PSG Stretchers and Strainers - Appendix III: Subject Index

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Painting Conservation Catalog
Appendix III: Subject Index



Compiler: Barbara A. Buckley

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Subject Index

Subject Index

Italic page numbers indicate illustrations. Page numbers followed by g indicate glossary entries.

A

A. Field & Sons, 144

A. H. Abbott and Company, 11

Adhesive(s)

for keys, 276
for labels, 289–90, 299
for restretching, 40

Adjustable mortise, 154, 156, 155-156

Alucobond®, 255, 256

Aluminum

for cross-members, 10
for reinforcement, 234–36, 235
for secondary supports, 240–42

Aluminum stretcher(s), 12–13, 171, 172, 197–98, 198. See also Fieux

aluminum temporary stretcher;
Starofix stretcher(s)

Aluminum tack(s), 39–40 American stretcher, 159. See also mortise with double miter and key

Anco Company, 8

Angled shouldered half lap joint, pinned, 73

Angled tongue and groove joint, 121

Araldite®, 207

Arch punch, 284

Artifact, stretcher as, 3–7

aesthetic/historical considerations, 3–5
reasons to use/reuse, 6
when to replace, 6–7

Auto-adapting suspension system, 196

Auxiliary support, 1, 154–59, 155–59, 305g



B

B-72 varnish. See Paraloid® B-72 varnish

Backing board(s), 284–87

attachment of original stretcher to, 238
for contemporary stretchers, 191
for environmental buffer, 284
and label preservation, 292
labels on, 301
materials for attachment, 286
materials for construction, 285
method, 286
purpose, 284
travel/vibration control, 285 variations, 286–87

Backing insert(s), 212, 212–18, 215–16

Bar (defined), 305g. See also member

Barrier

piece goods/tab barriers, 271
between tack and canvas, 271–72
twill tape/continuous barriers, 271–72

Basswood

characteristics, 14
for double-sided stretchers, 245
for IBC stretcher, 182
for shaped stretchers, 205

Bath, for label treatment, 299–300

The Battle of Vercellae (Tiepolo), :204

Bauman, Barry, 172, 173, 193–95

Bay State Stretchers, 8

Bead(s), 8, 231–33, 305g

Bearce, C. G., 134

Beech

characteristics, 14
for keys, 17
for shaped stretchers, 205

Bellows, George, 194, 195

Berger, Gustav

BEVA®, 197
double-sided artwork stretcher, 197–98
rheology, 21–22, 27–28, 30
Self-Adjusting CT Stretcher, 36, 178–79

Berger-Russell Stress Tester, 22

Bernsted, Soren, 198

BEVA®

and aluminum stretchers, 197
and finishing of restretched painting, 264
for label splitting, 298–99
for suspending painting in work stretcher, 268, 270

Bevel, 7, 8, 305g

Bevel joint. See miter joint; simple miter joint

Bierstadt, Albert, 186–88, 190

Blanchard, Thomas, 144

Blanchard machine, 144

Blind mortise and key (Buck terminology), 93, 156, 157

Blind stretcher. See panel stretcher

Blotters, for tack/staple isolation, 40, 265

Blued tacks, 145 Bolt (defined), 306g

Booth, Peter, 18, 218

Bradley, Morton (Bob), 241

Bridle joint, 306g

closed, with mitered corner (notched variation), 91
full cyma mitered double bridle joint, 119
full mitered, with keys, 117
with half lapped cross-member, 71, 151
half mitered, 109
half mitered, with keys, 111
half mitered, with single diagonal key, 113
with interlocking keys, 81
with key, 79, 83
with keys on oval stretcher, 101
mitered shouldered with single key, 115
with mitered tenon (variation) and key, 87
with mitered tenon and keys, 85
pinned, 53
shouldered, 67
shouldered, with key, 97
shouldered dovetailed bridle joint with single key, 125
with single key on oval stretcher, 99
tapered, 75

Brown, Ford Madox, 184

Bryant, H., 131

Buck, Richard

and ICA Spring Stretcher, 35, 165, 171
and ICA/Superior Spring-Stretcher adjustment, 167
joint terminology, 43–44, 149, 152, 154, 159, 161
joint-adjusting mechanism, 134
on stretcher as artifact, 4
rheology, 21–22
studies of behavior of paint on panels, 30

Bulldog clips, 270

Bünsche, Bernd, 194–96

Butt and nail (Buck terminology), 47, 154, 155

Butt joint (defined), 306g

Butt joint with nails, 47



C

Callen, Anthea, 137

Cami-lining(s), 218. See also stretcher lining(s)

