fire Protection Handbook,and Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials.


National Safety Council
Source of training and information on safety and health issues, including publications.


Radiation Safety and Health Physics


Safety Equipment Institute (SEI)
Leading third party certifier of safety and personal protective equipment; maintains listings of items that have been tested and meet the appropriate product standards (ANSI, ASTM, NFPA, NIOSH, etc.), and the manufacturing facilities met SEI quality assurance requirements.

Specialized Consulting Organizations

Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety (ACTS)
ATTN: Monona Rossol
Health and safety data, lectures, and training related to museums and other cultural activities. Ms. Rossol serves as consultant to the AIC Health and Safety Committee.

Center for Safety in the Arts
ATTN: Dr. Michael McCann, Angela Babin
Source of Data Sheet series on Museum and Conservation Health Hazards and Controls, numerous publications, consulting and training services, and Art Hazards News.


Pertinent Government Agencies


National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements


National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
Department of Commerce


U.S. Dept. Of the Interior, National Park Service
Museum Management Division
Source of: Museum Handbook, particularly useful is Part 1: Museum Collections and [http://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/cons_toc.html Conserv-o-gram series containing safety and health information and practical control recommendations.


U. S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Consult website for locations of individual area offices and consultation offices; standards and standards interpretation; AOC is a detailed database on chemical hazard information, and new site on ergonomics.
Promulgates and enforces safety and health regulations for most businesses and industries in the United States. Maintains Regional and Area Offices; many states also manage their own federally-approved occupational safety and health plan. Publishes helpful booklets summarizing standards. Offers free, confidential on-site Consultation Services to small businesses and organizations.


U. S. Department of Transportation
Transportation of Hazardous Materials Hotline
Promulgates and enforces national transportation regulations, including shipment of hazardous materials.


U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Consult website for more hotlines on specific environmental topics.
Other useful site is IRIS, the EPA's database on environmental toxicity of various chemicals.
Administers laws to control/reduce pollution of air, water, and land; regulates use and labeling of pesticides. Administered primarily at state level.


National Pesticide Telecommunications Network
A toll-free U.S. EPA-and-Oregon State University sponsored information service on a wide-variety of pesticide-related subjects, including products, poisonings and emergencies, toxicology, environmental chemistry, safety practices, clean-up and disposal, and laboratory analysis. It is open to the public and professionals. Operating hours are from 6:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Pacific Time.


U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO)
Source of government documents, at reasonable cost. Code of Federal Regulations (Daily Federal Registers).


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
Important DHHS agencies include:

1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
a. National Center for Environmental Health
b. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
3. National Institutes of Health
a. National Cancer Institute
b. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - National Toxicology Program
4. National Library of Medicine


These programs are described below, and can be accessed through their individually listed websites, or through the DHHS Home Page, click on "About HHS", then [HHS Agencies on Internet].


Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Agency maintains health hazard databases, including environmental fate of chemical releases, pesticide profile sheets, and HazDat, the ATSDR's Hazardous Substance Release/Health Effects Database.


Centers for Disease Control
National Center for Environmental Health Research on environmental-public health issues; access through CDC web site.


National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
For technical information, publications or to request a Health Hazard Evaluation of your workplace.
(513) 533-8326: For information on health & safety databases.
(304) 291-4331: For information on respirators.
(513) 533-8241: For locations of Educational Resource Centers
Conducts research and training in occupational safety and health issues; certifies respirators; issues health hazard alerts and other publications; conducts health hazard evaluations upon employer or employee request; maintains extensive databases. Funds Educational Research Centers located at many universities across the country, providing training courses and information to employees and employers.


National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD
(and other sites across the nation)

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Research
Information on adverse effects of environmental factors on human health. Administers the National Toxicology Program, and various databases.


National Cancer Institute


National Library of Medicine

International Regulatory and Professional Organizations

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
Tripartite (government, industry, labor) organization for development and recommendation of safety and health standards for the workplace; resource organization for publications, fact sheets, training materials; information on occupational medical clinics, professional organizations, and standards throughout all provinces.


International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Agency of the World Health Organization; publishes international consensus documents evaluating hazardous substances relative to ability to cause cancer.


International Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
(see National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, above)


International Labour Office

Major international resource for research and technical assistance on issues of workplace safety and health. Edits and publishes the standard reference: Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety.


International Occupational Hygiene Association
Secretariat: British Occupational Hygiene Society
Professional organization representing industrial/occupational hygiene interests and resources world-wide; board member contacts from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, and US.


International Safety Council
(see National Safety Council, above)


Health & Safety Committee Suggested Readings

SOURCES
(contact the organizations for catalogues/other information)


NIOSH Publications
(800) 35-NIOSH


National Safety Council(NSC)
(708) 285-1121


American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists(ACGIH)
(513) 742-2020


American Industrial Hygiene Association(AIHA)
(703) 849-8888


National Fire Protection Association (NFP)
(800)-344-3555


Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety (ACT)
(212)-777-0062


Center for Safety in the Arts (CSA)
see Arts Hazards News, below


A.M. Best Co (BEST)
(201)-439-2200


American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
(212)-642-4900


Cole-Parmer
(800)-323-4340


Labelmaster
(800)-621-5808


Lab Safety Supply
(800)-356-0783


Nan Waters & Rogers (VWR)
(800)-234-9300 (Philadelphia)


Van Nostrand Reinhold
(800)-842-3636


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U.S. Government Publications

An organization must first determine if it is regulated under state or federal OSHA rules. State regulated organizations should contact their state OSHA for publications and compliance materials. Those under the federal law should have sections of the Code of Federal regulations (CFR) that apply to their work. These are 29 CFR 1900-1910 (General Industry Standards) and 29 CFR 1926 (Construction Standards). Sources for these publications are:

1. Call your local OSHA Office for obtaining copies.
2. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Tel: 202-512-1800
3. Lab Safety Supply Co.


Suggested: For general OSHA compliance for small businesses: OSHA Handbook for Small Businesses, U.S. Department of Labor, 1993, OSHA No.2209 (revised). (GPO order #029-016-001-441).


General Safety and Fire Prevention

Best's Safety Directory
A. M. Best Co.
Comprehensive listing of suppliers & manufacturers of safety and health products, includes summaries of pertinent OSHA standards. Published yearly.


National Fire Protection Association
Obtain catalog of the 270 codes. Choose pertinent codes such as:
NFPA#909 Protection Cultural Resources.
NFPA#914 Fire Protection in Historic Structures
NFPA#30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
NFPA#101 Life Safety Code
NFPA #45 Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals


Three important codes are publlished in an expanded and annotated handbook version:


Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook, 1997 ed., NFPA
1996 National Electric Code & Handbook, NFPA
Life Safety Code Handbook, NFPA


Not a code, but an important reference: Fire Protection Handbook, 18th ed. 1997, NFPA


Accident Prevention Manual for Business and Industry, 11th ed, 3-vol set. 1996 National Safety Council
Overly detailed for most conservation practices, however it is a standard safety reference.
Vol 1 Administration & Programs. by Gary Krieger, ed, and John F. Montgomery, ed. 11th ed oct 1996
Vol 2 Engineering & Technology, 11th ed, june 1997


Environmental Management, January 1995


Security Management, Richard W. Lack, ed, june 97.


Ergonomics: A Practical Guide, 2nd Ed. 1993 National Safety Council


ANSI standards for performance of safety and protective equipment. For example, ANSI Z358.1-1990 for eye wash fountains and emergency showers or ANSI Z87.1-1989 for face and eye protection. Available from ANSI.


Industrial Hygiene / Occupational Health

Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, 4th ed
National Safety Council publication
Barbara Plog, ed, june 1996
Good basic reference on occupational health hazards, detection, and control.


Respiratory Protection: A Manual and Guideline, 2nd ed.
1991 AIHA Respiratory Protection Committee
Complete overview of all levels of respiratory protection devices and program elements.


Noise & Hearing Conservation Manual, 4th Ed.
1986 AIHA Noise Committee
Basic reference on theory of noise sources, monitoring, and control; establishing hearing conservation program; selecting hearing protection.


Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th Ed.
3-vol. Set Clayton & Clayton, ed.
John Wiley & sons.
Prohibitively expensive for conservators ($1800), it is nevertheless a definitive reference source.
Each vol in several parts, 10 total parts.


Casarett & Doull's Toxicology, 5th ed
1995 C. D. Klaassen, ed.
McGraw-Hill
General principles of toxicology of poisons, toxic substances and environmental polutants.


NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
GPO, 1990 Spiral bound paperback
Reprint version by Diane Pub Co, 1993
Handy affordable guide to the properties, hazards, and remediation of 600 oft he more common chemical substances. Also on disk from ACGIH , publication 9340W.


ACGIH Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices
1997, ACGIH.
Primary source for TLVs. Revised every year, based on the values and indices recommended by the major consensus-setting professional industrial hygiene organization.


Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 4th revised edition, 4 volumes, McGraw Hill, International Labour Organization. In press. Covers all aspects of occupational health including art and conservation. Projected publication at the end of 1997.


Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, 4th Ed.
Proctor & Hughes, 1996, VNR.
Classic reference for over 540 substances.


Occupational Medicine, 3rd Ed.
1994, Zenz, Dickerson, Horvath Eds.
Mosby-Year Book
Classic reference.


First Aid Manual for Chemical Accidents, 2nd ed.
M. Lefevre, 1989, Van Nostrand Reinhold


Hazardous Materials References

Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 13th ed.,
1997, revised by Sax, N. Irving and Lewis, Sr. Richard, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co.
Brief description, properties, hazards, and uses of chemicals. Basic reference, applicable to every lab.


Colour Index International, 3rd ed,
1971-1992 in 9 vols. From Society of Dyers and Colourists, POB 244 Perkin House, 82 Grattan Rd, Bradford, BD1 2JB, England, ph 44 (0) 1274 725138, fax 44 (0) 1274 392888. CDROM version is 450 GBP + VAT. Inquire for hardcopy price. Or email for information.


Merck Index, 12th ed.
1996, Susan Budavari, et al, ed, Merck & Co. pubs
Book and cd available, Chapman & Hall, pubs
Description, properties, structure, derivation of more than 10,000 chemicals, drugs, and biological substances. Basic reference, more applicable to larger labs.


Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 9th edition,
Sax, N.I.and R.J. Lewis, Sr. , jan 1996. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co., 3-vol. set.
Excellent source of information on chemical descriptions, hazards, standards, etc. Labs should at least identify an accessible library which has this expensive reference.


Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets, New Jersey Department of Health, CN 368, Trenton, N.J. 08625-0368. Tel: 609-984-2202. Excellent fact sheets on several hundred individual chemicals which list hazards, physical constants, regulatory requirements and odor thresholds when known.


The MSDS Pocket Dictionary, Genium Publishing Corporation, Schenectady. Revised, 1994. A dictionary of terms used on Material Safety Data Sheets. They also have other little handbooks and booklets in Spanish. For a publication list contact Genium Publishing at 1146 Catalyn Street, Schenectady, N.Y. 12303-1836. Tel: (518)-377-8854.


Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, 4th edition
R. Lewis
1996 Van Nostrand Reinhold
Based on Sax. 6000 substances, 900 new to this ed. Affordable; a must.


Laboratory Safety

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals
1995, National Research Council, National Academy Press
Completely revised and merged edition of the excellent "Prudent Practices" series on Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Labs and Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories.


CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 4th Ed.
A. Keith Furr,ed, 1995
The definitive reference for all laboratories.


Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory
G. Lunn, 1994, John Wiley and Sons


Safe Storage of Laboratory Chemicals, 2nd ed.
1991, D. Pipitone , John Wiley and Sons ,
For labs with a larger variety of incompatible chemicals.


Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, an indexed guide to published data. 5th Ed.
1995, 2 vol set, Butterworth-Heinemann
4600 main entries, especially concerns explosive or flammable interactions.


Guidelines for Laboratory Design: Health and Safety Considerations, 2nd. Ed.
1993, Louis DiBerardinis, et al, John Wiley & sons
Important design guidelines.


Laboratory Fume Hoods: A User's Manual
1993 , Thomas Saunders, John Wiley & Sons
A true user's manual of trouble shooting, repair, and safe use.


