Dry cleaning

From Wiki

Dry cleaning refers to "any of various nonaqueous cleaning methods such as the removal of surface dirt by brushing, using appropriate erasers on paper, or the use of nonaqueous organic solvents on fabrics."[1]

Translation

Language Translation
English dry cleaning
Chinese 乾洗[2]
Dutch stomen; gestoomd[3]
Spanish limpieza en seco[4]

Discussion

Dry cleaning can involve a technique without chemicals or it involves the application of chemicals. Objects can be dry cleaned using a brush to remove soil on the surface of fabrics[5] or an eraser, such as Draft Clean[6] or a Design® Artgum® eraser[7], might be employed to remove stains from fabrics. To dry clean carpets or other similar textile types powders such as Fuller's earth[8] or sodium bicarbonate might be employed. Magnesium carbonate is another such powder that is sometimes used to clean jewelry.[9]

Dry cleaning techniques that involve liquid chemicals originated in France in the 18th century.[10] Early methods relied on petroleum based chemicals to remove stains and other soils from textiles. Kerosene, gasoline, and Stoddard solvent, which is similar to turpentine, were all used in early dry cleaning.[11] Petroleum based solutions are no longer used due to their high flammability, general toxicity, and the availability of better solutions.

Modern dry cleaning relies on more stable solvents made up of hydrocarbons or tetrachloroethylene, also known as "perc."[12] "Perc" does have harmful side effects and legislation has called for the removal of dry cleaners that use the substance from residential buildings.[13] Meaning that the number of "perc" dry cleaners is dwindling. The nonflammable hydrocarbon based Vaclene is another common dry cleaning solution.[14]

All of the chemicals used during the dry cleaning process should be removed as completely as possible from the object. Vacuums and brushes can be used to remove powdered chemicals and the dry cleaning process should remove all liquid chemicals.[15] Chemical cleaning process recommendations are expressed in GINETEX symbols on the labels inside modern garments.[16]
  1. Art & Architecture Theasaurus. (2004). Dry cleaning. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=dry+cleaning&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300219637.
  2. Art & Architecture Theasaurus. (2004). Dry cleaning. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=dry+cleaning&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300219637.
  3. Art & Architecture Theasaurus. (2004). Dry cleaning. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=dry+cleaning&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300219637.
  4. Art & Architecture Theasaurus. (2004). Dry cleaning. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=dry+cleaning&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300219637.
  5. Art & Architecture Theasaurus. (2004). Dry cleaning. Retrieved from http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=dry+cleaning&logic=AND&note=&english=N&prev_page=1&subjectid=300219637.
  6. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Draft Clean. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Draft_Clean.
  7. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Design® Artgum®. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Design®_Artgum®_eraser.
  8. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Fuller’s earth. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Fuller%27s_earth.
  9. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Magnesium carbonate. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Magnesium_carbonate
  10. Forte, C. (2006). Dry cleaning demystified. Good Housekeeping 243(3).
  11. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Stoddard solvent. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Stoddard_solvent
  12. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Tetrachloroethylene. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Tetrachloroethylene; Good Housekeeping. (2011). “Green” dry cleaning. Good Housekeeping 252(1).
  13. Good Housekeeping. (2011). “Green” dry cleaning. Good Housekeeping 252(1).
  14. MFA Boston CAMEO (n.d.). Vaclene. Retrieved from http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Vaclene.
  15. Forte, C. (2006). Dry cleaning demystified. Good Housekeeping 243(3).
  16. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Laundry symbols. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laundry_symbol.