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Paper Conservation Catalog

Statement of Purpose
Published Chapters

Statement of Purpose

(Revised 1994)

The purpose of this project is to compile a catalog of conservation treatments for art and historic artifacts on paper. The intention is to record a variety of treatment procedures in current use or with a history of use. It is not intended to establish definitive procedures nor provide step-by-step recipes for the untrained. An attempt will be made to include a variety of techniques used by AIC Book and Paper Group members and divergent opinions about particular techniques. Also included are chapters devoted to important related topics such as examination, documentation, housing, and display. The catalog is designed for practicing paper conservators and is intended as an aid in the decision-making process. It is understood that the individual conservator is solely responsible for determining the necessity, safety and adequacy of a treatment for a particular object and must understand the effect of his or her treatment. Inclusion in the catalog does not constitute an endorsement or approval of the procedure described.

The catalog is distributed to BPG members in a loose leaf format to permit additions, revisions, and updates. The project is a collective volunteer effort of the BPG, with members compiling catalog chapters and making long or short contributions to these chapters. The Editorial Board in Washington, D.C. meets regularly to review chapter drafts. A list of topics and a standard outline format have been developed. Treatment chapters are divided into six sections: Purpose, Factors to Consider, Materials and Equipment, Treatment Variations, Bibliography, and Special Considerations.

The 1984 pilot committee drafted three prototype chapters in the standard format to serve as examples. From 1985 to 1994, twenty-two additional chapters were completed. Conservators who know of or use other variants to outlined treatments are asked to contribute information to be added to existing texts in future printings. Individual conservators are also needed on an ongoing basis to compile and contribute to new treatment topics. The format is intended to be simple and flexible enough to encourage paper conservators to contribute any specialized technique or innovation, however broad or narrow in its application.

The catalog itself can be thought of as a goal but the process of writing chapters offers unlimited opportunities to exchange large and small amounts of information with our associates. The quality of this information should be similar to that learned while visiting or working with a colleague and discussing specific aspects of our work.

The BPG membership has always expressed interest in exchanging information, particularly the specific techniques and insights gained through practical experience. Until the development of the Paper Conservation Catalog, there has never been a convenient format available. It is hoped that the Paper Conservation Catalog will continue to be a useful, attractive, vehicle while also performing the necessary professional task of recording our body of knowledge.

It is intended that catalog editions be integrated with each other. A new table of contents has been printed to aid in assembly. Copyright information is included on the inside cover of this edition and should be retained.

Please contact the Project Director with any questions relating to the catalog. (See AIC directory for address/telephone number.)

Project Director: Catherine I. Maynor

Sylvia R. Albro, Sarah Bertalan, Antoinette Dawn, Holly Krueger, Elizabeth Coombs Leslie, Kitty Nicholson, Kimberly Schenck, Ann Seibert, Dianne van der Reyden, Terry Boone Wallis

Editorial Assistant: Anne Pierce


(Revised 1994)

Following is the list of chapters showing the status of the Catalog at the completion of the second three-year grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. This list, originally drafted during the 1984 pilot project, has been periodically revised by the Editorial Board to reflect the needs and interests of the Book and Paper Group membership as the profession has evolved. Some topics have been added while others, thought to be redundant or otherwise unnecessary, have been deleted (gaps in numbering reflect these revisions, as well as the intention to leave room for adding new treatment topics). Topics such as enzyme treatments and suction table treatments are considered to be core chapters and remain as an incentive to future efforts. Another group of topics, numbers 42–45, relate to the broader field of collections management and preventive care and have been addressed to some extent in existing publications. While these topics are enormous, as they pertain to all conservation specialities, they may be addressed within the catalog at a future time.