Canting, of backing board, 284

Canvas, first painting on, 154

Canvas frame. See auxiliary support; chassis; strainer; stretcher

Canvas pliers, 261–63, 306g

Caravaggio, 171

Cardboard, 240

Carroll, J. F., 131

Cattle dehorner, 283–84

Cedar, 14

Cennini, Cennino, 141

Cézanne, Paul, 196

Chamfer, 7–8, 306g

Chassis (defined), 306g

Chassitech, 37, 183

Cherry, 14, 17, 278

Christ Mocked (Mantegna), 41

Christ of Chalma, Crucifix with the Virgin of Sorrow and St. John (Unknown), 152

Church, Frederic Edwin, 186, 187

Clamps, for temporary stretching, 222

Clavé y Roqué, Pelegrin, 152

Closed bridle joint with mitered corner (notched variation), 91

Closed bridle joint with mitered corner and keys, 89

Coated paper labels, 294

Coatings, 260–61

advantages, 260
disadvantages, 260
for new stretchers, 259–60
for old stretchers, 259
treatment variations, 259–60

Codde, P., 1, 221

Cold, for label removal, 297

Cole, Thomas, 185–86, 190

Collins, E. H., 11

Common nails, 143

Conservation/contemporary stretchers, 154–83

continuous tension (CT) stretchers, 169–76, 170, 172, 178, 178–83
expansion bolt stretchers, 162, 162–64
keyed stretcher designs, 154–61, 155–60
spring tension stretchers, 165–68

Conservator's Stretcher's keys (Wingrill), 17

Consolidated Copying Company, Inc., 11

Constable, John, 185

Continuous barriers, 271–72

Continuous tension (CT) stretcher, 169–76, 170, 172, 178, 178–83. See also ICA (Intermuseum Conservation Association) stretcher; Superior Spring-Stretcher

defined, 306g
for double-sided paintings, 193–96, 195
individual bar control stretchers, 181–83
with spring corner mechanism, 127
Starofix stretchers, 173–76

Copper tack(s), 39–40

Corner braces (defined), 306g

Corner bridle joint, 306g

Corners, of painting, 23

and CT stretcher, 169
and finishing of restretched painting, 265
and keying out, 38
and overall bar adjustment stretcher, 36–37
and restretched paintings, 267
tension from keyed stretchers, 34

Coroplast® backing board, 191, 214, 285

Corrosion, of tacks, 39, 40, 271

Corrugated paper backing board, 285

Craft Cut Products, 13

Crayon, on labels, 290

Creep, 21

Crocker, J. D., 132, 165

Cropsey, Jasper F., 186

Cross linking, 30

Crossbar lining, 218. See also stretcher lining(s)

Cross-member(s) (cross-bars)

and backing inserts, 212
defined, 306g
dovetailed, 67
with dovetailed half lap joint, 61
for expandable paneled stretcher, 254, 255
half lap joint, 55, 59, 63
half lap joint, pinned, 55
for ICA/Superior Spring-Stretcher, 166
with mortise and tenon joint, 99
for panel stretchers, 188–89
for shaped stretchers, 206–7
for South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 149, 152
and stretcher linings, 218
when to use, 9–10

Crucifixion with John and Mary (Unknown), 148

Cser, Laszlo, 37, 181

CT stretcher. See continuous tension stretcher

Cyclododecane, fixing media on labels, 293

Cyclorama, 178



D

D. B. Gurney Company, 145

Daniel Dobbins (Billings), 240–41

Deacidification of labels, 300

DeBeaumont, Edmond, 238

Dechaux, Edward, 187

Del Zotto, Franco, 173, 194, 196

Del Zotto stretcher, 172, 173

Design, of stretcher, 7–19

cross-members, 9–10
materials, 11–15
profile, 7–8

Dictionnaire portatif de peinture, sculpture, et gravure (Pernety), 135

Distortions, out-of-plane, 37

Don Ygnacio Cecilio Algara Gómez de la Casa (Clavé y Roqué), 152

Double bevel wire cutter, 273

Double bridle joint, 119

Double fork mortise, 151, 152

dovetailed, keyed, often rotary (Buck terminology), 125, 159, 160
with keyed brace, 159, 159, 240

Double mortise and tenon joint, 245

Double tenon with one bridle and one mortise joint and keys, 95

Double-sided paintings, stretchers

for, 193–200, 242–53
aluminum stretchers, 197–98, 198
continuous tension stretcher, 193–96
expansion bolt stretchers, 196–97, 242–44, 243
keyable stretchers, 199–200
modular design, 244–53
original support, 198, 198–99, 199
preferential mount and display, 245–47
symmetrical mounting for preferential/simultaneous display, 247–53
treatment variations, 242–53, 245–48, 250–53

