Appendix IV: Subject Index

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Painting Conservation Catalog
APPENDIX IV


Compiler: Wendy Samet

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
SUBJECT INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

The subject index for Volume 1, Varnishes and Surface Coatings, is a two-level index. All of the concepts, except for proper names, appear under each term in the two-part index phrase. Terms with “and” indicate a mixture. The number that follows each phrase refers to the page number where that concept appears in this volume.

abrasion
—paintings, 7
absence-of-bloom gloss
—gloss, 9
accelerated aging
—Arkon® P-90, 214
—carbon arc fadometer, 40
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—Kraton® G series rubbers, 111
—Laropal® K80, 96
—light, 36
—methacrylates, 40
—near ultraviolet light, 40
—Paraloid® B-82, 40
—poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
—poly(isobutyl methacrylate), 39
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165–166
—poly(n-propyl methacrylate), 40
—Regalrez® 1094, 114
—Soluvar®, 175, 176
acetone
—and aldehyde resins, 44
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and beeswax, 201
—and carnauba wax, 202
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66, 70
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57, 60
—and MS2A®, 83
—and paraffin, 202
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139, 140
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and polymeric varnishes, 135
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110, 112
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
—solvents, 36, 265
acrylic emulsion paintings
—aging, 273
—reversibility, 273–274
—solubility, 273
—varnishing, 273–274
acrylic paintings
—Soluvar®, 171
acrylic resin varnishes
—Elvacite® 2044, 161, 162
—Elvacite® 2045, 153
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 179
—leveling, 10
—Lucite® 45, 153
—Paraloid® B-67, 153
—Paraloid® B-72, 40, 137
—Paraloid® B-82, 40
—Paraloid® F-10, 161, 162
—solubility, 40
—Soluvar®, 171
—stability, 40–41
—testing, 40
acrylic resin-ketone resin varnishes
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 185
acrylic resins
—isobutyl methacrylate, 171, 176, 179
—n-butyl methacrylate, 171, 176, 179
—poly(butyl methacrylate), 153
—poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
—polymers, 38
—poly(methyl methacrylate), 38
Acryloid® B-72, see Paraloid® B-72 additives
—and Arkon® P-90, 119
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—and damar, 67
—and Escorez® 5380, 126
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—and Laropal® K80, 42, 77
—and mastic, 24, 58
—and MS2A®, 85
—and Paraloid® B-67, 156
—and Paraloid® B-72, 141
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—and Regalrez® 1094, 111
—and Soluvar®, 173
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 103
—and varnishes, 218
—antioxidants, 213
—Carstab® DLTDP, 187, 188
—hindered amine light stabilizers, 213
—Irganox® 1010, 187
—ketone resins, 93
—Laropal® K80, 75
—matting agents, 221
—plasticizers, 44
—stabilizers, 213
—Tinuvin® 328, 187
—ultraviolet absorbers, 7, 82, 213, 216
adhesion
—cyclohexanones, 42
—poly(vinyl acetate), 198
—varnishes, 8
adhesives
—pitch, 231
—varnishing brushes, 231
aging
—acrylic emulsion paintings, 273
—aldehyde resins, 43
—Arkon® P-90, 119, 120, 121
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188–189
—damar, 69–70, 215
—Escorez® 5380, 127
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 183
—hydrocarbon resins, 44
—isoamyl methacrylates, 39
—Laropal® K80, 42
—light, 36
—mastic, 60
—MS2A®, 89
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 197–198
—Regalrez® 1094, 114
—Soluvar®, 175
—solvents, 16
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 105
—Tinuvin® 292, 214
—UVS varnishes, 131
—varnishes, 1, 36
—waxes, 204
air compressors
—spray guns, 237, 238, 239, 240
—spraying, 260
airborne pollutants
—damar, 69
airbrushes
—banding, 260
—maintenance, 247
—Paraloid® B-72, 144
—spray varnishing equipment, 245–247
—spraying, 260
—ventilation, 247
airless sprayers
—spray guns, 244–245
alcohol
—and aldehyde resins, 44
—and damar, 64, 69
—and polymeric varnishes, 135
—solvents, 26
aldehyde resins
—aging, 43
—and acetone, 44
—and alcohol, 44
—and cyclohexanes, 43
—and hindered amine light stabilizers, 43
—and stabilizers, 43
—cracking, 43
—gloss, 14
—infrared spectra, 43
—inpainting, 44
—low molecular weight resins (synthetic), 43
—refractive index, 43
—scratch resistance, 15
—solubility, 43–44
—ultraviolet light, 43
aliphatic hydrocarbons
—and hydrocarbon resins, 44
—and low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 43
—solvents, 44
Allston, Washington, 28
aluminum
—ferrules, 230
aluminum stearate
—and Soluvar®, 173
—matting agents, 221
amber
—natural resin varnishes, 25–26
American Impressionist, 30
antioxidants
—additives, 213
—Irganox® 565, 164, 218
appearance
—Arkon® P-90, 119
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 68, 70
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 182
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—mastic, 59
—matteness, 9
—MS2A®, 84, 86
—Paraloid® B-67, 156, 157
—Paraloid® B-72, 142, 147
—photographs, 6
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164, 166
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196, 197
—Regalrez® 1094, 112
—Soluvar®, 174
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 103
—transparency, 7
—UVS varnishes, 131
—varnishing, 1, 6, 7
—waxes, 203
Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
Arkon® P-90, 117–124
—accelerated aging, 214
—aging, 119, 121, 122
—and acetone, 118
—and additives, 119
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 118
—and ethanol, 118
—and isopropanol, 118
—and petroleum benzine, 118
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 118
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 118
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 118
—and Shell Sol® 71, 120
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 118
—and Tinuvin® 292, 119, 120, 121, 122, 214
—and toluene, 118
—and turpentine, 118
—and xylenes, 118, 121
—appearance, 119
—badger bristle brushes, 120
—brittleness, 119
—brush solutions, 119
—brushing, 120
—carcinogenicity, 122
—chemical structure, 118
—color saturation, 120
—dirt, 122
—disposal, 122
—drying, 120
—first aid procedures, 122
—glass transition temperature, 15
—gloss, 14, 117, 119, 120
—handling, 122
—health and safety, 122
—health hazards, 122
—hydrocarbon resins, 117, 118
—inhalation, 122
—inpainting, 120
—leveling, 10
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnish, 53
—manufacturers, 117
—molecular weight, 12, 118
—oil paintings, 120
—oxidation, 121
—pressure-sensitive adhesives, 117
—refractive index, 13, 118
—removability, 121
—scratch resistance, 15
—shelf life, 119
—solubility, 118, 120, 214
—spray solutions, 119
—storage, 119, 122
—ventilation, 122
—viscosity, 12
Arkon® series
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44
aromatic hydrocarbons
—and hydrocarbon resins, 44
—and Laropal® K80, 77
—and Soluvar®, 171
—solvents, 44
Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 93–97
—aging, 96
—and acetone, 94
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 94
—and ethanol, 94
—and isopropanol, 94
—and mineral spirits, 95
—and Paraloid® B-72, 96
—and petroleum benzine, 96
—and Sansodor® Low Odour Paint Thinner, 95
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 94
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 94
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 94
—and Stoddard Solvent, 95, 96
—and Stoddard Solvent/Shell Sol® 340 HT, 94
—and toluene, 94
—and turpentine, 94
—and xylenes, 94
—appearance, 95
—brush solutions, 95
—brushing, 95
—disposal, 96
—first aid procedures, 96
—glass transition temperature, 95
—gloss, 95, 96
—health and safety, 96
—health hazards, 96
—ketone resin varnishes, 93
—manufacturers, 93, 94
—molecular weight, 94
—saturating, 96
—solubility, 94, 96
—spray solutions, 95
—spraying, 95, 96
—storage, 95
—ventilation, 96
artists' intent
—varnishing, 1, 6, 30
Artists' Original Matt Varnish®
—and matting agents, 95
—ketone resin varnishes, 93
artists' treatises
—traditional artists' varnishes, 21
asphaltum
—natural resin varnishes, 26
—tinting, 28
autoxidation
—damar, 69, 217
—Laropal® K80, 77, 78
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 43
—mastic, 60, 217
—MS2A®, 89
—Regalrez® 1094, 114
—varnishes, 11
AW2®
—ketone resin varnishes, 75, 81, 93, 100
—polycyclohexanones, 41–42
badger body hair
—badger hair brushes, 227
—belly, 227
badger hair brushes
—Arkon® P-90, 120
—badger body hair, 227
—brushes, 225
—ferrules, 230, 234
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 262
—mastic, 265
—MS2A®, 88
—Regalrez® 1094, 112, 113
—varnishing brushes, 234
Bakelite® Series AYAB
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37
Bakelite® Series AYAC
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37
Bakelite® Series AYAF
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37
banding
—airbrushes, 260
beavertail handles
—varnishing brushes, 232
beeswax
—and acetone, 201
—and carbon tetrachloride, 201
—and Cellosolve® acetate, 201
—and damar, 67, 69
—and ethanol, 201
—and ether, 201
—and petroleum distillates, 201
—and solvents, 201
—and turpentine, 201
—brittleness, 204
—natural waxes, 26, 201
—shrinkage, 204
—solubility, 201
—solutions, 202
—varnishes, 30
belly
—badger body hair, 227
—mongoose tail hair, 227
benzene
—and poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
benzoin
—spirit varnishes, 25
—triterpenoid resins, 25
benzol
—and mastic, 59
—and paraffin, 202
benzophenones
—ultraviolet absorbers, 216
benzotriazoles
—Tinuvin® 327, 217
—ultraviolet absorbers, 216
biohazards
—spraying, 260
bitumen
—natural resin varnishes, 26
block handles
—varnishing brushes, 232
bloom
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—damar, 67, 70
—mastic, 60
—natural resin varnishes, 18
—paintings, 35
boar bristle
—bristle, 225, 226
bone
—ferrules, 230
Borneo
—damar, 63
Braque, Georges, 30
brass
—ferrules, 229
bristle
—boar bristle, 225, 226
—fibers, 225
—hog bristle, 225, 226
—nylon, 225, 226
bristle brushes
—Paraloid® B-72, 143
—varnishing brushes, 228
brittleness
—Arkon® P-90, 119
—beeswax, 204
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 63, 65, 69
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—Laropal® K80, 77, 78