1. Fiber Identification (*)
2. Media Identification
3. Media Problems (*)
4. Support Problems (*)
5. Written Documentation (*)
6. Visual Examination (*)
9. Instrumental Analysis
10. Spot Tests (*)
12. Mold/Fungi (*)
13. Foxing (*)
14. Surface Cleaning (*)
15. Hinge, Tape and Adhesive Removal (*)
16. Washing (*)
17. Sizing/Resizing (*)
18. Parchment Treatments (*)
19. Bleaching (*)
20. Alkalization and Neutralization (*)
21. Enzyme Treatments
22. Humidification (*)
23. Consolidation/Fixing/Facing (*)
24. Backing Removal (*)
25. Mending (*)
26. Filling of Losses (*)
27. SuctionTable Treatments
28. Drying and Flattening (*)
29. Lining (*)
30. Inpainting (*)
40. Matting and Framing (*)
41. Encapsulation
42. Environment
43. Exhibition/Storage
44. Transportation/Packing
45. Integrated Pest Management
46. Adhesives (*)

* Chapter has been printed



(Reprinted 1994)

Each major topic (chapter) is identified by a specific number to facilitate indexing and cross-referencing.

Each treatment chapter (12-31) is broken down into six subheadings: Purpose, Factors to Consider, Materials and Equipment, Treatment Variations, Bibliography, and Special Considerations. Each of these subheadings can be further outlined, as shown below for 1.4 Treatment Variations:

1. Major Treatment Topic


1.1 Purpose
1.2 Factors to Consider
1.3 Materials and Equipment
1.4 Treatment Variations
b. (etc.)
1.5 Bibliography
1.6 Special Considerations

The Bibliography can be annotated to the extent that the subject dictates.

Special Considerations can take many forms. It may included extended essays relating to the material in the preceding chapter. It can offer a critical review of the existing literature or can evolve into a dialogue between conservators with complementary or dissenting view-points. Special Considerations material is segregated from the body of the outlined informatian to keep the chapter simple enough for easy reference.


May 1994

Participation is encouraged both for the chapters below and for those which have not yet been begun. Please review this list and update your interest by contacting the Project Director.

Editorial Board Liaison:  Editorial Board contact for a specific chapter. Answers questions consults with comittee, communicates suggestions, etc.

Compiler:                       Either outlines a specific category, fleshing it out in considerable detail, or outlines and develops a major topic within a specific chapter.

Contributor:                     Contributes to discrete areas within a specific chapter. Contribution can range from a sentence to an essay.

Available for Consultation: Interest in contributing to a specific chapter.

* 1. Fiber Identification (Draft)

Editorial Board Liaison: C. Maynor
Compiler: D. Mayer
Available for Consultation: K. Carey

2. Media Identification

Available for Consultation: T. Burns, K. Carey, M. Cohn, M. Hamill, R. Hill, J. Krill, D. Mayer, S. Murphy, K. Pavelka

* 3. Media Problems (1985)

Compiler: N. Ash
Contributors: B. Aitchison, V. Blyth-Hill, C.W. Bowen, M. Cohn, P. DeSantis, M. Ellis, K. Garlick, J. Krill, L. Kruth, M. Mickelson, K. Nicholson, A. Owen, J. Page, L. Schaffer, M. Watters

* 4. Support Problems (1990)

Editorial Board Liaison: A. Dwan, K. Schenck
Compilers: T. Burns (Jirat-Wasiutynski), K. Potje
Contributors: N. E. Ash, K. Bachmann, C. Ball, K. D. Buchberg, R. Douglas, K. G. Eirk, T. Fairbanks, L. Gilliland, M. Hamill, P. Jenkins, A. Maheux, J. Munn, Y. Nishio, S. Page, L. Olcott Price, C. Rickman, C. Smith, M. Smith, R. Tombs, E. C. Wendelin

* 5. Written Documentation (1994)

Compilers: H. Krueger, S. Melching, K. Nicholson
Contributors: C. Bowen, I. Brückle, J. Douglas, R. Futernick, M. Holben Ellis, K. Garlick, M. Hamill, C. Hoevel, M. Holden, H. Holland, J. Klinger, J. Krill, C. Manea, S. Murphy, M. Pukownick, P. Randolph, N. Carlson Schrock.