Double-sided tape, for label encapsulation, 301

Douglas fir, 14

Dovetail (defined), 307g

Dovetailed cross-member, 67, 150

Dovetailed half lap joint, 57, 61, 150

Dovetailed shouldered half lap joint, 65, 151

Dowels, 148

Dry removal, of labels, 292–93

Durand, Asher B., 186

Dutch Method (for temporary stretching), 222, 261



E

Edges, rounding of, 233

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), 24

Encapsulation, of labels, 301

Environmental buffer, backing board as, 284

Epoxy, 234–35

Escutcheon pins, 240, 241

Ethafoam®, 213, 217

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 40

Expandable paneled stretcher, 254, 254–56, 255

Expansion (defined), 307g

Expansion bolt stretcher, 129, 162, 162–64

assembly of, 163–64
conservation use, 163
contemporary/artist use, 163
custom-made, 224
cutting holes for ring openings, 283–84
defined, 307g
design pros/cons, 34–35
for double-sided paintings, 193,196—97
historical review, 162–64
materials/fabrication, 163
modifications, 242–44, 243

Gatorboard panel backed stretcher adaptation, 257–58

materials/fabrication, 162
modifications, 257–58

Expansion bolts, 18

Extended bead, 156



F

Fabric

as barrier, 272
for lining, 31
stress/strain distribution, 23–24

Facing, for label removal, 295–96

Fastener (defined), 307g

Fiberglass, 241–42

Fieux aluminum temporary stretcher, 224–26, 225–27

Filing systems, for labels, 301

Finishing nails, 143

Flush-ground wire cutter, 273, 274

Foam board, backing board, 285

Folding stretchers, 208–9, 208–11

Fome-Cor®, 213, 214, 269, 270

France, 135–37, 170

Frankenthaler, Helen, 210

Fredrix, 8

French construction (mortise and half miter with key), 156; See also mortise and half miter with key

Frog Pond, Gloucester (Sloan), 237–38, 238

Full cyma mitered double bridle joint, 119

Full mitered bridle joint with keys, 117



G

G-10™ plastic sheet, 239, 241–42, 258–59

Gardner, D. W. corners for panel stretchers, 187–88, 190

joint-adjusting mechanism, 132
spring tension stretcher patent, 165, 169

Gatorboard, 257–58. See also Gatorfoam®

Gatorfoam®, 214. See also Gator-board

Gentileschi, Orazio, 228

Germany, 169, 170, 171, 208

Gesso, physical behavior, 27–28

Getty Museum. See J. Paul Getty Museum

Giant Redwood Trees of California (Bierstadt), 187

Gifford, Sanford Robinson, 187–88

Glue, effect on fabric, 27–28

Glue lining, 31 Goist, David, 198–99

Gore-tex®, 295

Great Britain, 208, 209

The Gross Clinic (Eakins), 240

Guitar tensioning stretcher, 226, 227, 228

Gummed tape, 288–90



H

Half Dome, Yosemite Valley (Bierstadt), 186–87

Half lap and pin (Buck terminology), 51, 154, 155

Half lap joint, 55

with beveled inner edge, 77
defined, 307g
dovetailed, 57, 61
dovetailed shouldered, 65
pinned, 51
reverse shouldered, 63
shouldered, 59, 61
sliding dovetailed shouldered half lap joint with single key, 123
for South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 148, 149

Half mitered bridle joint, 109

with keys, 111
with single diagonal key, 113

Half mitered slot mortise and tenon joint, 109

Hand-forged nails, 141, 142

Hardware (defined), 307g

Hardwoods, 13–14, 17. See also specific hardwoods, e.g., maple

Haunched mortise and tenon joint with keys, 93

Heat, for label removal, 297–98

Heffley, Scott, 196–97

Hedley, Gerry, 22–23, 26–27, 29

Henri, Robert, 196

Hibberd, R. D., 23–24

History, of stretchers/strainers, 43–153

joint-adjusting mechanisms, 131, 131–39
nails, 140–44, 142
South American/Spanish Colonial stretchers, 147–53, 148, 150–51
standard stretcher sizes, 134, 135, 135–39
stretcher joints, 43–129, 47–129
tacks, 144–45

Hobbs, Glenn, 259

Holland, 138

Holland Manufacturing Company, 144–45

Holly, H. W., 132 Hollytex®

for canvas mounting for double-sided display, 249
for humidity tent, 294
for label treatment, 299, 300
for suspending painting in work stretcher, 268
for tacking edge, 269

Horner, Hannah Mae, 240

Humidification treatments, for paintings, 222–23

Humidity. See moisture, for label removal; relative humidity (RH)

Humidity tent, for label removal, 294

Huston, Perry, 224

Huston temporary stretcher, 224, 225



I

IBC Stretcher(s). See Individual Bar Control (IBC) Stretcher(s)