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—mastic, 24, 57
—MS2A®, 83, 84, 90
—Paraloid® B-67, 155
—Paraloid® B-72, 140
—polycyclohexanones, 42
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—polymethacrylate resins, 173
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 194
—Regalrez® 1094, 110, 111
—Soluvar®, 173
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 105
—varnishes, 11
brush solutions
—Arkon® P-90, 119
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 67
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—Laropal® K80, 77
—mastic, 58
—MS2A®, 84, 85
—Paraloid® B-67, 156
—Paraloid® B-72, 141
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 195
—Regalrez® 1094, 111
—Soluvar®, 173
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—UVS varnishes, 130
—waxes, 202–203
brushability
—molecular weight, 11
—Regalrez® 1094, 111
brushes see also varnishing brushes, watercolor brushes; also specific types of brushes, e.g., fan blender brushes
—badger hair brushes, 59, 225
—fibers, 225
—hog bristle brushes, 87
—sable brushes, 227
brushing
—Arkon® P-90, 120
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—canvas paintings, 263
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187, 188
—damar, 68, 263
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 182
—Ketone® N, 263
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 262
—mastic, 59, 263
—MS2A®, 86, 87, 263
—Paraloid® B-67, 156–157
—Paraloid® B-72, 142–143, 145
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—poly(vinyl acetate), 197
—Regalrez® 1094, 112
—Soluvar®, 174
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 104
—varnishes, 16
—varnishing, 256–259, 263
—waxes, 203
buffing
—damar, 70
—varnishing, 263, 268
Burma
—damar, 63
burns
—waxes, 204
butyl methacrylates
—crosslinking, 39
—dirt, 39
—flexibility, 39
—fluorescent lighting, 39
—glass transition temperature, 39
—methacrylates, 39
—solubility, 39
—synthetic resin varnishes, 39
—yellowing
camphor
—and mastic, 24
Canada balsam
—diterpenoid resins, 22, 23
canvas paintings
—brushing, 263
—MS2A®, 263
—varnishing, 263
carbon arc fadometer
—artificial aging, 40
carbon disulfide
—and paraffin, 202
carbon tetrachloride
—and beeswax, 201
—and carnauba wax, 202
—and paraffin, 202
carcinogenicity
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Soluvar®, 176
carnauba wax
—and acetone, 202
—and carbon tetrachloride, 202
—and chloroform, 202
—and ethanol, 202
—and ether, 202
—and turpentine, 201–202
—hardness, 203
—natural waxes, 201
—sheen, 203
—solubility, 201–202
—solutions, 202–203
Carstab® DLTDP
—additives, 187, 188
castor oil
—and damar, 25
Cellosolve® acetate
—and beeswax, 201
cellulose acetate
—solubility, 45
cellulose nitrate
—and plasticizers, 45
—glass transition temperature, 45
Cennini, Cennino, 2, 3, 26, 27, 29
ceresin—solutions, 202–203
chemical structure
—Arkon® P-90, 118
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—damar, 64–65
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—Laropal® K80, 76, 94
—mastic, 56
—MS2A®, 82
—natural resin varnishes, 22
—Paraloid® B-67, 154
—Paraloid® B-72, 139
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 162
—poly(vinyl acetate), 192
—Regalrez® 1094, 109
—Soluvar®, 172
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 101
—varnishes, 11
Chiron® SC90E
—spray guns, 261
Chiron® Spray Gun
—spray guns, 268
chiseled shapes
—ox-hair brushes, 233
—varnishing brushes, 233
chlorine
—damar, 69
chloroform
—and carnauba wax, 202
—and paraffin, 202
classification
—natural resin varnishes, 22
cleaning
—paint loss, 42
—paintings, 7, 253
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
—tinting, 28
—varnishing brushes, 234–235
cleavage
—damar, 70
—Laropal® K80, 78
collage
—varnishing, 2
colophony
—pine resin, 22
color saturation
—Arkon® P-90, 120
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 59
—synthetic resin varnishes, 37
colorlessness
—surface coatings, 35
condition
—paintings, 7
Conserv-Art® Varnish, 185–190
—accelerated aging, 188
—acrylic resin-ketone varnishes, 185
—aging, 188–189
—and acetone, 186
—and additives, 187
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 186
—and ethanol, 186
—and isopropanol, 186
—and mineral spirits, 187, 188
—and naphtha, 187
—and petroleum benzine, 186
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 186
—and Shell Mineral Spirits, 186
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 186
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 186
—and toluene, 186
—and turpentine, 186
—and xylenes, 186
—appearance, 188
—bloom, 186
—brittleness, 187
—brush solutions, 187
—brushing, 187, 188
—chemical structure, 186
—color saturation, 188
—cracking, 186
—crosslinking, 188
—dirt, 188
—disposal, 188
—drying, 188
—first aid procedures, 188
—flexibility, 187
—glass transition temperature, 186
—gloss, 188
—health and safety, 188
—inhalation, 188
—inpainting, 188
—matteness, 188
—molecular weight, 186
—oxidation, 187
—refractive index, 186
—removability, 188
—sable brushes, 188
—sheen, 188
—shelf life, 187
—solubility, 186, 188
—spray solutions, 187
—spraying, 187, 188
—storage, 187
—yellowing, 187
consolidants
—damar, 63
—Paraloid® B-72, 137
—poly(vinyl acetate) resins, 191
contemporary paintings
—spraying, 260
copaiba balsam
—diterpenoid resins, 24
copals
—diterpenoid resins, 23
—interlayering, 28
—oil resin varnishes, 22, 23
copolymers
—Plexigum® PQ610, 42
copper
—ferrules, 230
cracking
—aldehyde resins, 43
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—cyclohexanones, 42
—damar, 70
—hydrocarbon resins, 44
—mastic, 57, 60
—poly(vinyl acetate), 195
crackling
—paintings, 21
—Paraloid® B-72, 144
crazing
—damar, 70
—MS2A®, 90
crizzling
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
crosslinking
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—epoxy resin, 45
—isoamyl methacrylates, 39
—ketone resin varnishes, 42
—light, 37
—low molecular weight synthetic resins, 43
—octafluoroamyl methacrylate, 40
—paper chromatography, 38
—Paraloid® B-67, 40, 157
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
—poly(butyl methacrylate), 39, 40
—poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38, 39, 40
—poly(isobutyl methacrylate), 39
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—polymers, 36, 45
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 39, 164, 165, 166
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 197
—Soluvar®, 173, 175
—tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate, 40
—Tinuvin® 292, 214
Cubist, 1, 30
cutter brushes
—varnishing brushes, 233
cyclohexanes
—and aldehyde resins, 43
—and hydrocarbon resins, 44
cyclohexanones
—adhesion, 42
—cracking, 42
—gloss, 42
—Ketone Resin® N, 42
—Laropal® K80, 42, 75, 76
—oxidation, 42
—paint loss, 42
—solvents, 36
—strength, 42
—testing, 42
—varnishing, 42
—wrinkling, 42
damar, 63–73
—aging, 69–70, 215
—airborne pollutants, 69
—and acetone, 66, 70
—and additives, 67
—and alcohol, 64, 69
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 66
—and beeswax, 67, 69
—and castor oil, 25
—and egg tempera, 63
—and ethanol, 66
—and hindered amine light stabilizers, 213–214
—and isopropanol, 66
—and ketone resins, 69
—and matting agents, 67
—and microcrystalline wax, 67, 69
—and MS2A®, 88
—and naphtha, 263
—and oil paint, 63
—and Paraloid® B-72, 145
—and petroleum benzine, 66
—and poppy oil, 28
—and rubber, 63
—and sandarac, 25
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 66
—and Shell Mineral Spirits, 66
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 66
—and solvents, 66, 67, 69
—and stand oil, 25
—and stearate, 67
—and Stoddard Solvent, 66, 263
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 66
—and Tinuvin® 292, 67, 70, 213, 214, 215, 257
—and toluene, 10, 66, 70
—and turpentine, 25, 66
—and xylenes, 66, 69
—appearance, 68, 70
—autoxidation, 69, 217
—bloom, 67, 70
—Borneo, 63
—brittleness, 63, 65, 69
—brush solutions, 67
—brushing, 68, 263
—buffing, 70
—Burma, 63
—chemical structure, 64–65
—chlorine, 69
—clearing, 66
—cleavage, 70
—consolidants, 63
—cracking, 70
—crazing, 70
—dirt, 70
—discoloration, 69
—disposal, 71
—drying, 68, 70
—extenders, 63
—fixatives, 63
—flaking, 70
—flexibility, 65
—fluorescence, 70
—glass transition temperature, 15, 65
—glaze, 63
—gloss, 13–14, 67, 68, 70, 86
—harvesting, 64
—health and safety, 70
—hydrogen peroxide, 69
—incineration, 71
—India, 63
—Indonesia, 25, 64
—inpainting, 63, 69
—low molecular weight natural resin varnishes, 63
—Malaysia, 25, 63, 64
—manufacturers, 64
—matteness, 69
—molecular weight, 10, 12, 65
—natural resin varnishes, 43, 53, 55, 64
—ozone, 69
—recipes, 25
—refractive index, 13, 65
—relative humidity, 67
—removability, 70
—retouching, 63
—retouching varnishes, 28
—rubbing, 69
—saturating, 68
—scratch resistance, 15
—scratching, 70
—shelf life, 67, 70
—Singapore, 63, 64
—solubility, 70
—solutions, 66, 67
—spirit varnishes, 22
—spray solutions, 67
—spraying, 68, 69
—Sri Lanka, 63
—stabilizing, 67, 213, 214
—storage, 67
—sulfur dioxide, 69
—surface coatings, 63
—testing, 35
—Thailand, 63
—triterpenoid resins, 24–25
—ultraviolet light, 37, 70
—varnishes, 3–4
—varnishing brushes, 233
—viscosity, 12, 68
—yellowing, 63, 69, 70
darkening
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—tinting, 28
Delacroix, Eugène, 26, 201
deterioration—oxidation, 7
—ultraviolet light, 7
—varnishes, 7
diacetone alcohol
—and paraffin, 202
—and Paraloid® B-72, 147
diethyl benzene
—and Paraloid® B-72, 40
diffuse reflection
—gloss, 9
dirt
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 70
—Escorez® 5380, 127
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 60
—microcrystalline wax, 85
—MS2A®, 89
—paintings, 7
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164, 166
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 197, 198
—Regalrez® 1094, 114
—Soluvar®, 175
—varnishes, 17
—varnishing, 5
discoloration see also darkening; yellowing
—damar, 69
—MS2A®, 89
—solvents, 16
—varnishes, 5, 8, 17
disposal
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 71
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 183
—Laropal® K80, 79
—mastic, 60
—MS2A®, 90
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 149
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
—poly(vinyl acetate), 198
—Regalrez® 1094, 115
—Soluvar®, 176
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 106
—varnishes, 18
—paintings, 29
distinctness-of-image gloss
—gloss, 9
diterpenoid resins
—Canada balsam, 22
—copaiba balsam, 24
—copals, 23
—pine resin, 22, 24
—sandarac, 23