* 6. Visual Examination (1986)

Editorial Board Liaison: N. Ash
Compiler. T. Jirat-Wasiutynski
Contributors: N. Ash, C. Bowen, B. Byers, G. Carriveau, M. Cohn, J. Cowan, A Dwan, T. Fairbanks, R. Irvine, D. Kushel, R. Lafontaine, A. Maheux, D. van der Reyden, T. Vitale, E. Walsh, G. Young

9. Instrumental Analysis

Available for Consultation: A. Craddock, S. Melching, M. Mickelson, K. Tidwell

*10. Spot Tests (1990)

Editorial Board Liaison: C. I. Maynor, D. van der Reyden
Compiler: D. D. Mayer
Contributors: C. A. Baker, C. W. Bowen, K. D. Buchberg, T. Burns, J. Carlson, M. Dirda, A. Driesse, M. Holben Ellis, E. Estabrook, B. Fiske, J. Krill, K. D. Lovette, A. Maheux, H. Maxson, N. McRaney, D. Hess Norris, W. J. Rantanen, L. Samuel, S. Urry, S. Wagner, J. Weber, M. Kemp Weidner

*12. Mold/Fungi

Editorial Board Liaison: S. Bertalan
Compilers: M. Wood Lee, L. Olcott Price, S. Bertalan
Contributors: M. Florian, R. Koestler, K. Nicholson, T. Parker, T. Stanlley, H. Szczepanowska, S. Wagner

*13. Foxing

Editorial Board Liaison: S. Bertalan
Compilers: J. Derow, A. Owen
Contributors: S. Bertalan, C. E. Cain, R. Danzing, A. Driesse, K. Eirk, M. Holben Ellis, R. Fishman, B. Fiske, P. Dacus Hamm, N. Heugh, M. Hey, A. King, R. Koestler, J. Krill, K. Lovette, D. Mayer, E. Morse, K. Nicholson, N. Rayer, S. Riley, P. Volent, J. Walsh Questionnaire Respondents: K. Eirk, M. Holben Ellis, B. Fiske, N. Heugh, M. Lawson, E. Morse, H. Otis, M. Shelley, P. Volent

*14. Surface Cleaning

Editorial Board Liaison: K. Schenck
Compilers: S. Duhl, N. Nitzberg
Contributors: R. Arnold, N. Ash, F. Bleckner, K. Buchberg, E. Coombs, R. Fallon, M. Fredericks, J. Krill, J. Mankowski, B. Meierjames/Husby, J. Munn, E. O'Loughlin, K. Pavelka, L. Olcott Price, N. Purinton, E. Kaiser Schulte, Y. Strumfels, S. Wagner, E. Wendelin, Winterthur Art Conservation Program 1991 first-year students, F. Zieske.

*15. Hinge, Tape, and Adhesive Removal

Editorial Board Liaison: A. Seibert
Compilers: E. O'Loughlin, L. Stiber
Contributors: S. Albro, N. Ash, S. Bechtold, F. Bleckner, V. Blyth-Hill, E. Buschor, M. Cleveland, S. Duhl, K. Eirk, C. Gaehde, L. Gilliland, J. Goldman, S. Guild, K. Lovette, H. Maxson, B. Meierjames/Husby, W. Minter, E. Morse, K. Nicholson, L. Paisley, P. Randolph, E. Schulte, M. Sierra, C. Smith, M. Smith, K. Tidwell, T. Vitale, J. Walsh, M. Weidner, J. Weir, E. Wendelin, A. Witty, R. Wolbers, F. Zieske

*16. Washing

Editorial Board Liaison: S. R. Albro, M. Mickelson, K. Nicholson
Compilers: M.W. Harnly, C. Mear, J. E. Ruggles Compilers 1st Draft: C. A. Baker, L. Carlson, L. E. Hall
Contributors: N. E. Ash, L. Stirton Aust, K. Eirk, J. English, P. Dacus Hamm, H. Krueger, K. D. Lovette, P. DeSantis Pell, R. Perkinson, F. Prichett, M. Stevenson, L. S. Stiber, Y. Strumfels, J. Sugarman, T. J. Vitale, J. C. Walsh, M. Kemp Weidner