ICA (Intermuseum Conservation Association) stretcher(s), 166. See also continuous tension stretcher; Superior Spring-Stretcher

Bauman modification of, 194
cross-members for, 10
introduction of, 171
joint-adjusting mechanism, 134
modification of, 172, 193–94
as most common form of spring tension stretcher, 35
redwood for, 14
with spring corner mechanism, 127
varnish coating for, 259–60

Immersion, for label removal, 297

In the Woods (Durand), 186

Indian Sunset: Deer by a Lake (Bierstadt), 187, 190

Individual Bar Control (IBC)

Stretcher(s), 181, 181–83
artist/contemporary use, 183
conservation use, 182–83
historical review, 181–82
materials/fabrication, 36, 182
pros/cons of design, 36–37
special considerations, 183

Infusion treatments, for paintings, 222

Inks, for labels, 290

Inscriptions, coating of, 260

Intermuseum Conservation Association (ICA) stretcher. See continuous tension (CT) stretcher; ICA (Intermuseum Conservation Association) stretcher

International Council of Museums (ICOM), 43

Iron tack(s), 39–40

Isolation, of tack/staple, 40

Israels, Joseph, 288

Italian stretcher (simple mortise with interlocking keys), 156, 156

Italy, 138



J

J. Paul Getty Museum, 224, 226

Janetta Falls, New Jersey (Cropsey), 186

Japanese papers, 300

Jessell, Bettina, 194, 195

Jig, for making keys on table saw, 279, 279–83

Joint(s). See also specific types, e.g.:

mortise and tenon joint defined, 307g
historical review, 43–129
modification of, 233
survey of types, 43–44, 47–129, 155–60

Joint-adjusting mechanisms, 131–34, 131–34. See also key(s)



K

Katlan, Alexander W., 131, 144

Keck, Caroline, 162, 288

Kever, Jakob Simon Hendrik, 288

Key(s)

beech for, 14
conservation problems, 161
for cross-members, 9, 10
defined, 307g
for double-sided stretchers, 199–200, 246, 249
form of, 18–19
interlocking, 79
loss of, 161
maple for, 14
materials for, 16–19
other joint-adjusting mechanisms vs., 34–37
panel stretcher with, 103, 105, 107
patterns for common single key, 282, 283
patterns for common sizes/ shapes, 280–82, 280–82
placement in stretcher, 19
plexiglass, 278–79
purpose of, 16
replacement of originals, 260
securing of, 275–77
for shaped stretchers, 204, 205
table saw jig for, 279, 279–83
tips for making, 278–82

Keyed stretchers

advantages/disadvantages, 160
conservation of keys, 161
contemporary/artist use, 161
custom-made, 224
design pros/cons, 34
for double-sided paintings, 199–200
historical review, 154
materials/fabrication, 154–59, 155–59
mechanics of, 160
preservation of design, 160
shortcomings of, 131

Keying out of cross-members, 9

excessive, 160
of restretched painting, 267
restretching vs., 37–38
for shaped stretchers, 204

Kiefer, Anselm, 210

Kiln drying, 11

Kit Kat size, 138

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 138

Knight, Eugenie, 194

Konrad, Anton J., 224

Konrad stretcher, 224, 225

Kraft paper, 222, 268, 285

Krueger, Jay, 18

Kuschan, Edgar, 17



L

Labels, 287–302

adhesive, 289–90
age of, 288
paper type, 289
preservation without removal, 291–92
backing board, 292
loose edge reattachment, 291–92
protective cover, 291–92
removal technique, 292–99
cold, 297
dry removal, 292–93
facing, 295–96
heat, 297–98
humidity tent, 294
immersion, 297
moisture, 293–97
poultice, 295
solvent, 298
splitting, 298–99
steam, 296–97
as source of historical information, 4
storage of, 301–2
treatment of, 299–302
adhesive reduction, 299
bath, 299–300
deacidification, 300
encapsulation, 301
lining, 300
treatment rationale, 290–91
paper preservation, 290
stretcher disuse, 291
treatment interference, 290–91
writing media found on, 290

Lacing (defined), 307g

The Landing of Columbus (Bierstadt), 188–89, 189

Lascaux™ Acrylic Adhesive 360HV, 17–18, 279

Lath, for keys, 278

Leather, as barrier, 271

Lebron, James

expansion bolt stretcher, 134, 162, 197
folding stretchers, 210
joint-adjusting mechanism, 134

Lebron expansion bolt stretcher, 162, 193; See also expansion bolt stretcher

Lefranc Catalogue, 136, 137

Lexan®, 198

Il Libro dell'Arte (Cennini), 141

Lime (wood), 14

Lined canvas, adhesives for, 40

Lining(s), 300. See also stretcher lining(s)