—Strasbourg turpentine (olio di abezzo), 22, 24
—Venice turpentine, 22
drawings
—Paraloid® B-72, 137
drying
—Arkon® P-90, 120
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 68, 70
—MS2A®, 87
—Paraloid® B-67, 156, 157
—Paraloid® B-72, 141, 142, 143
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—poly(vinyl acetate), 197
—Regalrez® 1094, 113, 114
—Soluvar®, 174
—solvents, 16
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 104
—UVS varnishes, 130, 131
drying oil
—and mastic, 24
—and spirit varnishes, 24
durability
—Paraloid® B-72, 137
dusting
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
dusting brushes
—goat hair, 228
egg tempera
—and damar, 63
—paint, 2, 3
egg white varnishes
—matteness, 27
—surface coatings, 2, 27
elasticity
—paint film, 35
Elvacite® 2044
—acrylic resin varnishes, 161, 162
—and acetone, 163
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 163
—and ethanol, 163
—and isopropanol, 163
—and petroleum benzine, 163
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 163
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 163
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 163
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 163
—and toluene, 163
—and turpentine, 163
—and xylenes, 163
—molecular weight, 163
Elvacite® 2045
—acrylic resin varnishes, 153
—and acetone, 155
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 155
—and ethanol, 155
—and isopropanol, 155
—and petroleum benzine, 155
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 155
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 155
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 155
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 155
—and toluene, 155
—and turpentine, 155
—and xylenes, 155
—manufacturers, 154
—molecular weight, 154
—isobutyl methacrylates, 39
epoxy resin
—crosslinking, 45
Escorez® 5380, 125–128
—aging, 127
—and additives, 126
—and Tinuvin® 292, 126, 127
—appearance, 126
—brush solutions, 126
—brushing, 126
—chemical structure, 126
—dirt, 127
—exposure, 127
—first aid procedures, 127
—glass transition temperature, 15, 126
—health and safety, 127
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44, 125
—manufacturers, 125
—molecular weight, 12, 126
—refractive index, 13, 126
—reticulation, 126
—shelf life, 126
—solubility, 126
—spraying, 126
—storage, 126
—toxicity, 127
—viscosity, 12
esterification
—MS2A®, 42
ethanol
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and beeswax, 201
—and carnauba wax, 202
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57, 59
—and MS2A®, 83
—and paraffin, 202
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194, 196, 197
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110, 112
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
ether
—and beeswax, 201
—and carnauba wax, 202
—and paraffin, 202
evaporation
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 182
—spraying, 262
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 102, 104
exposure
—Escorez® 5380, 127
—MS2A®, 90
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
extenders
—damar, 63
fan blender brushes
—Kolinsky tail hair, 226
—mongoose tail hair, 227
—ox-ear hair, 228
—sable, 227
—varnishing brushes, 234
ferrules
—aluminum, 230
—badger hair brushes, 230, 234
—bone, 230
—brass, 229
—copper, 230
—leather, 230
—nylon, 231
—plastic, 231
—tin-plated steel, 229
—varnishing brushes, 228, 229
—wood, 230
fibers
—bristle, 225
—brushes, 225
—hair, 225
—synthetic fibers, 226
finishing layers
—varnishing, 253
first aid procedures
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—Escorez® 5380, 127
—Laropal® K80, 79
—MS2A®, 90
—Paraloid® B-72, 149
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 106
fixatives
—damar, 63
—Lascaux Fixativ®, 138
—pastels, 63
flaking
—damar, 70
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
flammability
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 183
—waxes, 204
flat handles
—varnishing brushes, 231
flat shapes
—varnishing brushes, 232–233
flexibility
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 65
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—Laropal® K80, 77
—mastic, 57
—MS2A®, 83–84
—Paraloid® B-67, 155
—Paraloid® B-72, 140
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 191, 194, 196
—Regalrez® 1094, 110
—Soluvar®, 173
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
—varnishes, 11
fluorescence
—damar, 70
fluorescent lighting
—butyl methacrylates, 39
fluorescent paint
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
fume hoods
—spraying, 262
fumed silica
—and Paraloid® B-67, 157
—and Paraloid® B-72, 141
—matting agents, 141, 221
Gamvar®
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44, 109
gas chromatography
—Paraloid® B-67, 40
Gauguin, Paul, 30, 201
gel permeation chromatography
—testing, 36
glass transition temperature
—Arkon® P-90, 15
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—cellulose nitrate, 45
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—damar, 15, 65
—Escorez® 5380, 15, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—gum mastic, 15
—Laropal® K80, 15, 77, 95
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—mastic, 57
—MS2A®, 15, 83
—Paraloid® B-67, 15, 155
—Paraloid® B-72, 15, 140, 147
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164, 165, 166
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAA, 15
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAB, 15
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAC, 15
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAF, 15
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 194, 198
—Regalrez® 1094, 15, 110, 114
—Soluvar®, 173, 175
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—varnishes, 11
glaze
—damar, 63
glazing
—gum elemi, 25
gloss
—absence-of-bloom gloss, 9
—aldehyde resin, 14
—Arkon® P-90, 14, 117, 119, 120
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95, 96
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—cyclohexanones, 42
—damar, 13–14, 67, 68, 70, 86
—diffuse reflection, 9
—distinctness-of-image gloss, 9
—ketone resin varnishes, 41
—Laropal® K80, 13–14
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 14
—luster, 9
—mastic, 13–14, 24, 59
—matting agents, 221
—MS2A®, 14, 42, 84, 86
—paint, 93
—Paraloid® B-67, 13–14, 156
—Paraloid® B-72, 13–14, 144, 147
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAC, 13
—Regalrez® 1094, 14, 112
—sheen, 9
—Soluvar®, 174
—solvents, 16
—specular reflection, 9
—spraying, 260, 261
—surface uniformity gloss, 9
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—UVS Finishing Varnish®, 131
—UVS varnishes, 131
—varnishes, 8
—varnishing, 4, 5, 253
—Winton® Picture Varnish, 13
goat hair
—dusting brushes, 228
—hair, 226
—varnishing brushes, 228
Golden MSA® Varnish, 179–184
—acrylic resin varnishes, 179
—aging, 183
—and acetone, 180
—and additives, 181
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 180
—and ethanol, 180
—and isopropanol, 180
—and mineral spirits, 179, 181
—and petroleum benzine, 180
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 180
—and Shell Mineral Spirits, 180
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 180
—and solvents, 179, 182
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 180
—and toluene, 180
—and turpentine, 180
—and xylenes, 180
—appearance, 182
—brittleness, 181
—brush solutions, 181
—brushing, 182
—chemical structure, 180
—disposal, 183
—evaporation, 182
—flammability, 183
—flexibility, 181
—fluorescent paint, 181
—glass transition temperature, 181
—hardness, 181
—health and safety, 183
—inpainting, 182
—manufacturers, 179–180
—molecular weight, 180
—refractive index, 180
—shelf life, 181
—solubility, 180
—spray solutions, 181
—spraying, 182
—storage, 181
—synthetic resin varnishes, 39
—workability, 182
Grumbacher Tuffilm Fixative Spray
—varnishes, 138
gum arabic
—and isinglass, 26
gum elemi
—and mastic, 24
—glazing, 25
—glass transition temperature, 15
—molecular weight, 12
—refractive index, 13
—viscosity, 12
hair
—badger hair, 225
—fiber, 225
—goat hair, 226
—horse-body hair, 226
—Kolinsky tail hair, 225, 226
—mongoose hair, 225
—ox-ear hair, 226
—red sable hair, 225
—squirrel tail hair, 225
—varnishing brushes, 228, 229
handles
—varnishing brushes, 231
handling
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Laropal® K80, 77
—MS2A®, 42, 90
—paintings, 88
—Paraloid® B-67, 156
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
—Regalrez® 1094, 115
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 103, 106
—waxes, 204
hardness
—carnauba wax, 203
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—ketone resin varnishes, 41
—MS2A®, 84
—paint, 93
—Paraloid® B-72, 140
—solvents, 16
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
—varnishes, 11
harvesting
—damar, 64
Hassam, Childe, 29, 166
health and safety
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 70
—Escorez® 5380, 127
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 183
—Laropal® K80, 79
—mastic, 60
—MS2A®, 90
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 148
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
—poly(vinyl acetate), 198
—Regalrez® 1094, 115
—Soluvar®, 176
—solvents, 18
—spray varnishing equipment, 247
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 105–106
—varnishes, 18
—waxes, 204
health hazards
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—MS2A®, 90
—Paraloid® B-72, 148
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 106
heating
—matting agents, 221
—waxes, 204
heptane
—and UVS varnishes, 130
hexane
—solvents, 265
high-pressure, low-volume (HPLV)
—spray guns, 237–240
high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP)
—spray guns, 240–241
high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP) turbine systems
—spray guns, 242–244
hindered amine light stabilizers
—additives, 213
—and aldehyde resins, 43
—and damar, 213–214
—and hydrocarbon resins, 44
—and mastic, 58, 213–214
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 103
—and varnishes, 253
—Sanduvor® 3050, 42
—Tinuvin® 292, 17, 42, 44, 111, 131, 188, 213–214, 254
—Tinuvin® 328, 181
hog bristle
—bristle, 225, 226
hog bristle brushes
—brushes, 87
horse body hair
—hair, 226
—varnishing brushes, 228
hot-melt adhesives
—Regalrez® 1094, 109
hydrocarbon resins
—aging, 44
—and aliphatic hydrocarbons, 44
—and aromatic hydrocarbons, 44
—and cyclohexanes, 44
—and hindered amine light stabilizers, 44
—and toluene, 44
—Arkon® P-90, 117, 118
—cracking, 44