Pesticides & Fumigants

Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology
1991, Hayes, W.J., Jr., and E.R. Laws, Jr. (eds.), 3 volumes, Academic Press.
Covers general principles of pesticide toxicology, effects of pesticide classes, and data on 256 compounds that have documented human effects.


Pesticide Users' Health and Safety Handbook: An International Guide
Watterson, A., 1989, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
(out of print.)


Linnie, M.J. 1990. "Conservation: Pest Control in Museums - The Use of Chemicals and Associated Health Problems,"  International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol 9. pp. 419 - 433. Provides an overview to many of the chemicals currently used in museums and their documented health effects.


Rossol, M. and W.C. Jessup 1996. "No Magic Bullets: Ethical Considerations for Pest Management Strategies," International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol. 15. No. 2, pp. 145-168. This paper provides a cohesive and authoritative understanding of the ethical, legal, and regulatory aspects of pest management which must be considered when selecting treatments. Many biocides used in museums have been categorized by chemical class. Also included are some of the hazards associated with their use, the OSHA rules which must be followed, and the guarantees and assurances which should be written into contracts with commercial pest control operators.


Art/Conservation Hazards

ACTS FACTS, Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety, New York.
A monthly newsletter updating health and safety regulations and research affecting the arts. Available from ACTS, Attn: M. Rossol, 181 Thompson Street, #23, New York, New York 10012. $15/year for 12 issues.


Arts Hazards News, Center for Safety in the Arts, New York.
A newsletter covering various topics related to health and safety in the arts. Each year they publish a "Special Resources Issue" which lists occupational clinics, OSHA offices and other agencies. Available from CSA, 5 Beekman Street, I0th floor. New York, New York 10038, no phone access. $24/year for 4 issues.


The Artists Complete Health and Safety Guide, 2nd Ed.
1994, Monona Rossol, Allworth Press, New York
A guide to safety and OSHA compliance for those using paints, pigments, dyes, metals, solvents, and other art and craft materials. Affordable, basic reference for conservators and artists.


Artist Beware, 2nd ed
1993, M. McCann, Lyons and Burford,
Affordable, basic reference for conservators and artists.


Safety in Museums and Galleries
Howie, F.M. (Ed.) 1987
Butterworth and Co., Ltd. London
Although out-of-print, this reference has useful information on hazards and precautions. While many of the chapters relate specifically to safety and health programs established under British laws for British museums, the general discussions of the variety of the hazards associated with museum work are useful for museums all over the world.


Fenn, J. 1987. "Danger in the Discovery Room," Museum Quarterly: The Journal of the Ontario Museums Association, Vol. 16, No. 2, Summer. pp. 8 -11, 26.


Overexposure: Health Hazards in Photography, 2nd ed.
1991, Susan D. Shaw and Monona Rossol, Allworth Press
Essential for those working with photo chemicals.


Workplace Controls

Ventilation: A Practical Guide
1995 Clark, Cutter, and McGrane, Lyons and Burford, NY
An excellent guide to basic ventilation principles and step-by-step guidance for those who wish to evaluate, design, and build and adequate ventilation system.


ACGIH Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 25th Ed.
2004, ACGIH
The definitive design source for ventilation systems; updated regularly, should be referenced in contract specifications for ventilation upgrades and installations.


Ventilation for Control of the Work Environment
Wm Burgess et al, 1989, John Wiley & Sons?Companion book to Industrial Ventilation; details on design principles and performance testing.??


Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing, 3rd. Ed.?
1997, Forsberg & Mansdorf , Van Nostrand Reinhold.?Excellent pocket-size reference of 15 common glove and suit materials and their suitability with 600 chemicals; details on breakthrough times and permeation rates.??


ACGIH Guidelines for Selection of Chemical and Protective Clothing, 3rd Ed.
1987, Schwope, et al, ACGIH, 2 vol set?Detailed data on selection criteria.??


American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers' ASHRAE 62-1989 "Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality." Can be obtained from ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle. N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30329. Tel: (404)-636-8400.?Consesus standards for indoor air quality.



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