Lip (defined), 307g

Liu, Simon, 17, 19. See also Simon

Liu, Inc. The Lone Hunter (Medem), 144

Louis, Morris, 163, 210



M

M. Knoedler & Co., 288

Machine-cut nails, 141–44, 142

Madonna and Child (Unknown), 152

Mahogany, 165

Mantegna, Andrea, 188

Maple, 14, 17, 278

Marietta Ingham (Staunton), 241–42

Marouflage, 240

Masonite®, 239, 241

Mat board, 232, 272

McMillan, Gillian, 196, 197

Mechanics, of a painting, 20–31, 34–38

composite nature of painting, 25–26
expansion bolt stretcher design pros/cons, 34–35
fabric, 26–27
history/condition, 30–31
keyed stretcher design pros/ cons, 34
keying out vs. restretching, 37–38
keys vs. other joint-adjusting mechanisms, 34–37
overall bar adjustment stretcher design pros/cons, 36–37
overall tension, 21–22
paint, 28–29
painting as a whole system, 29–30
sizing/gesso layers, 27–28
spring tension stretcher design pros/cons, 35–36
stress variations/concentrations, 22–24
varnish, 29
wood, 29

Mecklenburg, Marion, 22, 24–30

Member (defined), 307g

Mending plates, 286

Mention, Elizabeth, 228

Metal(s). See also specific metals, e.g.: aluminum

for keys, 18
for stretchers, 12–13

Methylcellulose, for facing, 295, 299

Mexico, 148, 149, 152

Michalski, Stefan, 23, 26, 28, 30

Microclimate, 7, 284

Microspatula, 274, 292, 294–98

Millet, Jean François, 184–85

Mitchell, Josiah, 289

Miter joint, 204, 307g

Mitered shouldered bridle joint with single key, 115

Modification of stretchers, 231–33

Modulus, of painting composite, 25

Moisture, for label removal, 293–97

coated paper, 294
facing, 295–96
facing/steam combination, 296–97
humidity tent, 294
poultice, 295
sensitive media: testing and fixing, 293
steam, 296–97

Molenaar, J. M., 1, 221

Monel, metal, 12

Mortise, 205, 246, 308g

Mortise and half miter with key (Buck terminology), 111, 156, 158

Mortise and pin (Buck terminology), 49, 154, 155

Mortise and tenon joint

for cross-members, 10
defined, 308g
for double-sided stretchers, 245
for expandable paneled stretcher, 254
haunched, with keys, 93
for keyed stretchers, 34
for shaped stretchers, 204
for South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 149

Mortise and through tenon joint, 69

Mortise and through tenon joint, pinned, 49

Mortise with double miter, ogee variation with key (Buck terminology), 119, 158, 159, 240

Mortise with double miter and key (Buck terminology), 117, 156, 158, 159

Mounting/remounting a canvas, 39–41

Movable frame liner, 194

Mrs. Alfred Daniels/Mr. Alfred Daniels (Comegys), 241

Mrs. Cornelius Waldo (Badger), 238, 239

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), 162

Mylar®

for aluminum-cutting template, 234–36
for double-sided painting stretcher, 194, 197
for humidity tent, 294
for label attachment/covering, 291–92
for label encapsulation, 301
for label lining, 300
for label removal poultice cover, 295
for label removal via heat, 297
for label splitting, 298–99
for suspending painting in work stretcher, 268
for tack isolation, 40
for window in backing board, 286



N

Nail(s). See also tack(s)

for attachment of original stretcher to replacement supports, 240
hand-forged/wrought iron, 141
historical review of, 140–45, 142
machine-cut, 141–44
reuse of original, 39
for South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 149
wire, 142, 143–44

Nelson, Lee H., 143

Netherlands, 221

Noland, Kenneth, 210

Nonrectangular stretchers. See shaped (nonrectangular) stretchers

Non-rotary expansion (defined), 308g

Nordfeldt, B. J. O., 244

La Nuit Etoilée (Millet), 184–85



O

Oak, for shaped stretchers, 205

Organic solvent, for label removal, 298

Osborn, F. C., 12

Oval stretcher, 99, 101

Overall bar adjustment stretcher, 178, 178–83

design pros/cons, 36–37
Individual Bar Control
Stretcher(s), 36–37, 181, 181–83
artist/contemporary use, 183
conservation use, 182–83
historical review, 181–82
materials/fabrication, 36, 182
pros/cons of design, 36–37
special considerations, 183
Self-Adjusting Continuous
Tension Stretcher, 178–81, 179
conservation use, 180
contemporary/artist use, 181
historical review, 178–79
materials/fabrication, 36, 179–80