—hydrogenation, 44
—solubility, 44
—and Paraloid® B-72, 40
—and Regalrez® 1094, 112–113
hydrocarbon solvents
—solvents, 44
hydrogen peroxide
—damar, 69
hydrogenation
—hydrocarbon resins, 44
—MS2®, 83
impregnants
—Paraloid® B-72, 137
impressionist, 1, 3, 29, 85
incineration
—damar, 71
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
—poly(vinyl acetate), 198
India
—damar, 63
Indonesia
—damar, 64
infrared spectra
—aldehyde resins, 43
—Paraloid® B-67, 40
—Paraloid® B-72, 40
inhalation
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 148
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
—Regalrez® 1094, 115
—Soluvar®, 176
inpainting
—aldehyde resins, 44
—Arkon® P-90, 120
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 63, 69
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 182
—MS2A®, 87, 88
—Paraloid® B-72, 137
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—poly(vinyl acetate), 161
—Regalrez® 1094, 112
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 104, 105
—varnishing, 256
interlayering
—copals, 28
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 28
—MS2A®, 87, 88
—Paraloid® B-72, 144, 145, 146
—Paraloid® B-72, 78
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 161
—poly(vinyl acetate), 191, 197
—reticulation, 266
—varnishing, 253, 266–268
Irganox® 565
—and Laropal® K80, 78
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—antioxidants, 164, 218
—solubility, 218
—yellowing, 218
isinglass
—and gum arabic, 26
isoamyl methacrylates
—aging, 39
—crosslinking, 39
isobutyl methacrylates
—Elvacite® 45, 39
—Lucite® 45, 39
—acrylic resins, 171, 176, 179
isopropanol
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and paraffin, 202
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110, 112
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
Jan van Eyck, 99
Jennys, Richard, 27
Jennys, William, 27
ketone resin varnishes
—and mineral spirits, 41
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 191
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 93
—Artists' Original Matt Varnish®, 93
—Artists' Retouching Varnish®, 93
—AW2®, 75, 81, 93, 100
—crosslinking, 42
—gloss, 41
—hardness, 41
—Ketone Resin® N, 42, 81, 93, 100
—Laropal® K80, 75, 93, 94, 100
—leveling, 10
—MS2®, 41–42, 81, 100
—MS2A®, 41–42, 81
—MS2B®, 41–42
—polycyclohexanones, 41
—solubility, 41
—synthetic resin varnishes, 41–42
—viscosity, 41
Ketone Resin® N
—brushing, 263
—cyclohexanones, 42
—ketone resin varnishes, 42, 81, 93, 100
—oxidation, 75
ketone resins
—additives, 93
—and damar, 69
—and Paraloid® B-67, 185, 186
Kolinsky tail hair
—fan blender brushes, 226
—hair, 225, 226
—retouching, 226
—watercolor brushes, 226
Kraton® G 1650
—and Regalrez® 1094, 114
Kraton® G series rubbers
—accelerated aging, 111
—and Regalrez® 1094, 111
—polymeric synthetic rubbers, 111, 113
Krylon® Crystal Clear No. 41301
—varnishes, 138
landfill
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
Laropal® K80, 75–80
—accelerated aging, 96
—additives, 75
—aging, 42
—and acetone, 76
—and additives, 42, 77
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-Methoxy-2-propanol, 76
—and aromatic solvents, 77
—and ethanol, 76
—and Irganox® 595, 78
—and isopropanol, 76
—and matting agents, 77
—and microcrystalline wax, 77
—and mineral spirits, 77
—and petroleum benzine, 76
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 76
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 76
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 76
—and stabilizers, 78
—and Stoddard Solvent/Shell Sol® 340 HT, 76
—and Tinuvin® 292, 78, 214
—and toluene, 76
—and turpentine, 76
—and xylenes, 76, 77
—autoxidation, 77, 78
—brittleness, 77, 78
—brush solutions, 77
—brushing, 78
—chemical structure, 76, 94
—cleavage, 78
—color saturation, 78
—cyclohexanones, 42, 75, 76
—dirt, 78
—disposal, 79
—first aid procedures, 79
—flexibility, 77
—glass transition temperature, 15, 77, 95
—gloss, 13–14
—handling, 77
—health and safety, 79
—interlayering, 78
—ketone resin varnishes, 75, 93, 94, 100
—light, 42
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 53
—manufacturers, 75
—molecular weight, 12, 76
—refractive index, 13, 76
—rubbing, 78
—scratch resistance, 15
—shelf life, 78
—solubility, 76, 78
—spray solutions, 77
—spraying, 78
—storage, 78
—ventilation, 79
—viscosity, 12
—workability, 78
—yellowing, 78
Lascaux Fixativ®
—fixatives, 138
leather
—ferrules, 230
leveling
—acrylic resin varnishes, 10
—Arkon® P-90, 10
—ketone resin varnishes, 10
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 10
—molecular weight, 10
—natural resin varnishes, 10
—Paraloid® B-72, 143, 147
—Regalrez® 1094, 10
—saturating, 9–10
—UVS varnishes, 131
light see also ultraviolet light
—accelerated aging, 36
—aging, 36
—crosslinking, 37
—Laropal® K80, 42
lighting see also fluorescent lighting
—varnishes, 17
linseed oil
—refractive index, 10
—sandarac, 23
low molecular weight natural resin varnishes
—damar, 63
—mastic, 55–61
low molecular weight resin varnishes
—appearance, 53
—badger hair brushes, 262
—brittleness, 53
—brushing, 262
—Escorez® 5380, 125
—glass transition temperature, 53
—gloss, 14
—leveling, 10
—molecular weight, 53
—oxidation, 53
—refractive index, 53
—scratch resistance, 15
—solvents, 53
—viscosity, 53
low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes
—and aliphatic solvents, 43
—Arkon® P-90, 53
—Arkon® series, 44
—autoxidation, 43
—Escorez® series, 44
—Gamvar®, 44, 109
—Laropal® K80, 53
—MS2A®, 53
—Regalrez® 1078, 44
—Regalrez® 1094, 44, 109
—Regalrez® series, 44
—synthetic resin varnishes, 41, 53
—UVS® Varnishes, 44
low molecular weight synthetic resins
—aldehyde resins, 43
—crosslinking, 43
—polymerization, 43
—refractive index, 43
—solubility, 43
—synthetic resin varnishes, 43
Lucite® 44
—viscosity, 39
Lucite® 45
—acrylic resin varnishes, 153
—isobutyl methacrylates, 39
—viscosity, 39
luster
—gloss, 9
maintenance
—airbrushes, 247
—spray guns, 239, 241, 243
Malaysia
—damar, 63, 64
manufacturers–Arkon® P-90, 117
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 93, 94
—damar, 64
—Elvacite® 1045, 154
—Escorez® 5380, 125
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 179–180
—Laropal® K80, 75
—MS2A®, 81
—Paraloid® B-67, 154
—Paraloid® B-72, 138
—poly(vinyl acetate), 192
—Regalrez® 1094, 109
—Soluvar®, 171
—synthetic resin varnishes, 43
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 100, 101
mar resistance
—Regalrez® 1094, 110
mastic, 23, 55–61
—additives, 24
—aging, 60
—and acetone, 57, 60
—and additives, 58
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-Methoxy-2-propanol, 57
—and benzol, 59
—and camphor, 24
—and drying oil, 24
—and ethanol, 57, 59
—and gum elemi, 24
—and hindered amine light stabilizers, 58, 213–214
—and isopropanol, 57
—and microcrystalline wax, 59
—and oil, 28
—and petroleum benzine, 57
—and rosin, 24
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 57
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 57
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 57
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 57
—and Tinuvin® 292, 257, 265
—and toluene, 57, 60
—and turpentine, 24, 55, 57, 58, 59, 265
—and Venice turpentine, 24
—and xylenes, 57
—appearance, 59
—autoxidation, 60, 217
—badger hair brushes, 265
—bloom, 60
—brittleness, 24, 57
—brush solutions, 58
—brushing, 59, 263
—chemical formula, 56
—color saturation, 59
—cracking, 57, 60
—dirt, 60
—disposal, 60
—flexibility, 57
—glass transition temperature, 57
—gloss, 13–14, 24, 59
—health and safety, 60
—interlayering, 28
—molecular weight, 56, 59
—natural resin varnishes, 43, 53, 55
—oxidation, 58, 60
—panel paintings, 265
—polishing, 59
—refractive index, 56
—removability, 24, 60
—scratch resistance, 15
—shelf life, 58
—solubility, 57, 60
—spirit varnishes, 22
—spray solutions, 58
—spraying, 59
—storage, 58
—terpene resin, 55, 56
—testing, 35
—thickening, 58
—tinting, 29
—transparency, 24, 60
—triterpenoid resins, 24, 55
—ultraviolet light, 58
—varnishes, 3–4
—ventilation, 60
—wax fills, 59
—yellowing, 55, 58, 60
matteness
—appearance, 9
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 69
—egg white varnishes, 27
—MS2A®, 85
—Regalrez® 1094, 113
—Soluvar®, 174
—solvents, 265
—spraying, 261
—unvarnished paintings, 30
—UVS Matte Varnish®, 131
—waxes, 204
matting agents
—additives, 221
—aluminum stearate, 221
—and Artists' Original Matt Varnish®, 95
—and damar, 67
—and Laropal® K80, 77
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—and Soluvar®, 174
—Artists' Matt Varnish®, 95
—fumed silica, 141, 221
—gloss, 221
—heating, 221
—metallic soaps, 221
—refractive index, 221
—solubility, 221
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 101, 103
measuring
—Tinuvin® 292, 254–256
—varnishes, 254
MEK
—and paraffin, 202
melamine formaldehyde
—surface coatings, 45
Mérimée, J.-F.L., 23, 26
metallic soaps
—matting agents, 221
methacrylates
—and solvents, 40
—artificial aging, 40
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—synthetic resin varnishes, 39
methacrylic resin varnishes
—testing, 40
methacrylic resins
—polymers, 38
methyl alcohol
—solvents, 176
methyl cellulose
—plasticity, 44
—solubility, 44
methyl cyclohexanone
—solvents, 39
methylene chloride
—and poly(methyl methacrylate), 38
microcrystalline wax
—and damar, 67, 69
—and Laropal® K80, 77
—and mastic, 59
—and MS2A®, 84, 85, 89
—and naphtha, 265
—and Paraloid® B-72, 141, 142
—dirt, 85
—mineral waxes, 202
mineral spirits
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187, 188
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 179, 181
—and ketone resin varnishes, 41
—and Laropal® K80, 77
—and MS2A®, 84
—and Paraloid® B-72, 138
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—and Soluvar®, 173, 175
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 103
—and UVS varnishes, 130
mineral waxes
—ceresin, 202
—microcrystalline wax, 202
—ozokerite, 202
—paraffin, 202
mixing
—varnishes, 254
molecular weight
—Arkon®P-90, 12, 118
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—brushability, 11
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—damar, 10, 12, 65
—Elvacite® 2044, 163
—Elvacite® 2045, 154
—Escorez® 5380, 12, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—gum mastic, 12
—Laropal® K80, 12, 76
—leveling, 10
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—mastic, 59
—MS2A®, 12, 83
—paraffin, 202
—Paraloid® B-67, 40, 154
—Paraloid® B-72, 10, 12, 139
—Paraloid® F-10, 163
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 163