*17. Sizing (1988)

Editorial Board Liaison: D. Hamburg
Compiler: W. Henry
Contributors: T. Albro, N. Ash, C. Baker, S. Barger, T. Barrett, A. Dwan, R. Espinosa, K. Garlick, D. Hamburg, B. Meierjames, J. Munn, K. Nicholson, K. Orlenko, S. Rogers Albro, T. Vitale

*18. Parchment Treatments (1994)

Editorial Board Liaison: T. Boone Wallis
Compilers: A. Quandt, W. Newman
Contributors: T. Albro, N. Bell, F. Bearman, L. Bigrigg, V. Bunting, D. Burns, E. Clancy, U. Berger, C. Chahine, T. Cains, C. Clarkson, M. Cobbs, A. Corbach, U. Dreibholz, D. Evetts, A. Giovannini, E. Hansen, D. Hamburg, M. Lawson, M. Maggin, J. F. Mowery, J. Munn, K. Nicholson, E. O'Loughlin, C. Paulson, D. E. Peterson, H. Phibbs, L. Price, N. Pickwoad, N. Southworth, J. Smith, N. Stolow, D. Strahan, H. Szczepanowska, J. Thompson, N. Turner, D. van der Reyden, H. Wanser, P. Young Randolph.

*19. Bleaching (1989)

Editorial Board Liaison: D. van der Reyden
Compilers: H. Burgess, D. van der Reyden, K. Keyes
Contributors: C. Baker, K. Buchberg, M. Cohn, T. Fairbanks, C. Foster, A. King, J. Krill, H. Krueger, D. Mayer, G. McKay Lodge, J. Sterrett, M. Stevenson, J. Walsh

*20. Alkalization and Neutralization (1985) (Bibliography and Special Considerations 1986)

Editorial Board Liaison: K. Nicholson
Compiler: R. Couch
Contributors: M. Cohen, A. King, K. Nicholson, R. Parliament, R.D. Smith, P. Sparks, D. van der Reyden

21. Enzyme Treatments

Available for Consultation: P. DeSantis, J. Klinger Freeman, M. Haupt, L. Koehnline, E. Morse, P. DeSantis Pell, T. Owen, H. Szczepanowska, A. Thenen, R. Wolbers

*22. Humidification (1984)

Compilers: D. Hamburg, D. van der Reyden, T. Vitale

*23. Consolidation/Fixing/Facing (1988)

Editorial Board Liaison/Compiler: S. Rogers Albro
Contributors: S. Bertalan, D. Clement, A. Craddock, A. Dwan, K. Eirk, J. Goldman, D. Hamburg, D. Hartwell, F. Herrenschmidt, E. Kaiser-Schulte, K. Keyes, J. Krill, C. Maynor, T.K. McClintock, S. Melching, M. Mickelson, J. Munn, S. Page, F. Prichett, A. Seibert, J. Sterrett, Y. Strumfels, D. Thomas, T. Vitale, M. Watters, F. Zieske

*24. Backing Removal (1985)

Editorial Board Liaison: M. Mickelson
Compiler: P. Mohr
Contributors: D. Hamburg, M. Mickelson

*25. Mending (1984)

Compilers: N. Ash, K. Nicholson

*26. Filling of Losses (1987)

Editorial Board Liaison: M. Mickelson, T. Vitale
Compilers: D. Evans, B. Futernick
Contributors: N. Ash, C. Baker, K. Buchberg, M. Cohn, L. Hollander, A. King, J. London, M. Mickelson, P. Mohr, K. Nicholson, F. Perez, S. Rodgers Albro, D. van der Reyden, T. Vitale

27. Suction Table Treatments

Editorial Board Liaison:
Compilers: M. Ellis, T. Vitale, M. Weidner Available for Consultation: V. Blyth-Hill, M. Dirda, R. Futernick, S. Michalski, S. Munro, L. Paisley, J. Ruggler, E. Schulte, C. Smith, J. Stone, S. Zachary