Overstretching, 22, 171



P

Paillot de Montabert, JacquesNicolas, 137, 138

Paint

effect of restretching on, 261
effect on mechanics of a painting, 20–21
mechanics of, 28–29

Painting composite, 25–26

Panel, behavior of paint on, 30

Panel stretcher (panel back stretcher), 184–92, 187, 189, 190

artist/contemporary use, 191
conservation use, 189–91
defined, 308g
expandable paneled stretcher adaptations, 254, 254–56, 255
G-10™ plastic sheet adaptation, 258–59
Gatorboard/expansion bolt stretcher adaptation, 257–58
historic review, 184–88
with keys, 103, 105, 107
materials/fabrication, 188–89
solid support/keyable stretcher variation, 256–57
special considerations, 191
treatment variations, 254–59

Panelmaster contact cement, 257

Panorama, 178

Paraloid™ B-72 varnish, 259, 293

Parker and Clover, 186

Pastorello, Paolo, 194

Patents and cost of stretcher, 11 on nails, 141

spring tension stretcher, 165
for Starofix stretcher, 173

Patterns, for keys, 280–82

Peg (defined), 308g

Pernety, Joseph, 135

Perry Huston stretcher, 224, 225

Peru, 148, 149

Pfleger, Frank P., 117,133, 161

Pfleger Company, 8

Phillips, Maureen, 141

Phillips, Stan, 36, 37, 134, 181–83

Piece goods, as barriers, 271

Pigment Volume Concentration (PVC), 28

Pin. See peg

Pine, 14, 260

Placement, of tacks/staples, 40–41

Planar distortions, 37, 38

Plastic, 13, 17

Plastic deformation, 21–22, 25

Plexiglass (Plexiglas®) for double-sided stretcher, 194–96, 198, 244

for expandable paneled stretcher, 256
for label covering, 292
for replacement keys, 17, 278–79

Pliers. See canvas pliers

Plywood, for attachment of original stretcher to replacement supports, 240

Poisson ratio effect, 23

Pollak, Nancy, 265

Polyacrylate tape adhesive, 289

Polyester batting, 214

Polyester urethane foam, 213, 217

Polyethylene foam, 213

Poplar, 15, 17, 278

Portrait of a Man (Unknown), 198

Poultice, for label removal, 295

Presentation in the Temple (Mantegna), 11, 41, 188

Preservation, of labels, 287–88

Primary support (defined), 1

Priming, effect on fabric, 27

Prins, Steven, 199

Printing inks, for labels, 290

Profile, of stretcher, 7–8 Pushpins, 263



Q

Quandt, Eleanor S., 3–4, 288



R

Rabbet, 197

Radial cut, 11

Raking light, 160

Ranc, Jean, 208

Redwood characteristics, 14

for cross-members, 10
for ICA/Superior Spring-Stretcher, 165

Reed, Ezekial, 144

Reed, Jesse, 144

Reinforcement, of stretcher, 234–36, 235

Relative humidity (RH)

and cracking of paint, 30
and cupping, 31
and fabric support, 26–27
and glue, 27–28
metal's imperviousness to, 12
and painting as a whole, 21
and painting composite, 25, 26
and stiffness of paint, 28–29

Rembrandt van Rijn, 1, 221

Remounting/mounting a canvas, 39–41

Replacement, of stretcher/strainer, 6–7

Replacement keys, 278

Replacement supports, attachment

of original stretcher to, 237–42
attaching entire stretcher to backing board, 238, 239
cardboard and escutcheon pins, 240
materials, methods, variations, 237–42
old stretcher in new support system, 238–42, 239
purpose, 237
thinning of entire stretcher, 237–38, 238
thinning sections of stretcher, 238, 239

Restretching, 38

and folding stretchers, 209
keying out vs., 37–38
of lined/unlined painting, 261–68
attachment, 264–65
finishing, 265
positioning of painting, 262–63
preparation, 262
recommendations, 267
stretching, 263–64
variations, 265–66, 266, 267

Reuse

of original stretcher, 6
of original tacks/nails, 39, 275

Reverse shouldered half lap joint, 63, 151

RH. See relative humidity (RH)