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 191, 192, 195, 196
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAA, 12
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAB, 12
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAC, 12
—polyvinyl acetate) AYAF, 12
—Regalrez® 1094, 12, 110
—Soluvar®, 172
—synthetic resin varnishes, 36
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 101
—varnishes, 10
Monet, Claude, 21, 29, 30
mongoose tail hair
—belly, 227
—fan blender brushes, 227
—hair, 225
mottler brushes
—varnishing brushes, 233
mounting
—varnishing brushes, 231
mouth atomizers, 249–250
—oil paintings, 249
—ventilation, 250
MS2®
—hydrogenation, 83
—ketone resin varnishes, 41–42, 81, 100
MS2A®, 81–91
—aging, 89
—and acetone, 83
—and additives, 85
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 83
—and damar, 88
—and ethanol, 83
—and isopropanol, 83
—and microcrystalline wax, 84, 85, 89
—and mineral spirits, 84
—and Paraloid® B-72, 88
—and petroleum benzine, 83
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 88
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 83
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 83
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 83
—and Shell Sol® 71, 263
—and Stoddard Solvent, 84, 85, 86, 87
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 83
—and Tinuvin® 282, 86, 214, 254
—and toluene, 83
—and turpentine, 83
—and white spirit, 89
—and xylenes, 83
—appearance, 84, 86
—autoxidation, 89
—badger hair brushes, 88
—brittleness, 83, 84, 90
—brush solutions, 84, 85
—brushing, 86, 87, 263
—canvas paintings, 263
—chemical structure, 82
—crazing, 90
—dirt, 89
—discoloration, 89
—disposal, 90
—drying, 87
—esterification, 42
—exposure, 90
—first aid procedures, 90
—flexibility, 83–84
—glass transition temperature, 15, 83
—gloss, 14, 42, 84, 86
—handling, 42, 90
—hardness, 84
—health and safety, 90
—health hazards, 90
—inpainting, 87, 88
—interlayering, 87, 88
—ketone resin varnishes, 41–42, 81
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 53
—manufacturers, 81
—matteness, 85
—molecular weight, 12, 83
—oxidation, 89
—panel paintings, 87
—recipes, 84, 85
—refractive index, 13, 83
—removability, 89
—reticulation, 86, 87, 88
—saturating, 86
—scratch resistance, 15
—scratching, 88
—solubility, 83, 89
—spray solutions, 84, 85
—spraying, 88
—stability, 89
—storage, 90
—ultraviolet light, 89
—ventilation, 90
—viscosity, 12
—wetting, 42, 87
—wrinkling, 89, 90
—yellowing, 89
MS2B®
—ketone resin varnishes, 41–42, 81
mural paintings
—varnishing, 257
n-butyl methacrylate
—acrylic resins, 171, 176, 179
naphtha
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—and damar, 263
—and microcrystalline wax, 265
—and Paraloid® B-72, 140
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—and UVS varnishes, 130, 131
—solvents, 22, 24
natural resin varnishes, 21–34
—amber, 25–26
—asphaltum, 26
—bitumen, 26
—bloom, 18
—chemical structure, 22
—classification, 22
—damar, 43, 53, 55, 64
—leveling, 10
—mastic, 43, 53, 55
—shellac, 26
natural waxes
—beeswax, 26, 201
—carnauba wax, 201
near-ultraviolet radiation
—artificial aging, 40
nylon
—bristle, 225, 226
—ferrules, 231
—varnishing brushes, 227
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 31
octafluoroamyl methacrylate
—crosslinking, 40
oil
—and mastic, 28
—and sandarac, 28
oil brushes
—ox-ear hair, 228
oil paint
—and damar, 63
oil paintings
—Arkon® P-90, 120
—mouth atomizers, 249
—Paraloid® B-72, 137
—unvarnished paintings, 31
—varnishes, 93
—Western paintings, 3
oil-resin coatings
—ultraviolet fluorescence, 21
oil-resin varnishes
—copals, 22
—recipes, 24
orientation
—paintings, 256–258
ox-ear hair
—fan blender brushes, 228
—hair, 226
—oil brushes, 228
—varnishing brushes, 228
—watercolor brushes, 228
—chiseled shapes, 233
oxidation
—Arkon® P-90, 121
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—cyclohexanones, 42
—deterioration, 7
—Ketone Resin® N, 75
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—mastic, 58, 60
—MS2A®, 89
—Paraloid® B-82, 40
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 197
—Soluvar®, 175
—Tinuvin® 292, 215
ozokerite
—mineral waxes, 202
ozone
—damar, 69
paint
—egg tempera, 2, 3
—gloss, 93
—hardness, 93
—porosity, 7
paint film
—elasticity, 35
paint loss
—cleaning, 42
—cyclohexanones, 42
paintings
—abrasion, 7
—bloom, 35
—cleaning, 7, 253
—condition, 7
—crackling, 21
—dirt, 7
—distemper, 29
—elasticity, 35
—environment, 35
—handling, 88
—orientation, 256–258
—pigment, 7
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—stains, 21
—stains, 7
—vandalism, 7
—varnishing, 253
paintings on metal
—poly(vinyl acetate), 265
—UVS Retouching Varnish®, 265
panel paintings
—mastic, 265
—MS2A®, 87
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
—spraying, 265
—varnishing, 3
—wiping, 262
paper chromatography
—crosslinking, 38
—resins, 36
paraffin
—and acetone, 202
—and benzol, 202
—and carbon disulfide, 202
—and carbon tetrachloride, 202
—and chloroform, 202
—and diacetone alcohol, 202
—and ethanol, 202
—and ether, 202
—and isopropanol, 202
—and MEK, 202
—and petroleum distillates, 202
—and turpentine, 202
—mineral waxes, 202
—molecular weight, 202
—solubility, 202
Paraloid® B-67, 153–159
—acrylic resin varnishes, 153
—aging, 157
—and acetone, 155
—and additives, 156
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 155
—and ethanol, 155
—and fumed silica, 157
—and isopropanol, 155
—and ketone resins, 185, 186
—and petroleum benzine, 155, 156
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 155
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 155
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 155
—and solvents, 156, 158
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 155
—and toluene, 155, 158
—and turpentine, 40, 155
—and xylenes, 155, 156
—appearance, 156, 157
—brittleness, 155
—brush solutions, 156
—brushing, 156, 157
—chemical structure, 154
—crizzling, 157
—crosslinking, 40, 157
—dirt, 158
—disposal, 158
—drying, 156, 157
—exposure, 158
—flaking, 157
—flexibility, 155
—gas chromatography, 40
—glass transition temperature, 15, 155
—gloss, 13–14, 156
—handling, 156
—health and safety, 158
—incineration, 158
—infrared spectra, 40
—inhalation, 158
—manufacturers, 154
—molecular weight, 40, 154
—panel paintings, 157
—poly(isobutyl methacrylate), 40
—refractive index, 13, 154
—removability, 158
—saturating, 157
—scratch resistance, 15
—shelf life, 156
—solubility, 40, 154–155, 158
—solutions, 153
—spray solutions, 156
—spraying, 157
—stability, 157
—storage, 156, 158
—synthetic resin varnishes, 40–41
—viscosity, 12, 39, 155–156
—yellowing, 156
Paraloid® B-72, 137–151
—acrylic resin varnishes, 40, 137
—aging, 147
—airbrushes, 144
—and acetone, 139, 140
—and additives, 141
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 139
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—and damar, 145
—and diacetone alcohol, 147
—and diethyl benzene, 40
—and ethanol, 139
—and fumed silica, 141
—and hydrocarbon solvents, 40
—and isopropanol, 139
—and microcrystalline wax, 141, 142
—and mineral spirits, 138
—and MS2A®, 88
—and naphtha, 140
—and petroleum benzine, 139, 145
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 145–146
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/ Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 139
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 139
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 139
—and solvents, 141, 144, 146, 266
—and stabilizers, 142
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 139
—and Tinuvin® 327, 217, 269–270
—and toluene, 10, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 148, 149
—and turpentine, 139
—and ultraviolet absorbers, 216
—and white spirts, 140
—and xylenes, 40, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 148, 217
—appearance, 142, 147
—bristle brushes, 143
—brittleness, 140
—brush solutions, 141
—brushing, 142, 143, 145
—chemical structure, 139
—cleaning, 147
—coatings, 138
—composition, 41
—consolidants, 137
—crackling, 144
—crosslinking, 147
—dirt, 147
—disposal, 149
—drawings, 137
—drying, 141, 142, 143
—durability, 137
—dusting, 147
—first aid procedures, 149
—flexibility, 140
—glass transition temperature, 15, 140, 147
—gloss, 13–14, 144, 147
—hardness, 140
—health and safety, 148
—health hazards, 148
—humidity, 145
—impregnants, 137
—infrared spectra, 40
—inhalation, 148
—inpainting, 137
—interlayering, 78, 144, 145, 146
—leveling, 141, 143, 147
—manufacturers, 138
—molecular weight, 10, 12, 139
—oil paintings, 137
—recipes, 141
—refractive index, 13, 40, 139, 147
—relative humidity, 142
—removability, 147
—rubbing, 145
—saturating, 141, 143, 144, 145
—scratch resistance, 15
—shelf life, 142
—solubility, 40, 137, 138, 139, 147
—spray guns, 144
—spray solutions, 141
—spraying, 143, 145
—storage, 142, 149
—temperature, 142
—top coats, 270
—toxicity, 148, 149
—ultraviolet light, 147
—viscosity, 12, 40, 139, 140, 147
—wall paintings, 137, 266
—wiping, 266
—yellowing, 137, 145, 147
Paraloid® B-82
—acrylic resin varnishes, 40
—artificial aging, 40
—oxidation, 40
Paraloid® F-10
—acrylic resin varnishes, 161, 162
—and acetone, 163
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 163
—and ethanol, 163
—and isopropanol, 163
—and petroleum benzine, 163
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 163
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 163
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 163
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 163
—and toluene, 163, 166
—and turpentine, 163
—and xylenes, 163
—molecular weight, 163
parchment
—size, 26
pastels
—fixatives, 63
Peale, Rembrandt, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28
peeling see also flaking
—poly(vinyl acetate), 198
Pepys, Samuel, 27, 29
permeability
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
—waxes, 204
petroleum
—and UVS Varnishes, 129
petroleum benzine
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155, 156
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139, 145
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110, 112, 113
—and Soluvar®, 172, 173, 174, 175
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
petroleum distillates
—and beeswax, 201
—and paraffin, 202
petroleum solvents
—and poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
—solvents, 38
phenolic antioxidants, 213–220
phenyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymers
—refractive index, 41
—synthetic resin varnishes, 41
—viscosity, 41
photographs