28. Drying and Flattening (1984)

Compilers: D. Hamburg, T. Vitale

*29. Lining (1988)

Editorial Board Liaison: A. Dwan
Compiler: A. Owen
Contributors: T. Barrett, B. Fiske, L. Kruth, K. Nicholson, T.K. McClintock, S. Rodgers Albro, P. Volent

*30. Inpainting

Compiler: K. Schenck
Contributors: R. Aitchison, J. Bernstein, C. Bowen, I. Brückle, R. Gilman Carpenter, B. Fiske, C. Foster, C. Gaehde, C. Hoevel, N. Huegh, D. Mayer, H. Maxson, T.K. McClintock, D. Hess Norris, L. Hill Paisley, Y. Strumfels, P. Volent, J. Walsh.

*40. Matting and Framing (1988)

Editorial Board Liaison: S. Bertalan
Compilers: S. Bertalan, H. Phibbs
Contributors: M. Brown, K. Buchberg, M.B. Cohn, A. Dwan, M. Ellis, B. Fiske, R. Fishman, U. Hobson, A. King, L. Kruth, M. Lebwohl, H., Maxson, S. Melching, M. Mickelson, K. Nicholson, D.H. Norris, A. Owen, F. Shores, E.K. Schulte, D. Thomas, J. Thompson, D. van der Reyden, P. Volent, F. Zieske

41. Encapsulation

Editorial Board Liaison:
Compilers: C. Atwood, C. Morrow, B. Minter, P. Spitzmueller Available for Consultation: K. Carey, S. Melching, L. Price, A. Robb, P. Smitzmueller, T. Taylor, J. Weir, J. Wright

42. Environment

Available for Consultation: J. Krill, S. Melching, K. Pavelka, A. Robb, T. Taylor, K. Tidwell, E. Wendelin, J. Wright

43. Exhibition/Storage

44. Transportation/Packing

Available for Consultation: V. Blyth-Hill, J. Klinger Freeman, V. Lee, K. Tidwell, E. Wendelin, J. Wright

45. Integrated Pest Management

Available for Consultation: K. Carey, J. Klinger Freeman, M. Hamill, R. Hill, I. Mankowski, J. Marri, J. Wright.

*46. Adhesives (1989)

Editorial Board Liaison: C. Maynor, D. van der Reyden
Compiler: C. Smith with S. Bertalan, A. Dwan, J. English, C. Nicholson, S. Rodgers Albro, K. Schenck, L. Stiber, S. Wagner
Contributors: C. Baker, M. Baker, L. Carlson, D. Clement, K. Eirk, L. Gilliland, D. Hamburg, J. Krill, D. Mayer, T.K. McClintock, F. Mowery, F. Prichett, J. Ruggles, M. Smith, J. Sterrett, D. Thomas, T. Vitale, P. Volent

*Chapter has been printed.


Published Chapters

1. Fiber Identification (draft 1994)
3. Media Problems (1985)
4. Support Problems (1990)
5. Written Documentation (1994)
6. Visual Examination (1986)
10. Spot Tests (1990)
12. Mold/Fungi (1994)
13. Foxing (1992)
14. Surface Ceaning (1992)
15. Hinge, Tape and Adhesive Removal (1992)
16. Washing (1990)
17. Sizing/ Resizing (1988)
18. Parchment Treatments (1994)
19. Bleaching (1989)
20. Alkalization and Neutralization (1985) (Bibliography, Special Consideration 1986)
22. Humidification (Draft 1984)
23. Consolidation/Fixing/Facing(1988)
24. Backing Removal (1985)
25. Mending (1984)
26. Filling of Losses (1981)(1987)
28. Drying and Flattening(Draft 19M) (1984)
29. Lining (1988)
30. Inpainting (1994)
40. Matting and Framing (1988)
46. Adhesives (1989)

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