Rheology, of a painting, 20–31, 34–38. See also mechanics, of a painting

Rigamonti, Franco, 12, 171, 172

Ring openings, for expansion bolt stretcher, 283–84

Ritchie, Matthew, 210

Rogers, Samuel, 144

Rosenfeld, Lenora, 196, 197

Rotary expansion (defined), 309g

Rothe, Andrea, 226

Rothe temporary stretcher, 226, 227, 228

Royal Alcazar palace, 208

Rubber-based tape adhesive, 289

Russell, William, 21

Ryder, Albert Pinkham, 4



S

St. George and the Dragon (Uccello), 154

St. Jerome at Parma (Trumbull), 185

St. John Nepomuk, Priest in Confessional (Unknown), 149, 150

Saint Nicholas in Glory with Saints John the Baptist and Lucy (Lotto), 203

Salem Label, 289

Salisbury Cathedral (Constable), 185

Sand'n Seal varnish, 259

Santiago (Unknown), 149

Santini Brothers, 162

The Savage Family (Savage), 238, 239

Schmitt, Charles C., 186, 187

Scots pine, 14

Screws, for attaching backing board, 286

Self Portrait (Elliot), 240

Self-Adjusting Continuous Tension

(CT) Stretcher, 178–81, 179
conservation use, 180
contemporary/artist use, 181
historical review, 178–79
materials/fabrication, 36, 179–80
pros/cons of design, 36–37

Shaped (nonrectangular) stretchers, 202–7, 202–7

Shattuck, Aaron D., 18, 132–33

Shattuck key, 17, 18, 309g

Shellac, 259

Shouldered bridle joint, 67, 115

dovetailed, with single key, 125
with dovetailed cross-member, 151
with key, 97

Shouldered half lap joint, 59, 61, 65, 150

Shouldered half lap joint, pinned, 73

Shrinkage, of fabric support, 27

Simon Liu, Inc., 196, 197

Simple lap joint, 249

Simple miter joint (defined), 309g

Simple mortise, 151

with extended bead and key (Buck terminology), 89, 156, 157
with interlocking key (Buck terminology), 81, 156, 156
with keys (Buck terminology), 79, 156, 156, 241
modified form with key (Buck terminology), 85, 156, 157
modified form (variation) with key (Buck terminology), 87, 156, 157

Single fork dovetailed mortise, 151, 152

Single fork mortise, dovetailed and keyed, often rotary (Buck terminology), 123, 159, 159

Single fork mortise (Buck terminology), 149

Single-keyed stretcher, 16

Sitka spruce, 205

Sizes, of stretchers, 135–37

Sizing, shrinkage of, 27–28

Sliding dovetailed shouldered half lap joint with single key, 123

Sloan, John, 237–38, 238, 260

Slot mortise and mitered tenon joint and keys, 85

Slot mortise and mitered tenon joint with key, 87

Slot mortise and tenon joint, 71

half mitered, 109
with interlocking keys, 81
with key, 79, 83
pinned, 53

Snow & Mays, 187

Softwoods, 14

Solvent, for label removal, 298

South American/Spanish Colonial stretchers, 147–53, 150–51

Sozzani, Laurent, 267

Spain, folding stretchers in, 208

Spanish Colonial stretchers. See South American/Spanish Colonial stretchers Spatula. See microspatula

Spreader clamp, 19

Spring tension stretcher, 165, 165–68, 166

application and adjustment, 167–68
conservation use, 166–67
contemporary/artist use, 167
design pros/cons, 35–36
historical review, 165
materials/fabrication, 165–66

Stabiltex®, 197

Staining, of new stretchers, 260

Staple(s) for attachment of restretched canvas, 264–65, 265

placement of, 40–41
and stress concentration, 24
tacks vs., 39
use of, 40

Staro, Giorgio, 173

Starofix stretcher(s), 173–76, 174

conservation use, 175
contemporary/artist use, 176
historical review, 169–76
materials/fabrication, 12, 173–75
special considerations, 176

Steam, for label removal, 296–97

Steel tack(s), 39–40

Stempel, A., 11

Stencils, 187

Storage, of labels, 301–2

Straight-end (defined), 309g

Strain distribution. See stress Strainer (defined), 1, 309g

Stress

effect of adhesives on, 40
effect of lining on, 31
effect on a painting, 20–21, 29–30
and fabric, 23
and ICA/Superior Spring-Stretcher, 167
improving distribution of, 24
overall, 21–22
on painting composite, 25
tacks vs. staples, 39
and tack/staple placement, 40–41
variations due to application of, 22–24

Stretcher

as artifact, 3–7
defined, 1, 309g

Stretcher bar. See bar Stretcher cleats (defined), 309g

Stretcher creases, 7, 160

Stretcher joint. See joint Stretcher key(s). See key(s)

Stretcher lining(s), 217, 218–19, 219

and decision to coat original stretcher, 260
effect on stress distribution, 31
temporary stretchers for, 223

Stretching, 263–64. See also restretching

String, as barrier, 272

Strip lining, for restretching, 262

Struts, for shaped stretchers, 206, 207

Superior Spring-Stretcher, 35, 165.