—appearance, 6
Picasso, Pablo, 30
pigment
—paintings, 7
—ultramarine, 3
—vermilion, 3
pine resin
—colophony, 22
—diterpenoid resins, 22, 24
—rosin, 22
—violin rosin, 22
Pissarro, Camille, 1, 28, 29
pitch
—adhesives, 231
plastic
—ferrules, 231
plasticity
—methyl cellulose, 44
—waxes, 204
plasticizers—additives, 44
—and cellulose nitrate, 45
Plexigum® P28
—poly(isobutyl methacrylate), 42
Plexigum® PQ610
—copolymers, 42
plugs
—varnishing brushes, 233
PN2® Spray Gun
—spray guns, 261
polishing
—mastic, 59
pollution
—varnishes, 18
poly(butyl methacrylate)
—acrylic resins, 153
—crosslinking, 39, 40
polycyclohexanones
—AW-2®, 41–42
—brittleness, 42
—ketone resin varnishes, 41
—viscosity, 42
poly(isoamyl methacrylate)
—acrylic resins, 38
—and benzene, 38
—and petroleum solvent, 38
—and toluene, 38
—artificial aging, 38
—crosslinking, 38, 39, 40
—solubility, 38
—ultraviolate radiation, 38
—yellowing, 38
poly(isobutyl methacrylate)
—artificial aging, 39
—crosslinking, 39
—Paraloid® B-67, 40
—Plexigum® P28, 42
—solubility, 39
polymeric synthetic rubbers
—Kraton® G series rubbers, 111, 113
polymeric varnishes
—and acetone, 135
—and alcohol, 135
—brittleness, 135
—crosslinking, 135
—dirt, 135
—glass transition temperature, 135
—molecular weight, 135
—paintings, 135
—poly(vinyl acetate), 191
—refractive index, 135
—solubility, 135
—tensile strength, 135
—viscosity, 135
—yellowing, 135
polymerization
—low molecular weight synthetic resins, 43
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 162
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 191
polymers
—acrylic resins, 38
—crosslinking, 36, 45
—methacrylic resins, 38
—stability, 36
polymethacrylate resins
—brittleness, 173
poly(methyl methacrylate)
—acrylic resins, 38
—and methylene chloride, 38
—and solvents, 38
poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 161–169
—accelerated aging, 165–166
—aging, 165, 183
—and acetone, 164
—and additives, 164
—and Irganox® 565, 164
—and matting agents, 164
—and mineral spirits, 164, 165
—and naphtha, 165
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 191
—and turpentine, 164
—and xylenes, 164
—appearance, 164, 166
—brittleness, 164
—brush solutions, 164
—brushing, 165
—chemical structure, 162
—crosslinking, 39, 164, 165, 166
—dirt, 164, 166
—disposal, 167
—drying, 165
—flexibility, 164
—glass transition temperature, 164, 165, 166
—handling, 167
—health and safety, 167
—incineration, 167
—inhalation, 167
—inpainting, 165
—interlayering, 161
—landfill, 167
—molecular weight, 163
—oxidation, 165
—polymerization, 162
—refractive index, 163
—removability, 166
—reversibility, 166
—saturating, 164
—shelf life, 164
—solubility, 162, 163, 166
—spray solutions, 164
—spraying, 165
—storage, 164
—tensile strength, 164
—toxicity, 167
—ventilation, 165
poly(n-propyl methacrylate)
—artificial aging, 40
poly(vinyl acetate), 191–200
—adhesion, 198
—aging, 37, 197–198
—and acetone, 193–194
—and additives, 196
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 193–194
—and ethanol, 193–194, 196, 197
—and isopropanol, 193–194
—and ketone resin varnishes, 191
—and MS2A®, 88
—and Paraloid® B-72, 145–146
—and petroleum benzine, 193–194
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 191
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 193–194
—and Shell Mineral Spirits, 193–194
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 193–194
—and solvents, 197, 198
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 193–194
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 104, 105
—and toluene, 193–194
—and turpentine, 193–194
—and wax, 196
—and xylenes, 193–194
—appearance, 196, 197
—Bakelite® Series AYAB, 37
—Bakelite® Series AYAC, 37
—Bakelite® Series AYAF, 37
—brittleness, 194
—brush solutions, 195
—brushing, 197
—chemical structure, 192
—cracking, 195
—crosslinking, 37, 197
—darkening, 196
—dirt, 37, 197, 198
—disposal, 198
—drying, 197
—flexibility, 191, 194, 196
—glass transition temperature, 37, 194, 198
—gloss, 196
—health and safety, 198
—incineration, 198
—inpainting, 161
—interlayering, 191, 197
—manufacturers, 192
—molecular weight, 37, 191, 192, 195, 196
—oxidation, 37, 197
—paintings on metal, 265
—peeling, 198
—polymeric varnishes, 191
—polymerization, 37, 191
—recipes, 196
—refractive index, 192, 196
—removability, 197
—retouching, 197, 265
—saturating, 37, 197
—shelf life, 196
—solubility, 192, 197–198
—spray guns, 197
—spray solutions, 196
—spraying, 197
—stability, 191, 196
—storage, 196
—synthetic resin varnishes, 36–37
—temperature, 196
—tensile strength, 192
—Vinylite® A, 37
—viscosity, 37, 191, 195
—yellowing, 17, 198
poly(vinyl acetate) AYAA
—molecular weight, 12
—refractive index, 13
—viscosity, 12
poly(vinyl acetate) AYAB
—glass transition temperature, 15
—molecular weight, 12
—refractive index, 13
—viscosity, 12
poly(vinyl acetate) AYAC
—glass transition temperature, 15
—gloss, 13
—molecular weight, 12
—refractive index, 13
—viscosity, 12
poly(vinyl acetate) AYAF
—glass transition temperature, 15
—molecular weight, 12
—refractive index, 13
—viscosity, 12
poly(vinyl acetate) resins
—adhesives, 191
—consolidants, 191
poppy oil
—and damar, 28
porosity
—paint, 7
Post-Impressionist, 29
pounders
—varnishing brushes, 234
preparing
—damar, 66
pressure-sensitive adhesives
—Arkon® P-90, 117
rat tail handles
—varnishing brushes, 232
recipes
—damar, 25
—MS2A®, 84, 85
—oil-resin varnishes, 24
—Paraloid® B-72, 141
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—traditional artists' varnishes, 21
recoating
—varnishing, 5
red sable hair
—hair, 225
reflectance
—UVS Finishing Varnish®, 130
refractive index
—aldehyde resins, 43
—Arkon® P-90, 13, 118
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—damar, 13, 65
—Escorez® 5380, 13, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—gum mastic, 13
—Laropal® K80, 13, 76
—linseed oil, 10
—low molecular weight synthetic resins, 43
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—mastic, 56
—matting agents, 221
—MS2A®, 13, 83
—Paraloid® B-67, 13, 154
—Paraloid® B-72, 13, 40, 139, 147
—phenyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymers, 41
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 163
—poly(vinyl acetate), 192, 196
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAA, 13
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAB, 13
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAC, 13
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAF, 13
—Regalrez® 1094, 13
—saturating, 9, 10
—Soluvar®, 172
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 101
—varnishes, 11
Regalrez® 1078
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44
Regalrez® 1094, 109–116
—accelerated aging, 114
—aging, 114
—and acetone, 110, 112
—and additives, 111
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 110
—and ethanol, 110, 112
—and hydrocarbon solvents, 112, 113
—and isopropanol, 110, 112
—and Kraton® G 1650, 114
—and Kraton® G series rubbers, 111
—and petroleum benzine, 110, 112, 113
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 110
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 110
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 110
—and Shell Solvent® 340 HT, 112, 113
—and Shell Sol® 71, 112
—and solvents, 112
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 110
—and Tinuvin® 292, 111, 114, 214, 215, 254, 255, 256, 257
—and toluene, 110
—and turpentine, 110
—and wax, 113
—and xylenes, 110
—appearance, 112
—autoxidation, 114
—badger blender brushes, 112, 113
—brittleness, 110, 111
—brush solutions, 111
—brushability, 111
—brushing, 112
—chemical structure, 109
—dirt, 114
—disposal, 115
—drying, 113, 114
—flexibility, 110
—glass transition temperature, 15, 110, 114
—gloss, 14, 112
—handling, 115
—health and safety, 115
—hot-melt adhesives, 109
—inhalation, 115
—inpainting, 112
—leveling, 10
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44, 109
—manufacturers, 109
—mar resistance, 110
—matteness, 113
—molecular weight, 12, 110
—refractive index, 13
—reticulation, 114
—scratch resistance, 15
—scratching, 110
—shelf life, 112
—solubility, 110, 113, 114
—spray solutions, 111
—spraying, 113–114
—stability, 119
—storage, 112
—viscosity, 12
Regalrez® series
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44
relative humidity
—damar, 67
—Paraloid® B-72, 142, 145
—spraying, 262
—varnishes, 17, 18
Rembrandt® Picture Varnish-Glossy
—solutions, 100
Rembrandt® Picture Varnish-Matt
—solutions, 100
Rembrandt® Retouching Varnish
—solutions, 100
removability see also reversibility
—Arkon® P-90, 121
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—damar, 70
—mastic, 24, 60
—MS2A®, 89
—Paraloid® B-67, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 166
—poly(vinyl acetate), 197
—Soluvar®, 175
—surface coatings, 35
—waxes, 204
Renoir, Auguste, 29
resaturating
—varnishing, 5
—Winton® Retouching Varnish, 264
resins
—paper chromatography, 36
—stability, 36
—ultraviolet fluorescence, 21
reticulation
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—interlayering, 266
—MS2A®, 86, 87, 88
—Regalrez® 1094, 114
—solvents
retouching
—damar, 63
—Kolinsky tail hair, 226
—poly(vinyl acetate), 197, 265
—sable hair, 227
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 102, 103, 104
—varnishing, 7
retouching varnishes
—damar, 28
—solubility, 27
—Venice turpentine, 22
reversibility
—acrylic emulsion paintings, 273–274
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 166
—varnishes, 8
Reynolds, Joshua, 23, 28, 201
Robinson, Theodore, 30
rosin
—and mastic, 24
—pine resin, 22
round handles
—varnishing brushes, 232
rubber
—and damar, 63
rubbing
—damar, 69
—Laropal® K80, 78
—Paraloid® B-72, 145
—waxes, 203
Rubens, Peter Paul, 29
Ruskin, John, 29
sable brushes
—brushes, 227
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
sable hair
—fan blender brushes, 227
—retouching, 227
sandarac
—and damar, 25
—and linseed oil, 23
—and oil, 28
—diterpenoid resins, 23
Sanduvor® 3050
—hindered amine light stabilizers, 42
Sansodor® Low Odour Paint Thinner
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
saturating see also color saturation, resaturating
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—color, 37
—damar, 68
—leveling, 9–10
—MS2A®, 86
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
—Paraloid® B-72, 141, 143, 144, 145
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 197
—refractive index, 9, 10
—Soluvar®, 174
—solvents, 16
—varnishes, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9
—varnishing, 253
—wetting, 9, 10
scratch resistance
—aldehyde resin, 15
—Arkon® P-90, 15
—damar, 15
—Laropal® K80, 15
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 15
—mastic, 15
—MS2A®, 15
—Paraloid® B-67, 15
—Paraloid® B-72, 15
—Regalrez® 1094, 15
scratching
—damar, 70
—MS2A®, 88
—Regalrez® 1094, 110
—waxes, 204
shapes
—varnishing brushes, 232
sheen
—carnauba wax, 203
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 188
—gloss, 9
shelf life
—Arkon® P-90, 119
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 67, 70
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 58
—Paraloid® B-67, 156
—Paraloid® B-72, 142
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—Regalrez® 1094, 112
—Soluvar®, 174
—Tinuvin® 327, 217
—UVS varnishes, 131
—waxes, 203
Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
Shell Mineral Spirits
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
Shell Mineral Spirits 145
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172, 175
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
Shell Solvent® 340 HT
—and Regalrez® 1094, 112, 113
Shell Sol® 71
—and Arkon® P-90, 120
—and MS2A®, 263
—and Regalrez® 1094, 112
shellac
—natural resin varnishes, 26
—solubility, 26
shrinkage
—beeswax, 204
Singapore
—damar, 63, 64
size
—parchment, 26
sodium carboxymethylcellulose
—surface coatings, 45
solubility
—acrylic emulsion paintings, 273
—acrylic resin varnishes, 40
—aldehyde resins, 43–44
—Arkon® P-90, 118, 120, 214
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94, 96
—beeswax, 201
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—carnauba wax, 201–202
—cellulose acetate, 45
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186, 188
—damar, 70
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—hydrocarbon resins, 44
—Irganox® 565, 218
—ketone resin varnishes, 41
—Laropal® K80, 76, 78
—low molecular weight synthetic resins, 43
—mastic, 57, 60
—matting agents, 221
—methyl cellulose, 44
—MS2A®, 83, 89
—paraffin, 202
—Paraloid® B-67, 40, 154–155, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 40, 137, 138, 139, 147
—poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
—poly(isobutyl methacrylate), 39
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 162, 163, 166
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 192, 197–198
—Regalrez® 1094, 110, 113, 114
—retouching varnishes, 27
—shellac, 26
—Soluvar®, 171, 172, 174, 175
—spirit varnishes, 22
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 101, 102
—UVS Varnishes, 130
—varnishes, 36, 256
—waxes, 204
solutions see also brush solutions; spray solutions
—beeswax, 202
—carnauba wax, 202–203
—ceresin, 202–203
—damar, 66, 67
—Paraloid® B-67, 153
—Rembrandt® Picture Varnish-Glossy, 100
—Rembrandt® Picture Varnish-Matt, 100
—Rembrandt® Retouching Varnish, 100
—varnishes, 253
—waxes, 202
Soluvar®, 171–177
—accelerated aging, 175, 176
—acrylic paintings, 171
—acrylic resin varnishes, 171
—aging, 175
—and acetone, 172
—and additives, 173
—and aluminum stearate, 173
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol), 172
—and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, 171
—and ethanol, 172
—and isopropanol, 172
—and matting agents, 174
—and mineral spirits, 173, 175
—and petroleum benzine, 172, 173, 174, 175
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 172
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 172, 175
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 172
—and solvents, 171
—and Stoddard Solvent/Shell Sol® 340 HT, 172
—and toluene, 172, 175
—and turpentine, 172, 173
—and xylenes, 172, 175
—appearance, 174
—brittleness, 173
—brush solutions, 173
—brushing, 174
—carcinogenity, 176
—chemical structure, 172
—crosslinking, 173, 175
—dirt, 175
—disposal, 176
—drying, 174
—flexibility, 173
—glass transition temperature, 173, 175
—gloss, 174
—health and safety, 176
—inhalation, 176
—manufacturers, 171
—matteness, 174
—molecular weight, 172
—oxidation, 175
—refractive index, 172
—removability, 175
—saturating, 174
—shelf life, 174
—solubility, 171, 172, 174, 175
—spray solutions, 173
—storage, 174
—synthetic resin varnishes, 39
—ventilation, 176
—yellowing, 173, 174
solvent tests
—varnishes, 21
solvents
—acetone, 36, 265
—aging, 16
—alcohol, 26
—aliphatic hydrocarbons, 44
—and beeswax, 201
—and damar, 67, 69
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 179, 182
—and low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—and methacrylates, 40
—and Paraloid® B-67, 156, 158
—and Paraloid® B-72, 141, 144, 146, 266
—and poly(methyl methacrylate), 38
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 197, 198
—and Regalrez® 1094, 112
—and Soluvar®, 171
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 101
—and varnishes, 3, 253, 254
—aromatic hydrocarbons, 44
—cyclohexanones, 36
—discoloration, 16
—drying, 16
—gloss, 16
—hardness, 16
—health and safety, 18
—hexane, 265
—hydrocarbon solvents, 44
—matteness, 265
—methyl alcohol, 176
—methyl cyclohexanone, 39
—naphtha, 22, 24
—petroleum, 38
—reticulation, 268
—saturating, 16
—spray guns, 239
—stability, 16
—toluene, 12, 35, 36
—toxicity, 198
—turpentine, 22, 25
—varnishing brushes, 235
—xylenes, 273
spatter brushes
—varnishing brushes, 233
specular reflection
—gloss, 9
spirit varnishes
—and drying oil, 24
—benzoin, 25
—damar, 22
—mastic, 22
—solubility, 22
spray booths
—spraying, 262
spray guns
—air compressors, 237, 238, 239, 240
—airless sprayers, 244–245
—Chiron® SC90E, 261
—Chiron® Spray Gun, 268
—high-pressure, low-volume (HPLV), 237–240
—high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP) turbine systems, 242–244
—high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP), 240–241
—maintenance, 239, 241, 243
—Paraloid® B-72, 144
—PN2® Spray Gun, 261
—poly(vinyl acetate), 197
—solvents, 239
—spray varnishing equipment, 237
—spraying, 260
—stainless steel, 238
—turbines, 242, 243, 244
spray solutions
—Arkon® P-90, 119
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 67
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—Laropal® K80, 77
—mastic, 58
—MS2A®, 84, 85
—Paraloid® B-67, 156
—Paraloid® B-72, 141
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—Regalrez® 1094, 111
—Soluvar®, 173
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 103
—UVS varnishes, 130
—waxes, 203
spray varnishing equipment, 237–248
—airbrushes, 245–247
—health and safety, 247
—mouth atomizers, 249
—spray guns, 237
spraying
—air compressors, 260
—airbrushes, 260
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95, 96
—biohazards, 260
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187, 188
—contemporary paintings, 260
—damar, 68, 69
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—evaporation, 262
—fume hoods, 262
—gloss, 260, 261
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 182
—humidity, 262
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 59
—matteness, 261
—MS2A®, 88
—panel paintings, 265
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
—Paraloid® B-72, 143, 145
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—poly(vinyl acetate), 197
—Regalrez® 1094, 113–114
—spray booths, 262
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 104–105
—temperature, 262
—UVS varnishes, 131
—varnishes, 16
—varnishing, 260–262
squirrel tail hair
—hair, 225
—watercolor brushes, 227
Sri Lanka
—damar, 63
stability
—acrylic resin varnishes, 40–41
—MS2A®, 89
—Paraloid® B-67, 157
—polymers, 36
—poly(vinyl acetate), 191, 196
—Regalrez® 1094, 119
—resins, 36
—solvents, 16
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
stabilizers, 213–220
—additives, 213
—and aldehyde resins, 43
—and Laropal® K80, 78
—and Paraloid® B-72, 142
stabilizing
—damar, 67, 213–214
—varnishing, 5
stainless steel
—spray guns, 238
stains
—paintings, 7, 21
stand oil
—and damar, 25
stearate
—and damar, 67
stereomicroscopy
—varnishes, 21
Stoddard Solvent
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95, 96
—and damar, 263
—and MS2A®, 84, 85, 86, 87
Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal K80, 76
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
storage
—Arkon® P-90, 119, 122
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 95
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 67
—Escorez® 5380, 126
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 181
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 58
—MS2A®, 90
—Paraloid® B-67, 156, 158
—Paraloid® B-72, 142, 149
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—Regalrez® 1094, 112
—Soluvar®, 174
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 106
—Tinuvin® 292, 214
—UVS varnishes, 131
Strasbourg turpentine (olio di abezzo)
—diterpenoid resins, 22, 24
strength
—cyclohexanones, 42
sulfur dioxide—damar, 69
Sully, 25, 28
surface coatings
—colorlessness, 35
—damar, 63
—egg white varnishes, 2, 27
—melamine formaldehyde, 45
—Paraloid® B-72, 138
—removability, 35
—sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 45
—testing, 35
—transparency, 35
—urea formaldehyde, 45
—waxes, 26, 35, 201, 204
surface uniformity gloss
—gloss, 9
synthetic fibers
—fibers, 226
synthetic resin varnishes, 31, 35–50
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—cohesiveness, 35
—color saturation, 37
—flexibility, 35
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 39
—hardness, 35
—ketone resin varnishes, 41–42
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 41, 43, 53
—manufacturers, 43
—methacrylates, 39
—molecular weight, 36
—Paraloid® B-67, 40–41
—permeability, 35
—phenyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymers, 41
—poly(vinyl acetate), 36–37
—solubility, 35
—Soluvar®, 39
—stability, 35
—testing, 35
—transparency, 35
—varnishing, 6
—viscosity, 35
Talens Picture Varnish®, 99–107
—aging, 105
—and acetone, 102
—and additives, 103
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 102
—and ethanol, 102
—and hindered amine light stabilizers, 103
—and isopropanol, 102
—and mineral spirits, 103
—and petroleum benzine, 102
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 104, 105
—and Shell Cyclo Sol 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 102
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 102
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 102
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 102
—and toluene, 102
—and turpentine, 102, 103, 104
—and xylenes, 102
—appearance, 103
—brittleness, 105
—brush solutions, 102
—brushing, 104
—chemical structure, 101
—disposal, 106
—drying, 104
—evaporation, 102, 104