See also ICA (Intermuseum Conservation Association) stretcher

Supports, replacement, 237–42



T

Tab barriers, 271

Table saw jig, 279, 279–83

Tack(s)

for attachment of restretched canvas, 264–65
barrier to protect canvas from, 271–72
copper/aluminum to replace iron/steel, 39–40
historical review of, 144–45
placement of, 40–41
removing from tacking margins, 273, 273–74
reuse of original, 39, 275
for South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 148, 152
staples vs., 39
and stress concentration, 24

Tacking edge (defined), 309g

Tacking margin for attaching old stretcher to new support, 240–41

avoiding flattening of, 268–70, 269, 270
for double-sided stretchers, 245
removing tacks from, 273, 273–74
sizing, for restretching, 262
on South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 152

Tait, A. F., 133

Tape, as barrier, 272

Tapered bridle joint, 75

Tara-Fredrix, 17

Tariff, on nails, 141

Tate Gallery key construction, 18

panel stretchers, 185
staple placement guidelines, 41
stretcher linings, 218
wood preferences for stretchers/ keys, 12

T-bridle joint, 309g

Tearing, staples vs. tacks, 24

Temperature

and paint films, 28
and painting composites, 25, 26
and restretching, 262

Temporary stretcher(s), 221–29, 225–28

custom-made, 224–28
historical review, 221
methods of tensioning the original canvas, 221–22
clamps, 222
Dutch Method, 222
reasons for using, 222–23
factors, 223
humidification treatments, 222–23
infusion treatments, 222
for linings, 223
working front/back of painting at same time, 222
tensioning adjustment, 229
tips for making/handling, 228
various types, 223–28

Tenon, 205–7, 246, 310g

Tensioners. See stretcher cleats

Tensioning of cross-members, 9

of restretched painting, 267

Tensor-bolt, 18

Tenth Street Studio, 186

Tg (glass transition temperature), 26, 29

Thinning, of stretcher sections, 238

Thorns, as tacks, 149

3M Company, 289

Thumb tacks, 145

Tiepolo, Giambattista, 204

Time, effect on painting composite, 26

Todd, J. E., 165, 169

Tongue and groove joint, 256

Tongue and groove joint, angled, 121

Tongue and groove ramp with key; rotary (Buck terminology), 121, 158, 159

Tower Manufacturing, 145

Traité complet de la peinture (Paillot de Montabert), 137

Transport/travel, of painting, 255–56, 285

Tremont Nail Company, 141, 143

The Triumph of Marius (Tiepolo), 204

Trumbull, John, 184, 185, 189

Turnbuckle, 162, 310g

Turnover edge. See tacking edge

Twill tape, 271–72

Twisting, cross-bracing to prevent, 9

Tycore®, 214, 256–57



V

Van Gogh, Vincent, 137, 139

Vanderlyn, John, 208–9

Varnish, 29, 260, 262

Velcro®, 270, 286

El Velo de Santa Veronica (Unknown), 149

Vermeer, Jan, 138 Vibration, damping of, 212, 255–56, 285

Virgin of Guadalupe (Escamilla), 152

Virgin of Mercy (Unknown), 149

Virginian Luxuries (Unknown), 199, 199

Volara®, 213–14, 217

Volmering, Joseph, 190

Von Sonnenburg, Hubert, 4

Vy-Lok®, 257



W

Walnut, for keys, 17

Warp (of fabric), 23, 181

Warping (of stretcher), 9

Washers, for backing board, 286

A Wave Breaking on the Bahamas Coast (Bierstadt), 187

Wax

for lining, 238, 239
to secure painting to stretcher, 40, 240
for stretcher coating, 259, 260

Wax crayon, 290

Wedge, 16–17. See also key(s)

Wedge mortise and pin, 154, 155

Weft (of fabric), 23, 181

West, Benjamin, 184

White, James, 143

White oak, for shaped stretchers, 205

Wilkinson, Jeremiah, 141

Williamstown Art Conservation Center, 183

Wingrill stretcher makers, 17, 19

Winsor and Newton catalogue, 138

Wire cutter, for removing tacks, 273

Wire nails, 142, 143–44

WONDERBAR™, 13

Wood. See also specific woods

characteristics of, 14
hardwoods, 14–15
for keys, 278
rheology of, 29
softwoods, 14
for South American/Spanish Colonial stretcher, 148
for stretchers, 11–12, 14

Work stretchers, fixing paintings in, 268–70, 269, 270

Wright, J. P.

corners for panel stretchers, 187–88, 190
joint-adjusting mechanism, 132
spring tension stretcher patent, 165, 169

Writing inks, for labels, 290

Wrought iron nails, 141

Wyeth, N. C., 183



Y

Yale University Art Gallery, 184, 185

Yield point, 22

Yoder, Dean, 263

Yosemite Valley (Bierstadt), 187

Young, C. R. T., 23–24

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