—first air procedures, 106
—glass transition temperature, 102
—gloss, 102
—handling, 103, 106
—health and safety, 105–106
—health hazards, 106
—inpainting, 104, 105
—interlayering, 104, 105
—manufacturers, 100, 101
—matting agents, 101, 103
—molecular weight, 101
—refractive index, 101
—retouching, 102, 103, 104
—solubility, 101, 102
—solvents, 101
—spray solutions, 103
—spraying, 104–105
—storage, 106
—ventilation, 106
—viscosity, 102
—yellowing, 105
temperature
—Paraloid® B-72, 142
—poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—spraying, 262
—varnishes, 17
tensile strength
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—poly(vinyl acetate), 192
—polymeric varnishes, 135
terpene resin
—mastic, 55, 56
testing
—acrylic resin varnishes, 40
—cyclohexanones, 42
—damar, 35
—gel permeation chromatography, 36
—mastic, 35
—methacrylic resin varnishes, 40
—surface coatings, 35
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate
—crosslinking, 40
Thailand
—damar, 63
thickening
—mastic, 58
tin-plated steel
—ferrules, 229
tinting
—asphaltum, 28
—cleaning, 28
—darkening, 28
—mastic, 29
—varnishes, 28
Tinuvin® 292
—aging, 214
—and Arkon® P-90, 119, 120, 121, 122, 214
—and damar, 67, 70, 213, 214, 215, 257
—and Escorez® 5380, 126, 127
—and Laropal® K80, 78, 214
—and mastic, 257, 265
—and MS2A®, 86, 214, 254
—and Regalrez® 1094, 111, 114, 214, 214, 254, 255, 256
—and UVS varnishes, 131
—crosslinking, 214
—hindered amine light stabilizers, 17, 42, 44, 111, 131, 213–214, 254
—measuring, 254–256
—oxidation, 215
—storage, 214
—ultraviolet light, 86
Tinuvin® 327
—and Paraloid® B-72, 217, 269–270
—and xylenes, 217
—benzotriazoles, 217
—shelf life, 217
—ultraviolet absorbers, 217
—yellowing, 217
Tinuvin® 328
—additives, 187
—hindered amine light stabilizers, 181
toluene
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 10, 66, 70
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and hydrocarbon resins, 44
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 57, 60
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155, 158
—and Paraloid® B-72, 10, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 148, 149
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163, 166
—and poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172, 175
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and UVS varnishes, 130
—solvents, 12, 35, 36
top coats
—Paraloid® B-72, 270
—ultraviolet absorbers, 270
toxicity
—Escorez® 5380, 127
—Paraloid® B-72, 148, 149
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 167
—solvents, 198
traditional artists' varnishes, 21–34
—artists' treatises, 21
—recipes, 21
transparency
—appearance, 7
—mastic, 24, 60
—surface coatings, 35
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
triterpenoid resins
—benzoin, 25
—damar, 24–25
—mastic, 24, 55
turbines
—spray guns, 242, 243, 244
Turner, J.M.W., 63
turpentine
—and Arkon® P-90, 118
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and beeswax, 201
—and carnauba wax, 201–202
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 25, 66
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76
—and mastic, 24, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 265
—and MS2A®, 83
—and paraffin, 202
—and Paraloid® B-67, 40, 155
—and Paraloid® B-72, 139
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172, 173
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102, 103, 104
—and UVS varnishes, 130
—solvents, 22, 25
Twachtman, John, 29
ultramarine
—pigment, 3
ultraviolet absorbers, 213–220
—additives, 7, 182, 213, 216
—and Paraloid® B-72, 216
—and varnishes, 253
—benzophenones, 216
—benzotriazoles, 216
—Tinuvin® 327, 217
—top coats, 270
ultraviolet fluorescence
—oil-resin coatings, 21
—resins, 21
ultraviolet light
—aldehyde resins, 43
—damar, 37, 70
—deterioration, 7
—mastic, 58
—MS2A®, 89
—Paraloid® B-72, 147
—Tinuvin® 292, 86
ultraviolet radiation
—poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
Univar®
—varnishes, 138
unvarnished paintings
—matteness, 30
—oil paintings, 31
urea formaldehyde
—surface coatings, 45
UVS Finishing Varnish®, 129–132
—gloss, 131
—reflectance, 130
UVS Matte Varnish®, 129–132
—matteness, 131
UVS Retouching Varnish®
—paintings on metal, 265
UVS varnishes
—aging, 131
—and acetone, 130
—and additives, 131
—and Arcosolv® PM/1-methoxy-2-propanol, 130
—and ethanol, 130
—and heptane, 130
—and isopropanol, 130
—and mineral spirits, 130
—and naphtha, 130, 131
UVS varnishes
—and petroleum, 129
—and petroleum benzine, 130
—and Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, 130
—and Shell Mineral Spirits 145, 130
—and Shell Odorless Mineral Spirits/Shell Sol® 71, 130
—and Stoddard Solvent/ Shell Sol® 340 HT, 130
—and Tinuvin® 292, 131
—and toluene, 130
—and turpentine, 130
—and xylenes, 130
—appearance, 131
—brush solutions, 130
—drying, 130, 131
—gloss, 131
—leveling, 131
—shelf life, 131
—solubility, 130
—spray solutions, 130
—spraying, 131
—storage, 131
—low molecular weight synthetic resin varnishes, 44
van Gogh, Vincent, 27
vandalism
—paintings, 7
—varnishes, 17
varnishes
—adhesion, 8
—aging, 36
—and additives, 218
—and hindered amine light stabilizers, 253
—and solvents, 3, 253, 254
—and Tinuvin® 292, 253
—and UV absorbers, 253
—autoxidation, 11
—beeswax, 30
—brittleness, 11
—brushing, 16
—chemical structure, 11
—color, 28
—damar, 3–4
—deterioration, 7
—dirt, 17
—discoloration, 5, 8, 17
—disposal, 18
—egg white, 2
—flexibility, 11
—glass transition temperature, 11
—gloss, 8
—Grumbacher Tuffilm Fixative Spray, 138
—hardness, 11
—health and safety, 18
—identification, 21
—Krylon® Crystal Clear No. 41301, 138
—lighting, 17
—mastic, 3–4
—measuring, 254
—mixing, 254
—molecular weight, 10
—oil paintings, 93
—pollution, 18
—refractive index, 11
—relative humidity, 17, 18
—reversibility, 8
—saturating, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9
—solubility, 36, 256
—solutions, 253
—solvent tests, 21
—spraying, 16
—stereomicroscopy, 21
—temperature, 17
—tinting, 28
—vandalism, 17
—viscosity, 11
—yellowing, 30
varnishing, 1–20, 251–270
—acrylic emulsion paintings, 273–274
—aging, 1
—appearance, 1, 6, 7
—artists' intent, 1, 6, 30
—brushing, 256–259, 263
—buffing, 263, 268
—canvas paintings, 263
—collage, 2
—cyclohexanones, 42
—dirt, 5
—finishing layers, 253
—gloss, 4, 5, 253
—inpainting, 256
—interlayering, 253, 266–268
—mural paintings, 257
—paintings, 253
—panel paintings, 3
—recoating, 5
—resaturating, 5
—retouching, 7
—saturating, 253
—spraying, 260–262
—stabilizing, 5
—synthetic resin varnishes, 6
—ventilation, 257
—Western paintings, 1
—wiping, 262
varnishing brushes, 225–236
—adhesives, 231
—badger hair brushes, 234
—beavertail handles, 232
—block handles, 232
—bristle brushes, 228
—chiseled shapes, 233
—cleaning, 234–235
—cutter brushes, 233
—damar, 233
—fan blender brushes, 234
—ferrules, 228, 229
—flat handles, 231
—flat shapes, 232–233
—goat hair, 228
—hair, 228, 229
—handles, 231
—horse body hair, 228
—mottler brushes, 233
—mounting, 231
—nylon, 227
—ox-ear hair, 228
—plugs, 233
—pounders, 234
—rat tail handles, 232
—round handles, 232
—shapes, 232
—solvents, 235
—spatter brushes, 233
Vasari, Giorgio, 29
Venice turpentine
—and mastic, 24
—diterpenoid resins, 22
—retouching varnishes, 22
ventilation
—airbrushes, 247
—Arkon® P-90, 122
—Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 96
—Laropal® K80, 79
—mastic, 60
—mouth atomizers, 250
—MS2A®, 90
—poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 165
—Soluvar®, 176
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 106
—varnishing, 257
—waxes, 204
vermilion
—pigment, 3
Vinylite® A
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37
violin rosin
—pine resin, 22
viscosity
—Arkon® P-90, 12
—damar, 12, 68
—Escorez®, 12
—gum mastic, 12
—ketone resin varnishes, 41
—Laropal® K80, 12
—low molecular weight resin varnishes, 53
—Lucite® 44, 39
—Lucite® 45, 39
—MS2A®, 12
—Paraloid® B-67, 12, 39, 155–156
—Paraloid® B-72, 12, 40, 139, 140, 147
—phenyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymers, 41
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAA, 12
—polycyclohexanones, 42
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAB, 12
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAC, 12
—poly(vinyl acetate) AYAF, 12
—poly(vinyl acetate), 37, 42, 191, 195
—Regalrez® 1094, 12
—synthetic resin varnishes, 35
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—varnishes, 11
wall paintings
—Paraloid® B-72, 137, 266
watercolor brushes
—Kolinsky tail hair, 226
—ox-ear hair, 228
—squirrel tail hair, 227
wax fills
—mastic, 59
waxes, 201–208
—aging, 204
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 196
—and Regalrez® 1094, 113
—appearance, 203
—brush solutions, 202–203
—brushing, 203
—burns, 204
—flammability, 204
—handling, 204
—health and safety, 204
—heating, 204
—matteness, 204
—permeability, 204
—plasticity, 204
—removability, 204
—rubbing, 203
—scratching, 204
—shelf life, 203
—solubility, 204
—solutions, 202
—spray solutions, 203
—surface coatings, 26, 35, 201, 204
—ventilation, 204
Western paintings
—oil paintings, 3
—varnishing, 1
wetting
—MS2A®, 42, 87
—saturating, 9, 10
white spirits
—and MS2A®, 89
—and Paraloid® B-72, 140
Winton® Picture Varnish
—gloss, 13
Winton® Retouching Varnish
—resaturating, 264
wiping
—panel paintings, 262
—Paraloid® B-72, 266
—varnishing, 262
wood
—ferrules, 230
workability
—Golden MSA® Varnish, 182
—Laropal® K80, 78
wrinkling
—cyclohexanones, 42
—MS2A®, 89, 90
xylenes
—and Arkon® P-90, 118, 121
—and Artists' Gloss Varnish®, 94
—and Conserv-Art® Varnish, 186
—and damar, 66, 69
—and Elvacite® 2044, 163
—and Elvacite® 2045, 155
—and Golden MSA® Varnish, 180
—and Laropal® K80, 76, 77
—and mastic, 57
—and MS2A®, 83
—and Paraloid® B-67, 155, 156
—and Paraloid® B-72, 40, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 148, 217
—and Paraloid® F-10, 163
—and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), 164
—and poly(vinyl acetate), 193–194
—and Regalrez® 1094, 110
—and Soluvar®, 172, 175
—and Talens Picture Varnish®, 102
—and Tinuvin® 327, 217
—and UVS varnishes, 130
—solvents, 273
yellowing
—butyl methacrylates, 39
—Conserv-Art® Varnish, 187
—damar, 63, 69, 70
—Irganox® 565, 218
—Laropal® K80, 78
—mastic, 55, 58, 60
—MS2A®, 89
—Paraloid® B-67, 156
—Paraloid® B-72, 137, 145, 147
—poly(isoamyl methacrylate), 38
—poly(vinyl acetate), 17, 198
—polymeric varnishes, 135
—Soluvar®, 173, 174
—Talens Picture Varnish®, 105
—Tinuvin® 327, 217
—varnishes, 30



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